Risk Management And Tackling Hazard Identification Construction Essay

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There are a number of ways of tackling hazard identification and evaluation of those risks. In carrying out my assessment of your company's risks, I decided to utilize a combination of techniques to identify the hazards facing your business and these techniques included job safety analysis, inspection report and the source-pathway-receptor model. This was because this particular assortment of techniques fully addressed an integrated approach to risk assessment.

I went around your work site, specifically the machine shop and observed your workers while carrying out their duties. I also held a discussion with the more experienced workers, supervisor in charge of the machine shop and your works manager so as to get an understanding on what job difficulties they experience in relation to health & safety, environmental and quality wise. Afterwards I made notes of all that I had gathered and a job analysis worksheet, an inspection report and a source-pathway-receptor model. My findings enabled me to have a clearer view of the hazards identified and how to contain them. Thus, I used a qualitative approach in my risk evaluation where I incorporated the concepts of probability and severity of the consequences.

My main recommendation after this investigation is that staff training and supervision are of utmost importance as they have a big impact on the hazards that I identified at the machine shop.

Introduction

General Overview

Risk management includes the identification of hazards, control of these hazards and continuous monitoring of the programmes in place. It is an integral part of any business that wishes to secure itself against current and future mishaps. A company such as yours that is growing in strength day by day and wants to be identified as a market leader should always have a risk assessment carried out regularly by experienced personnel.

Aims & Objectives

My main aims and objectives in carrying out this risk assessment were as follows:

To bring your company up to speed with other companies that are already carrying out these assessments;

To enable your company allocate enough resources and capital/finance to the appropriate department through budgets;

To enhance your business' operational efficiency and effectiveness by training staff;

To enable consistency and control in future operations by implementing action plans;

To adapt to the changes (technological, administrative) facing the company without much disruption by having regular monitoring of these assessments; and

To cut costs by identifying redundant operations and revamping of these processes.

Literature Review

Business Risk Management

What is it all about?

Business Dictionary describes business risk management as, "policies, procedures, and practices involved in identification, analysis, assessment, control, and avoidance, minimization, or elimination of unacceptable risks. A business may use risk assumption, risk avoidance, risk retention, risk transfer, or any other strategy (or combination of strategies) in proper management of future events" (Business Dictionary, 2010).

Why organisations address BRM

Risk management addresses better decision-making and it's an essential part of good management practice. Whilst risk management applies to all areas of institutional activity, its relevance is particularly clear in relation to projects, particularly projects with an IT or systems component. It is probably fair to say that risk management is the single most important component of project management (JISC infoNet, 2009). In a company such as yours that deals with production, identifying business risks will help you be better prepared and also have a more cost-effective way of dealing with these risks (Business Link, 2010). The most important reasons why your business should engage in business risk management are:

Value creation is a key goal in many companies and without adequate procedures in place to manage both the upside and downside of risk, many have been unable to create real sustainable value.

Many countries are now issuing tighter guidelines on the way in which risk is monitored and publicly reported.

There is a new appreciation of the wider scope of risks facing businesses, requiring them to look at risk in a more structured way.

It's clear that risk management is now a core business process and should be planned accordingly and on a continuing basis so as to reduce risk and volatility and improve returns (ICAEW, 2002).

Links to CSR

CSR has been defined to, "encompass not only what companies do with their profits, but also how they make them. It goes beyond philanthropy and compliance to address the manner in which companies manage their economic, social, and environmental impacts and their stakeholder relationships in all their key spheres of influence: the workplace, the marketplace, the supply chain, the community and the public policy realm" (Kytle and Ruggie, 2005).

CSR provides the framework and principles for stakeholder engagement, supplies a wealth of intelligence on emerging and current social issues to support the corporate risk agenda, and ultimately serves as a countermeasure for social risk.

A company such as this one can address social risks by balancing those risks against business decisions and determining the quality of engagement with stakeholders and their associated issues. Thus, the linkage of CSR to core business processes can improve your company's overall approach to risk management and in turn allow the company to design better risk management for current issues while anticipating future ones.

Links to Management Standards

Using the process approach, which is proposed by standard ISO 9001:2008, for its activities, organizations are striving to meet the desires and prospects of customers whether internal or external. An additional benefit of working with ISO 9001: 2008 is the fact that the standard requires to improve the processes operating in the organization. Risk management has no place in this scheme.

However, the risk approach method is an integral part of other generic management systems standards: Environmental Management Standard ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Standard OHSAS 18001. Organizations should identify and assess each of the risks they've been faced with. Infrequent risks with minor effects are shall be only controlled. Significant risks with severe consequences should be managed in such a way as to either completely eliminate them or reduce the frequency of their occurrence and severity of consequences.

Organizations that have successfully applied the ISO 14001 standards, conducting ongoing analysis of the environmental management system, an integral part of which is the consideration of significant environmental aspects associated with air emissions, discharges into water, waste disposal, ground pollution, use of raw materials and natural resources and other environmental problems . The style of thinking and behaviour of such organizations usually meets the expectations of stakeholders: risk management and prevention of losses related to the environment.

Organizations that successfully use OHSAS 18001 identify hazards and carry out an assessment of the risks associated with routine activities, as well as the risk of presence of sub-contractors and visitors on the site. The key stakeholders are the people inside the organization, which creates a culture of risk management (Evgeny Avanesov, 2009).

Risk Management

What is involved?

According to Business Link website, Risk management helps you to identify and address the risks facing your business and in doing so increase the likelihood of successfully achieving your businesses objectives. A risk management process involves:

methodically identifying the risks surrounding your business activities

assessing the likelihood of an event occurring

understanding how to respond to these events

putting systems in place to deal with the consequences

monitoring the effectiveness of your risk management approaches and controls (Business Link, 2010).

Risk Management Techniques

All techniques to manage identified and assessed risks basically fall in one or more of the below categories:

Avoidance- eliminate, withdraw from or not become involved

Reduction- optimise (mitigate)

Transfer- sharing(outsource or insure)

Retention- accept and budget (Wikipedia, 2010)

Legal Issues

Organisations have to meet legal requirements to maintain records or audit trail, or regulatory requirements of industry regulators, Health & Safety, government agencies, tax authorities, customs requirements and import & export regulations. Loss of capability to comply can lead to severe penalties and these penalties need to be included as part of the financial loss following disaster.

In some cases, compliance failure may lead to loss of license to operate and closure of the business. As an employer, you owe statutory and common-law duties towards your employees and these cannot be excluded in the contract of employment or otherwise. Any employer will insure against such liability while taking the necessary precautions to safeguard the physical safety and well-being of the employees. Mandatory fire precautions must be complied with scrupulously. You should remember that Health & Safety legislation places a personal responsibility on managers (Andrew Hiles, 2004).

3.0 Methodology

I decided to follow the guidance in Five Steps to Risk Assessment in evaluating your company's operational level integrated risk assessment under the CNC Machining of Aluminium and Body Casting process. The first step was to identify the hazards (risks) and this I did by:

Walking around the factory's machine shop, jotting down potential risks, and comparing HSE's guidance with the particular jobs being performed by the workers;

Discussing the identified issues with the Works Manager, supervisors and other members of staff especially the more experienced ones to comprehend their awareness on particular jobs and areas; and

Examining the company's industrial accident log so as to get information on previous problems.

Secondly, I noted the personnel that could be potentially harmed by the hazards and in what manner. Thirdly, for each hazard I indicated actions/controls that were already in place, while bearing in mind HSE's guidance.

Where I did not consider existing controls good enough, I recommended further actions to manage the risks. Next I discussed the findings with the Works Manager and supervisors and gave them copies of the risk assessment, and notified the staff through the company notice boards. Afterwards I put the findings of the integrated risk assessment into practice and when each action was completed I ticked it off and recorded the date.

Lastly, I plan to continuously review and appropriately update the assessment at least once a year, or any time when any major changes to the workplace occur, or when any emergency jobs need to be carried out.

4.0 Results and Recommendations

4.1 Hazard Identification

In identifying hazards, I used an integrated approach to business risk identification that allowed me to look across the business at all potential risks. Thus, I incorporated 3 techniques in my assessment of your company's risks under the CNC machining and body casting process. These were:

Job Safety Analysis (Job Hazard Analysis / Job Hazard Breakdown)

This procedure helped me to integrate all aspects of the job (quality & environmental), not only health & safety thus performing a total job analysis. I identified potential hazards and to recommended the safest way to do the job by observing the workers while performing their duties and having discussions with the more experienced workers and the supervisor in charge of the machine shop. This analysis helped me to identify previously undetected hazards in your business e.g. the effects of waste from machining on the environment. I also believe it increased the job knowledge of the participants while improving communication between the supervisor and the workers.

Inspection Report

I decided to employ this technique because it largely involves a physical visual examination of the work area and in this case the machine shop. It was vital that I carry out this exercise as it encouraged me to focus on particular aspects such as employee behaviours, waste management, end products, machinery usage and the facility itself. I recorded my observations and how I was to use this record later to evaluate hazards.

Source ÞPathway ÞReceptor Model

This is where a pathway between a hazard source and a receptor is investigated and I applied this particular technique to better identify the environmental risks facing your company.

Job Safety Analysis Worksheet for D.J. Robinson Plc

Job Safety Analysis Worksheet

Job: CNC Machining of Aluminium &Body Casting

Analysis By: C. Ramirez (Consultant)

Reviewed By: J. Beals (Supervisor in charge)

Date: 18/1/11

Date: 20/1/11

Sequence of Steps

Potential Hazards or Accidents

1) Handling of aluminium castings from Purchasing, Logistics &Part stores

2) Putting castings into the CNC machine

3) Body casting

4) Handling scrap components

5)Disposal of waste from machining and waste cutting oil

a) Castings may injure workers handling e.g. scratches, cuts

b) Strain from handling heavy castings

c) Castings may slip and get damaged thus becoming worthless or injure workers severely

a) Workers may injure each other or themselves

b) Noise from CNC machine could be discomforting to the workers

a) Workers may suffer fatal injuries such as burns while handling hot liquids or from the steam produced

b) Smoke inhalation may be experienced if there isn't enough ventilation

c) Fires may also break out if the proper procedures are not adhered to by the workers

a) Lack of proper handling may lead to serious injuries

a) Waste could be toxic and could lead to severe/fatal injuries or diseases e.g. dermatitis

b) Waste cutting oil spillages and cause slips and trips which can lead to death or severe injuries

Table 4.1.1

INSPECTION REPORT FOR D.J. ROBINSON PLC

Date: 26 January 2011 Time: 2.00pm

Area: Machine Shop

Inspection Team: C. Ramirez (Consultant) & M. Quigley (Works Manager)

HAZARD

WHO MIGHT BE HARMED &HOW

ACTION BEING CARRIED OUT

FUTHER ACTION

BY WHOM

BY WHEN

DATE

Aluminium scrap

Workers may suffer serious impact injuries if struck by components

Basic housekeeping.

Good lighting throughout the area

Staff wear protective gear

Immediate disposal of scrap components as per company policy

Works Manager &Supervisor in charge

From now on

26/1/11

Waste from machining

Workers may suffer injuries from toxicity or if they trip over objects and fall

Basic housekeeping procedures in place.

Staff wear protective gear and safety shoes with good grip

Proper disposal of waste and its effluents.

Ensure objects are in their proper place at all times

Works Manager &Supervisor in charge

From now on

27/1/11

Waste cutting oil

Workers and supervisors may trip on spillages and suffer severe injuries

Floors are in good condition

Good lighting in place and safety protocol is in place

Immediate clean-up of oil spillages

Workers

From now on

27/1/11

Damaged product

Company's reputation could suffer due to complaints, fines, media publicity

No action in place

Investigation on how this happened to prevent future occurrences

Works Manager &Supervisor in charge

From now on

7/2/11

Noise

Workers may suffer discomfort &potential hearing damage if working in noisy areas or using noisy equipment

Staff wearing suitable hearing protection when in the work area

Regular maintenance of machinery so it runs as quietly as is possible

Training of staff on how to use ear defenders effectively and also their maintenance

Supervisor in charge

10/2/11

28/1/11

Machinery

Unguarded moving parts of the machinery could injure workers &anyone nearby

Manufacturers' standard adhered to

Machinery inspection done every month and maintained in good working condition

No further action needed at present

Fire

Workers could be trapped in the work area and suffer fatal injuries from burns and smoke inhalation

Necessary fire drills carried out monthly and action taken

Workers need to be told of fire and evacuation policy before work begins.

Regular training of new workplace safety rules as they come

Supervisor in charge

From now on

29/1/11

Confined spaces

Staff may suffer fatal injuries if trapped in a confined space

Work that involves confined space working is assessed beforehand and the necessary control measures put in place e.g. a rescue plan is agreed upon

The current relocation plan by the company to bigger facility could help alleviate this problem by allocating bigger spaces

Works manager (in discussion with MD)

After the move

29/1/11

Unfamiliarity with the work area and/or uncertainty about the job

Workers could suffer injuries or ill health if they are unfamiliar with hazards at work area or if they are unsure about the most efficient way to complete a job

Most workers are familiar with the layout of the work space, potential risks of the job and how to control those risks.

Works manager normally does random checks on the staff to ensure, among other matters, they are working safely

The workers could do with more workplace safety training

Works manager &Supervisor

From now on

26/1/11

Table 4.1.2

SOURCEÞPATHWAYÞRECEPTOR MODEL

Sources

Pathways

Receptors/ Targets

Waste from machining &Waste cutting oil

Air, Water

People, Ecosystems, Plants, Animals, Controlled waters, Infrastructure

Noise

Air

People

Fire

Air

People, Domestic &Commercial property, Infrastructure, Plants

Table 4.1.3

4.2 Risk Evaluation

When carrying out the risk evaluation, I chose to employ a qualitative risk evaluation technique because it incorporates the basic principles of assessing the impact/severity of the consequences and the likelihood of identified risks. Thus to establish the level of risk associated with each hazard, I assessed the probability of an occurrence and the likely severity of the outcomes. Furthermore, I determined the overall risk rating by multiplying the rating given to the severity by the rating predicted for the probability.

4.2.1 Probability

I applied the following 5 headings to assess the probability of harm occurring from the hazard under analysis:

Probability Scale

Probability Scale

Scale Descriptor

1

Very Low

Extremely Remote/ Every 3 Years

2

Low

Remote/ Yearly

3

Medium

Possible/ Monthly

4

High

Probable/ Weekly

5

Very High

Highly Probable/ Daily

Table 4.2.1Probability of Harm from Hazards Identified

4.2.2 Severity

Under the headings below, I considered the severity of the consequences of the occurrence:

Severity Scale

Severity Scale

Scale Descriptor

1

Very Low

Scratch/Bruise/Minor Burns

Minor spill, no air/water contamination

No product damage, complaints, fines or media publicity

2

Low

Minor illness (temporary), break-minor bone, laceration

Medium spill, no air/water contamination

Possible product damage, fines or media publicity

3

Medium

Break-major bone or minor illness (permanent)

Medium spill, no air/water contamination

Likely product damage, complaints, fines or media publicity

4

High

Loss of limbs/eyes or serious illness (temporary/permanent)

Major spill, air/water contamination

Guaranteed product damage, complaints, fines or media publicity

5

Very High

Fatality

Spillage/leak of more than 1000 ltr, required emergency services

Serious product damage, complaints, fines or media publicity

Table 4.2.2 Severity of Consequences of the Occurrence

4.2.3 Risk Rating

Bearing in mind that RISK = Hazard Effect * Probability, I used the qualitative scales identified above (1-5 or very low - very high) and the below are the possible combinations.

Severity

Probability

1

VERY LOW

2

LOW

3 MEDIUM

4 HIGH

VERY HIGH

5 MEDIUM

10

MEDIUM/

HIGH

15

HIGH

20

VERY HIGH

4

HIGH

4 LOW/MEDIUM

8 MEDIUM/HIGH

12

HIGH

16

HIGH

3 MEDIUM

3

LOW / MEDIUM

6

MEDIUM

9 MEDIUM

12

HIGH

2

LOW

2

LOW

4

LOW

6 MEDIUM

8 MEDIUM

1

VERY LOW

1

VERY LOW

2

LOW

3

LOW

4 MEDIUM

Table 4.2.3 Risk Rating

Risk 1 - 25

1-5 Trivial : No further action required

6 - 8 Low : Tolerable but consider corrective action

9 -15 Medium : Action required in short term

16-25 High : Urgent action taken

RISK EVALUATION FOR D.J. ROBINSON PLC

Activity: CNC Machining & Body Casting

Assessor: C. Ramirez (Consultant) Date: 15/February/ 2011

HAZARD/ ASPECT

EFFECTS/

IMPACT

EFFECT EVALUATION (S)

PROBABILITY

(P)

RISK

(R)

CONTROL MEASURES

Aluminium scrap

Cuts, bruises, laceration

Very Low

1

High

5

Trivial

5

Good housekeeping,

Recycle as per the law

Waste from machining

&

Waste cutting oil

Slips, toxicity and contamination of effluent

Low

2

Medium

3

Low

6

Keep machine shop clean when spillage occurs, Provision of welfare facilities

Noise

Air pollution, long-term ear damage

Low

2

Very Low

1

Trivial

2

Personal protective equipment issued

Fire

Burns, smoke inhalation

Low

2

Very Low

1

Trivial

2

Regular fire drills and fire risk assessment done, Proper ventilation at work site

Machinery

Short &long term injuries, fatalities

High

4

Very Low

1

Trivial

4

Adherence to manufacturers' standards, Regular maintenance, Quality machinery

Confined spaces

Serious injuries

Medium

3

Low

2

Low

6

Utilization of HSE guidance on work in confined spaces

Machine shop unfamiliarity &Job uncertainty

Job inefficiency, fatal injuries

Very High

5

Low

2

Medium

10

Awareness of work site and safe systems of work , Training of staff on health &safety arrangements

Product

Quality, rejects

Medium

3

Medium

3

Medium

9

On the job training for staff , Proper disposal of rejects

Table 4.2.4 Risk Evaluation for D.J. Robinson Plc

Control Strategies

There are a variety of strategies available for reducing risks already identified and for your company I tailored the following strategies so as to be better suited to your needs.

HAZARD

RISK CONTROL STRATEGY

Aluminium scrap components

a)Contain hazard by enclosure - keeping scrap in designated points

b)Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)- heavy duty gloves, safety goggles

Waste from machining

a)Contain hazard by enclosure - have proper waste disposal points

b)Reduce employee exposure - limit the number of people exposed at any one time

c)PPE - safety goggles and gloves for the employees

Waste cutting oil

a)Reduce hazard at source - use less harmful cutting oil

b)PPE - heavy duty work boots, gloves

Noise

a)Eliminate hazard at source - stop using noisy machines

b)Reduce hazard at source - replace a noisy machine with a quieter one

c)Remove employees from hazard - don't allow employees near noisy machines

d)Contain hazard by enclosure - put soundproofing around a noisy machine

e)PPE - wear ear defenders

Fire

a)Eliminate hazard at source - strict no smoking policy at work site

b)Transfer of risk - by insuring the premises and the workers

c)Contain hazard by enclosure - use fire extinguishers when fires break out

d)PPE - work boots, gloves, goggles

e)Welfare facilities - provision of facilities for washing &first aid

Machinery

a)Eliminate hazard at source - stop using defective machinery

b)Reduce hazard at source - replace or repair faulty machinery

c) PPE - wear gloves, goggles. Work boots

Confined spaces

a)Reduce hazard at source - reduce the number of machinery in confined spaces

b)Reduce employee exposure - keep the number to a minimum

c)PPE - appropriate work wear

Machine shop unfamiliarity &Job uncertainty

a)Training and Supervision of employees

b)PPE - wear protective equipment at all times in the machine shop

Damaged product

a)Training of staff proper work procedures

b)Contain hazard by enclosure - appropriate disposal of rejects

Table 4.3 Recommended Risk Control Strategies for D.J. Robinson Plc

In formulating the above risk control plan for your business I took into consideration the following points:

It is better to protect everyone who could be exposed to the hazard/risk, rather than relying on workers to provide their own protection. Thus, the number of staff that the control strategy aims to protect should be factored in.

It is better to have risk control measures which don't rely heavily on human intervention. Therefore, how human behaviour affects the continuing effectiveness of the risk control measure is an important factor.

The cost of the risk control measure should be calculated over the duration of the risk control. This is because some risk control measures have a low installation cost but are expensive to maintain and vice versa. This aspect should be carefully evaluated since the raison d'être of any business is to make profits.

The extent to which the risks control measure reduces the risk. A risk control measure, or combination, will reduce the risk to near zero, but this may not be achievable in actual practice (Tony Boyle, 2010).

Application

By applying the necessary techniques to your business' CNC machining and body casting process, I noted that the biggest hazard to this process was machine shop unfamiliarity and job uncertainty. This is a major issue because it affects all the other aspects of this process. The most effective way of dealing with this is through training and supervision of the work staff.

Workers should be issued with the machine shop layout and they should familiarise themselves with the safe systems of work e.g. isolation procedures and fire fighting procedures. They should also be provided with personal protective clothing & equipment. In addition, your company should install sign-in and sign-out procedures so that staff can know who are on site and exactly where they are. Once your staff is up to speed on these procedures it will have a domino effect on the rest of the identified hazards because:

There will a reduction of damaged products due to followed process procedures;

They will handle machinery properly and thus reduce accidents at the workplace

The risk of fires will be eliminated or better handled because of appropriate fire response

Workers will be aware of HSE guidance on work in confined spaces and they'll know whether current control measures are sufficient

Workers will be at a better position to handle and dispose of aluminium scrap components, waste from machining and waste cutting oil. This is critical as it will reduce basic accidents and also prevent environmental pollution which damages the ecosystems.

Thus, staff training is a continuing process and is a must for your business and it should be tailor-made to fit the different types of workers. So as to prevent sub-standards, new workers should be trained as they come in. Corners should not be cut when selecting the appropriate firm to carry out the training because in the end the cost of training your staff is a long-term investment.

4.5 Reflection / Evaluation of Technique

The techniques applied in identifying hazards were job safety analysis, inspection report and the sourceÞpathwayÞreceptor model. I decided to use job safety analysis because safety is an integral part of any job and not a separate unit. It helped me to evaluate the level of health & safety procedures that were already in place. I achieved this by using the basic steps of CNC machining and body casting to identify hazards and then suggested the safest way to carry out the job. My suggestion would be to use better transportation of castings from the purchasing, logistics & part stores for example manual handling aids such as porters trolley and lift trucks.

Using the inspection report, I was able to note down the hazards, which actions were in place and I recommended further actions that would alleviate the problems identified. In addition I noted who was to be put in charge and also a timeline for the performance of the identified further actions. This is important as it will enable your company to re-strategise immediately if the proposed actions don't take effect. I suggest monthly reviews of the action being carried out by the workers so as to identify areas of improvement.

Lastly, I used the source-pathway-target model in further assessing the environmental risks. This model assisted in identifying linkages between the receptor/target and the source, therefore if there was no pathway, then there was no risk. Environmental risks are often over-looked by businesses and yours should not fall in that pit-fall because controlling these risks will encourage social awareness and a greater appreciation for CSR. Thus, your company should participate in environmentally-driven CSR projects a means of improving your business' social performance.

Conclusion

In conclusion, my decision to implement the job safety analysis, inspection report and the source-pathway-target model was so as to get a holistic look into your business' quality, environmental and health & safety aspects. The action plans laid out for your risk assessment are business continuity plans as they will minimise the interruptions to your business since risk cannot be avoided all together. Remember that these processes must be regularly reviewed and where applicable be terminated as risk assessments will always change due to a variety of reasons including internal or external changes.

6.0 References

Andrew Hiles (2004), Business Continuity: Best Practices: World-class Business Continuity Management Pg.74

Beth Kytle and John G. Ruggie (2005), Working Paper No.10, Corporate Social Responsibility as Risk Management [Online] http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_10_kytle_ruggie.pdf [Accessed on 19th October]

Business Link http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCESHYPERLINK "http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCES&itemId=1074405230"&HYPERLINK "http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCES&itemId=1074405230"itemId=1074405230 [Online] [Accessed on 19th October 2010]

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (2008), Job Safety Analysis, [Online]

http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/job-haz.html [Accessed on 19th October 2010]

Dr Tony Boyle (2010), Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, Revised: Health and safety: risk management [Online] http://www.iosh.co.uk/information_and_resources/buy_our_books/hs_risk_management_extract.aspx [Accessed on 20th October 2010]

Evgeny Avanesov (2009), International Conference on Risk Assessment and Management, Risk Management in ISO 9000 Series Standards [Online] http://www.unece.org/trade/wp6/documents/2009/Conference_bkdocs/Report_Avanesov.pdf [Accessed on 22nd October]

Health and Safety Executive (2006), Five Steps to Risk Assessment [Online] http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf [Accessed on 20th October 2010]

Health and Safety Executive (2008), Example risk assessment, Maintenance work in a factory [Online] http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/casestudies/factory.htm [Accessed on 20th October 2010]

JISC infoNet (2009), Risk Management, Infokit [Online] http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/InfoKits/risk-management/index_html/ [Accessed on 18th October 2010]

John R. Ridley, John Channing (2003), Principles of the Management of Risk: Safety at Work Chapter 2.2 pgs 191-192

Kit Sadgrove (2005), Managing Health and Safety: The Complete Guide to Business Risk Management, Chapter 6 pg 92

[Website] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_management [Accessed on 18th October 2010]

[Website] http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/riskmanagement.html#ixzz13Cc04ue5 [Accessed on 16th October 2010]

[Website] http://www.safetyservices.co.uk/news.asp?ID=165 [Accessed on 18th October 2010]

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