Reviewing The World Population Projections Nation Wide Construction Essay

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Chapter 1

World population projections are reported by United Nations until 2300, and estimated that the peaks in 2075 is 9.22 billion which not including only the largest cities, but also for the whole world. [10] In 2004 United Nations classified the whole world according to each country is human development aggregates, incomes per capita, and its developing and regional aggregates.

This population increase will cause many problems, which is reflected in different issues like energy, food, housing issues and environmental impact. Nowadays with rapid population increase and existing economical crisis the problem is how are we able to provide housing fast enough to meet the demands of housing economically, with immediate implementation and also environmental-friendly. This research is with the developing countries such as Iraq and Malaysia are in middle incomes per capita category. ok

Statistical report, conducted by the Ministry of Construction and Housing in Iraq estimated that the number of existing housing units in 1997 (2,140,494) units while the number of units needed to cover the demand for housing is (2,494,307) units, and from looking to both numbers we can realize that there is a lack of about 14.18% where this percentage increased in to 33.12% by 2006. [mostafa] ok

Malaysia, as a developing country is facing the ups and downs of an economic growth, and the developments of building construction are still growing. Between 1995-2020 Malaysia needs 4,964,560 units of new houses to cover the needs of this period, while in the 7th Malaysia plan, the government planned to constructed 800,000 units, but unfortunately only 73.1% from these units were constructed, which means only 585,000 units were built. [01]

Conventional building systems currently adopted by the construction industry are unable to provide the huge housing demands. On the other hand conventional construction systems need more labor and are not necessarily environmental-friendly with the main problems riz. dirty, difficult and dangerous work. Ok

In order to meet the challenges above, the Malaysian government and the Construction Industry Development board (CIDB) encourage developer to use the Industry Building System (IBS) to ensure the quality and lower of cost construction; decrease the period of construction; less material wastage; less volume of building materials; and a cleaner working environment as well as reducing the need for foreign workers. Finds the author ok

The government in Malaysia and local authorities understand that housing a basic need, and for every housing project 30% will have to be located for low cost housing to provide for the low-income groups. This is generally applicable to whole country and especially to Penang state which has the highest population density 2031.74-person/ km2 in island. [not changed, find the author, our school] ok

With the issues mentioned above, combined with current issues of climatic change and energy crises, which has deteriorated over time, the world is now starting provides housing with low energy consumption, better climatic performance and low cost construction technologies. The lightweight modern material, which is one of the alternative method used in drier and colder countries is now imported as a new technology using materials such as lightweight concrete, plaster boards and insulation which is now common in the market. These materials have many properties, which would be useful for low energy building design. [19]

1.2 Problem statement

Malaysia is located in southeastern Asia with dominated hot and humid weather, in addition to the global warming which adversely affect the energy and accompanied by economic crisis and the rapid increase in population in the world that influenced mainly developing countries, particularly on low income groups and the housing demand for this group.

The main issue addressed by this research is to find a resolution that balances the need for relatively cheap houses for the low-income people with the intention of conserving the country’s resources and reducing the negative impacts on the environment.

Also this study highlights the use of foam concrete, a type of lightweight concrete, as one of the alternative solutions to the problems mentioned above. It possesses many characteristics that would enhance residential buildings and replace conventional concrete for its advantages of insulation, economy, fast implementation, dead load reduction and reduction of material losses.

1.3 Scope of the study

Lightweight concrete has become an extremely vital element in our modern lives. Normally, the frame structure of the building could be load bearing or non-load bearing. In some houses, usually the wall is bearing the load, and the rest as frame structure, which is transmitted to the foundation.

This research will look in to the design of frame structure, which contains beams, multiple columns (stud wall) and the slab (waffle slab) structure all of which is bearing the load. This study will highlight foamed concrete as an alternative to the classic way of design (NWC) for double stories house. In order to achieve the above, the study will redesign an existing medium cost house, which is constructed from normal materials. These will be changed to lightweight materials including the frame structure, slab and concrete blocks (infill).

1.4 The purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is the design low medium cost unit, which would be used, as a low medium cost house to meet the increasing demands of housing. The unit will be designed by using lightweight foam concrete as the frame structure and infill. The house will be built as a residential unit, which would benefit from the good characteristics.

1.5 Objectives

To determine a particular building weight and to design the frame structure and slab as bearing load for two-story house.

To identify the design aspects (stud wall) of foam concrete for two-storey house.

To determine whether the chosen dimensions and densities for the beams, columns and slab are sufficient.

To determine whether using foam concrete is better than conventional concrete from economical, performance and construction speed aspects.

1.6 Research Questions

Is the foam concrete with densities ranging (1250 Kg/m3 â€" 1600 Kg/ m3) suitable for designing frame structure for a two-storey house?

Will lightweight foam concrete help in the construction of a low medium cost house and is the cost similar to the cost of a conventional low cost house?

Does lightweight foam concrete provide comfort (thermal, aural) for occupants?

1.7 The assumption of research questions

1- The researcher assumes that foam concrete with densities ranging (1250 Kg/m3 â€" 1600 Kg/ m3) suitable for designing frame structure for a two-storey house.

2- The researcher assumes lightweight foam concrete help in the construction of a low medium cost house and is the cost similar to the cost of a conventional low cost house.

3- The researcher assumes lightweight foam concrete provide comfort (thermal, aural) for occupants.