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Based on the interview Kraft Company, their top management was to comply with the regulation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. It is because this company establishes the safety and health committee at workplace. Kraft Company has many employees and the company's director general has played a role in ensuring the safety and health at work is guaranteed. For this company, their subordinates are important in producing the output in order to prepare the product accordance with the stipulated time. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 in section 30 (1) states each employer shall establish the safety and health at work if they have a number of workers employed forty or more in the workplace or if the Director General directs the establishment of this committee was establishes in the workplace. That mean the top management in Kraft Company emphasizes the importance of their subordinates.
Kraft company to establish the safety and health work is maintained to ensure that the interests of workers and all issues relating to safety and health of workers in the note by the committee. This company has also established a flow chart of the safety and health. The committee consisting of the highest is the Chairman. Second the Security, Safety and Environment (SSE) have a Security, SSE Executive and SSE Committee such as Fire Fighting Squad and Employer Representative Plan (ERP) team. The second chart is Chairman Plant Manager have a four committee such as Secretary and SSE Executive, SSE Coordinator and SSE Manager, Employer Representative and Employee Representative. According to Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, section 30 (2) state of safety and health committee established under subsection (1), election or appointment of persons to the committee members and any other matter relating to the establishment or procedures of such committees shall be as prescribed. From that it helps Kraft company to ensure their management can run efficient and effective manner. The follow charts it to facilitate the orderly and clearly subordinate to understand and know the person is necessary to deal first.
Task or role of safety and health at Kraft Company is to keep the company in accordance with health and safety rules and adding improvements in workplace safety and review the effectiveness of safety programs. Based on Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, in section 31, the functions of the safety and health in 31 (a) states they need to keep under review the measures taken to ensure the safety and health of persons at workplace. While in subsection 31 (b) (i) must investigate any matter at work that are considered by a committee member or person employed in the work that are considered by a committee member or person employed in the work place is not safe or member suspected risks to health and subsection 31 (b) (ii) the matter has been the attention of employers. In section 31 (c) also states try to resolve the issue with the employer and if not resolved seek help from the Director General to carry out inspections at workplaces and in subsection 31 (d) have a variety of other functions as may be prescribed. This shows that Kraft Company is always thinking of safety and health of workers and employees also have a place to complain of any problems in the workplace. The members of the committee of safety and health in the Company are well known to play their respective roles in carrying out their duties.
The Kraft Company has directed its SSE committee to meet once a month. At the meeting they should discuss the results of safety inspections and accident occurring at workplace. In addition it provides an opportunity for employees to carry out an accident or other issues related to worker safety are discussed in the meeting. According to the Regulations on Safety and Health Committee 1996 state safety and health in the part IV in regulation 21 (1), for a safety and health committee should hold meetings as often as necessary commensurate with the types of risks in the workplace but must meet not less than three months. Kraft company is more concerned about the safety and health committee has been meeting once a month to avoid the risk of major accidents occurred. Each discussion is made jointly resolved to avoid the incident occurred is not desired. In regulation 21 (2) also states all members must be given reasonable notice of meetings of the committee with a copy of the agenda is attached to the notice. Kraft company has adopted a regulation 21 (2). It's easy to be notified to the employee.
Safety and health committee Kraft Company is also frequent periodic safety inspections of every month. Periodic examination is very important in identifying the problems that will occur to pursue accident occurred due to negligence of the workers. In Kraft company has also been set in the event of a serious accident at workplace, the Officer of the Department should be responsible in preparing report about the incident and the employee involved to conduct an investigation similar to those found in the regulation 13 (2). In the Regulations on Safety and Health Committee 1996 state that after doing the investigation should be submitted to the of the committee in a report. Refer at the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 under the safety and health committee in regulation 12 (a) state of health and safety committee shall inspect the workplace at least one in three months time to determine if the occurrence of harmful health and safety of the working in a place with a conditional member of a committee may at any time make a further examination of any plant in it or any part of the workplace to measure the effectiveness of the measure taken to ensure the safety and health at workplace. Kraft Company has to follow these regulations in order to take health and safety of employees and prevent the risk of accidents.
KRAFT Company is required to take accident prevention in order to protect the safety of their employees in the workplace. There are several ways to prevent accident from happen in the workplace. It can be seen that this company provides personal protective equipment (PPE) to the employees. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the equipment which should be used to a work for protects him against one or more risks to his health or safety. One of the PPE provided by KRAFT Company is head protection. To those workers who work at a place that height exceed 2 meter and above, it is compulsory for them to wear head protector. Based on Factories and Machinery (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations 1970, (Regulation 12), the worker who is required to work at the place that height more than 3 meters must wear the protection equipment to ensure this worker is safe. The provision of protection to worker in the workplace is including the using fall protection and head protection. In fact, working at height is very dangerous to employee and there is a possibility to fall and cause injury is high if the workers not take any protection. In that case, it shows that the safety of worker in the company is a priority where the worker is required to wear head protection such as when work at a place exceed 2 meter and above. The head protection is used because the worker may expose to falling or flying objects to the head. The company also should provide fall protection including full body harness, lanyards, and lifelines to the employees.
Besides that, KRAFT Company also practices ladder safety. The worker is not allowed to carry tools or equipments in hands while climbing or descending ladders and always check the condition of the working platform before using and report any defect immediately. According to occupational of safety and health work practice, when the workers working with ladder, they should make sure that ladders and step ladders in good construction and adequate strength. Before using the ladder, the worker must check the ladder steps and make sure the ladder is safe at the top and bottom to avoid them having fall. When using the ladder, the worker cannot carry tools in their hands while climbing the ladder. It shows that the company has practice safety condition to his employees because the company practice is complied with the occupational of safety and health work practice in Malaysia.
The company will conduct the hazard analysis once a year. The hazard analysis was conduct by department supervisor and the respondent for the hazard analysis are employee in the department. They use HIRARC to conduct the hazard analysis which is Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control.
Based on occupational of safety and health work practice in Malaysia, one of the general duties as noticed under the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514), Section 15(1) state that the employer and self-employed persons is required to provide a safety working environment, health and welfare to their employees at workplace. Therefore, hazard analysis is conducted by employer to ensure the safety of their employees at the workplace. Regarding to Guidelines for Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) from Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) 2008, it involves 4 steps of process HIRARC which are determine work activities, identify hazard, conduct risk assessment by analyze and estimate the risk from every hazard, and determine if the risk is tolerable and apply control measures.
HIRARC activities supposed to be conducted for situation where hazard will cause the threat, uncertain of existing controls are adequate, and before implementing corrective or preventive measures. In KRAFT Company, if there is any new procedure, new machinery and also new working environment, they will conduct the hazard analysis to identify the possible hazard.
In KRAFT Company, for Hazard Identification, they will identify the possible hazard in the department's activity and also the consequences if any accidents happen. After the hazard was defined, the next step is Risk Assessment which is to identify the level of the risk. The last step is Risk Control which is the management will decide the control of the risk.
The importance of HIRARC are to enable employers to identify all the aspects that may cause injury to employees, to consider what are the potential severity that could come from the risks, and to enable employers to plan, set up and examine preventive measures so that the risks can be controlled at all times. Therefore, KRAFT Company should practice continuously practice HIRARC method when conducting hazard analysis.
Safety Training Arrangement, Facilities and Documentation.
As for safety training arrangements, the Kraft company have provided safety orientation training to all the new employees. It clearly stated that all the employees would receive those training related to their working environment before they start work and would be updated according to employees needs.
According to the Goetsch.L (2008), a cause of accidents in workplace is by failure of management. In that case, supervisor plays an important role in ensuring the safety of new employees in workplace. The main responsibilities of supervisor are orientating new employees on the safe way to do their work and also ensuring that employees receive the safety and health training when there is a need for that.
When new employees have been sent to the training programs regarding safety of their work, the chances of employees getting injured or accidents would reduced by itself. Supervisors should show employees the practice of safe and healthy work that is expected by the organization. In addition to that, supervisors have to do follow up with the new employees and experienced employees by providing them training to update their safety and health knowledge in work.
According to the Kraft's interviewer, they would conduct Training Need Analysis (TNA) to select right training program regarding safety for their employees. It shows that Kraft give main priorities in selecting right training program in developing its employee's knowledge in safety and health of their work and environment. Some of the safety and health training program that Kraft used to send their employees for training is ISO 14001, First Aid, Risk Management, fire fighting and so on.
Creating a safe work environment begins with choosing a good and right safety program based on employees needs. ISO 14001 is a training program which would give detail to employees on how to deal with specific aspects of environmental management system as it is standard used by organizations to create an effective environmental management system. ISO 14001 is generally known as a management system standard, meaning that it is applicable to any size and type of organization, product or service, and in any sector of industry. 14001 training program would increase employee's awareness to create a safe work environment around them. While, ISO 18001 training course is about to the application of Occupational Health and Safety management systems of the company.
Another safety training program that was used by Kraft Company is First Aid. It was in OSHA in 1991 Guidelines for Basic First Aid Training Programs that says every industry must provide first aid and CPR training to their employees in nearer hospitals or clinic. First Aid training objective is to give employees the necessary knowledge on what to do to save ill or injured employees at workplace until the help comes. Effective training programs can reduce the number of injuries and accident among employees as it provides them important skills and knowledge about safety and health. By offering employees with such kind of training shows that Kraft Company have followed the rules and regulations of OSH in order to take good care for employee's welfare and safety.
Other than, Kraft Company also documented all the training of safety and health. The Human Resource department of Kraft Company is the one who responsible for the documentation. It have been said in Section 22 (4) (OSHA) that all the training programs provided by the company shall be documented and keep for inspection for future. This means Kraft company have comply the regulations of OSHA in their company. Another safety practices followed by Kraft company based on OSHA 1994 is that employer should review and provide training to employees in condition when employees have been charged with new task or new work (Section 22 (3)).
Safety and health promotion and publicity
Promoting safety and health is part of organization responsibilities too. Kraft have taken several steps in order to promote safety and health in their company such as paste the safety poster, intranet, and providing free medical checkup to their employees.
Promoting safety and health also include providing information and knowledge about employee's health, work hygiene, ergonomics, and risk changes around them. For that, management and safety officers in company should promote safety among employees in clear and broader way so every employee can understand it well. Some of the ways used by the organizations to promote safety and health are giving safety training, medical check up, take part in hospitals and clinic's program, joining government and non-government safety and health programs and hiring internal and external safety and health's training consultant.
Compare to the Section 25 of OSHA 1994, it says that employer should place the emergency signs or notice at workplace where every employee can see it and near to the hazard's location. While warning sign and other important information related to safety and health should be paste in place that employees can see and also at every entrance door. It is clearly says that warnings should informed in Bahasa Kebangsaan and English language and printed in red colour with white background. Employer also must monitor the health condition of their employees when there is a situation where employees being expose to the chemical hazardous. More than that, employer must offer health surveillance program to the employees in order to reduce the number of injuries and accident among employee. This kind program would give current health status of company's employees.