Reviewing The Issues Of Health And Saftey Welfare Construction Essay

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The employer is the person who owns the company and is in charge of constructing the building or project. The employer has many roles and responsibilities that he must put into action to make sure his team work safely and efficiently. Under the law the employer is solely responsible for the safe welfare of all employees under his command and other people who might be affected by their business. The employer must do everything within his power to insure that he can achieve a safe environment and workplace. They are also responsible for the management of the team.

They have to appoint a 'competent person' with health and safety responsibilities. This is usually one of the owners in smaller firms, or a member of staff trained in health and safety in larger businesses.

Businesses employing five or more people,

For businesses employing five or more people, there must also be:

an official record of what the assessment finds the employer has to put plans in place to deal with the risks.

a formal health and safety policy, including arrangements to protect your health and safety.

All employers, whatever the size of the business, must:

All employers, whatever the size of the business, must: make the workplace safe

prevent risks to health

make sure that all materials are handled, stored and used safely

provide adequate first aid facilities

check that the right work equipment is provided and is properly used and regularly maintained

prevent or control exposure to substances that may damage your health

So that the work premises provide a safe and healthy place to work, your employer should:

make sure that workplaces are properly ventilated, with clean and fresh air

keep temperatures at a comfortable level - a minimum of 13 degrees C where the work involves physical activity or 16 degrees C for 'sedentary' workplaces eg offices but there's no maximum limit

protect people from falling from height or into dangerous substances

store things so they are unlikely to fall and cause injuries


Your rights as an employee to work in a safe and healthy environment are given to you by law, and generally can't be changed or removed by your employer. The employee is covered by the HASAWA which is the 'health and safety at work act' and since you are covered by this act it insures safety and certain rights. The most important rights are:

to have controlled risks carried out to assess your health and safety as far as possible.

Always to have P.P.E provided in the workplace if seen necessary and this should be free of charge as it is part of the health and safety within your scope of work.

if you have reasonable concerns about your safety, to stop work and leave your work area, without being disciplined

to tell your employer about any health and safety concerns you have

to get in touch with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or your local authority if your employer won't listen to your concerns, without being disciplined

to have rest breaks during the working day, to have time off from work during the working week, and to have annual paid holiday

in a workplace where P.P.E is neede, failure to use PPE properly can be grounds for disciplinary action or even dismissal. However, you can refuse to wear PPE if it puts your safety at risk (eg PPE of the wrong size could put you at risk because of its poor fit). Ask your employer or the firm's safety representative for the right size (which must be provided free of charge), and this should be provided without any complaints or discussion as it is within your rights to have this as it could hinder you safety.

The client

The client is behind the whole project as it his them who is paying for the job and who will ultimately own the building when construction has finished. The clients have specific health and safety responsibilities and they must demonstate a good standard of the health and safety that they are covering. The construction design management reulations 1994 which is better known as the CDM regulations is what the clients have to work to and they have many responsibilties under this act to keep health and safety at an acceptable level.

Some of the responsibilties that clients have are;

to get in touch with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or your local authority if your employer won't listen to your concerns, without being disciplined

the client is responsible to appoint the planning supervisor

the client must provide all of the health and safety information around site and has to provide H&S in the workplace where things were done.

They are also required to appoint a main contractor who is competant in civil engineering and who is well resourced.

The Health and Safety Exectutive

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom. It is the body that is responsible for the implimentation and enforcement of heath and safety in the workplace, they have to ensure that the health and safety is encouraged and that it is regulated effectively. The HSE was created by the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, which is commonly known as the HASAWA.

The HSE's goal is to ensure that the risks to health and safety of workers are properly controlledin terms of company responsibilty, the HSE are working to try and encourage organisations to;

improve management systems to reduce injuries and ill health;

demonstrate the importance of health and safety issues at board level

report publicly on health and safety issues within their organisation, including their performance against targets.

The HSE believes that with effective management of heath and safety In the workplace;

it is vital to employee well-being;

has a role to play in enhancing the reputation of businesses and helping them achieve high-performance teams;

is financially beneficial to business.

The HSE has two methods in which to enfore health and safety legislation into the workplace, and they are either to have an improvement notice or prohibition notice. An improvement notice tells the person at risk that the HSE have found a possible risk to health and safety during an incident which requires correcting as it has been identified to potentially cause harm to the person at risk, they would then be issued a time in which this has to be corrected in.

A prohibition notice is issued to the person at risk when a serious problem has been encountered in the workplace that could cause immenant harm and anything that was being worked on that is effected has to stop immediately untill the problem has been resolved.

The local authority

Local authorities operate in partnership with HSE to ensure that duty holders manage their workplaces with due regard to the health and safety of their workforce and those affected by their work activities. To achieve this, local authorities provide advice and guidance on what the law requires, conduct inspections and investigations, and take enforcement action where appropriate.

The local authority enfore health and safety in places such as;

shops and retailing including market stalls, coin-operated launderettes and mobile vendors

most offices

some wholesale and retail warehouses

hotels and other residential catering accommodation including guest houses, residential care homes, hostels, caravan and camping sites

The main contractor

The main contractor is the company that is constructing the building or the project, sometimes the organisation can be a large unit or a small company depending on the scale of the project at hand. The main contractor is also knows as the 'principal contractor' they are referred to as this under the CDM regulations 1994. they have specific duties to do under the HASAWA as an employer however the CDM regulations state more responsibilities that they have to account for when they are running there health and safety, they are things such as;

the principal contractor must ensure that they have the full co-operation of all the contractors on site.

They ensure that the only people that enter the site have adequate permission to be there, they may do this in the form of id cards, or just a routine check list.

They must inform the planning supervisor of any relevant health and safety information that would require there input or just to let them know of any risks.

They must also have a health and safety file that details all relevant information that could come into play if an incident occurs. This is sometimes given to the planning supervisor to do however the main contractor may be liable to do it depending on the circumstances.


The subcontractor generally works under the main contractor or the principal contractor, the client would usually choose the subcontractor then it is up to the main or principal contractor to ensure that they are competantly trained. They must also ensure that the subcontractor has been provided with all relevant information to ensure that they are fully prepared in there health and safety role. They must be provided with a site safety induction in which the main contractor would go through a health and safety package or a site tour in which they would detail potential risks. They must also have method statements and risk assessments so that they can have their work co-ordinated safely and effectively.



The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 , also referred to as HASAW or HSW, is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in the United Kingdom. The Health and Safety Executive is responsible for enforcing the Act and a number of other Acts and Statutory Instruments relevant to the working environment.

HASAWA Employers Duties:

To ensure the health, safety and welfare of their employees by providing safe systems of work, safe working environments and safe premises with adequate amenities.

To provide safe access and egress to and from the work place.

To control the keeping and use of explosives and highly flammable or dangerous substances. To control the emissions into the   atmosphere of noxious fumes.

To provide information, training, instruction and supervision to employees to ensure their Health and Safety at Work.

To provide a Health and Safety Policy, (if they employ five or more).

To provide safe plant, machinery, equipment etc and safe methods for handling, storing and transporting of materials.

Employers must also consider welfare and safety of visitors / members of the public.

HASAWA Employees Duties:

To take reasonable care of themselves and others who might be affected by their actions.

To co-operate with Management on Health and Safety issues.

Not to tamper with any provisions made to aid Health and Safety eg. removing guards, removing signs etc

Work at height regulations 2005

Many work activities involve working at height. Working from ladders, stepladders, scaffolds and platforms are obvious examples, but there are many more activities where people are required to work at height. A place is 'at height 'if a person could be injured falling from it, even if it is at or below ground level. 'WORK' includes moving around at a place of work but not travel to and from a place of work.

Its important to have this regulation in place because falls from height are responsible for many serious and fatal injuries every year, the regulations aim to prevent deaths and injuries caused by falls at work. the regulations mainly apply to employers however they also apply to the self -employed, and any person who controls the work of others e.g. facilities managers or building owners who may contract others to work at height i.e. to the extent they control the work.

The Work at Height (Amendment) Regulations 2007 which came into force on 6 April 2007 apply to those who work at height providing instruction or leadership to one or more people engaged in caving or climbing by way of sport, recreation, team building or similar activities in Great Britain.

As part of the Regulations, duty holders must ensure:

all work at height is properly planned and organised;

those involved in work at height are competent;

the risks from work at height are assessed and appropriate work equipment is selected and used;

the risks from fragile surfaces are properly controlled; and

equipment for work at height is properly inspected and maintained.

There is a simple hierarchy for managing and selecting equipment for work at height. Duty holders must:

Avoid work at height where they can.

Use work equipment or other measures to prevent falls where they cannot avoid working at height.

Where they cannot eliminate the risk of a fall, use work equipment or other measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall should one occur.

The regulations have specific areas within the act giving requirements for collective fall prevention for example;

Guardrails could help the person at risk from falling as they would have added stability at working at height because there would be something to hold onto.

Working platforms could help as the person at risk could have a stable ground to stand on or lean onto which would give them added support.

Ladders could be an option to increase safety as they could leverage up the person to a height which was not safe to go to before this piece of equipment was provided

According to the HSE, common factors resulting in falls from height include:

Failure to recognise a problem.

Failure to provide safe systems of work.

Failure to ensure that safe systems of work are followed.

Inadequate information, instruction, training or supervision provided.

Failure to use appropriate equipment;

Failure to provide safe plant/equipment.

The HSE's key messages on preventing falls from height are:

Follow good practice for work at height

Follow your risk assessment; plan and organise your work properly; and make sure everyone involved is competent to their level or responsibility;

Try to avoid the need for work at height where you can; where you can't, take steps to prevent falls; where you cannot prevent a fall then you must mitigate the risk of injury should a fall occur.

Always select collective measures to prevent falls (such as guardrails and working platforms) before other measures which may only mitigate the distance and consequences of a fall (such as nets or airbags) or which may only provide personal protection from a fall.


RIDDOR is the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995. This places a legal duty on:


self-employed people;

people in control of premises;

Reporting accidents and ill health at work is a legal requirement. The information enables the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and local authorities, to identify where and how risks arise, and to investigate serious accidents.

As an employer, a person who is self-employed, or someone in control of work premises, you have legal duties under RIDDOR that require you to report and record some work-related accidents by the quickest means possible.

You must report:


Major injuries;

Over-3-day injuries - where an employee or self-employed person is away from work or unable to perform their normal work duties for more than 3 consecutive days;

Injuries to members of the public or people not at work where they are taken from the scene of an accident to hospital;

Some work-related diseases;

Dangerous occurrences - where something happens that does not result in an injury, but could have done;

Gas Safe registered gas fitters must also report dangerous gas fittings they find, and gas conveyors/suppliers must report some flammable gas incidents.

Reportable dangerous occurrences

From the complete list, those most likely to be of relevance in the local authority enforced sector include -

collapse, overturning or failure of load bearing parts of lifts and lifting equipment

(ii) explosion, collapse or bursting of any closed vessel or associated pipe work

(iii) electrical short circuit or overload causing fire or explosion

(iv) unintended collapse of any building or structure under construction, alteration or demolition where over 5 tonnes of

material falls a wall or floor in any place of work or any false-work.

(v) accidental release of any substance which may damage health

Reportable major injuries.

Things that could be classed as being a major injury could be things as listed below:

Fracture other than to fingers, thumbs or toes.


Dislocation of the shoulder, hip, knee or spine.

Loss of sight (temporary or permanent).

Chemical or hot metal burn to the eye or any penetrating injury to the eye.

Injury resulting from an electric shock or electrical burn leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation or admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours.

Any other injury: leading to hypothermia, heat-induced illness or unconsciousness; or requiring resuscitation; or requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours.

Unconsciousness caused by asphyxia or exposure to harmful substance or biological agent.

Acute illness requiring medical treatment, or loss of consciousness arising from absorption of any substance by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin.

Acute illness requiring medical treatment where there is reason to believe that this resulted from exposure to a biological agent or its toxins or infected material.

You must keep a record of any reportable injury, disease or dangerous occurrence. This must include the date and method of reporting; the date, time and place of the event; personal details of those involved; and a brief description of the nature of the event or disease. You can keep the record in any form you wish. You could, for example choose to keep your records by:

keeping copies of report forms in a file;

recording the details on a computer;

using your Accident Book entry;

maintaining a written log

Construction Welfare Regulations

Previously, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was responsible for enforcing safety standards on almost all construction sites. The 1996 Regulations have now given some enforcement power to the Fire Authority for fire safety on construction sites, but only in the case of premises that are also occupied by persons other than those engaged in the construction work.

The HSE are still responsible for enforcing all other safety matters on such sites. For construction sites where there are no other occupiers, the HSE are solely responsible for all safety matters, including fire safety.

Employer's Responsibility

Employers must comply with the WHSW Regulations for premises they control. Tenant employers must ensure that facilities required by the Regulations, e.g. sanitary conveniences, are provided. The facilities need not be within the employer's own workplace but it is the employer's responsibility to provide them. Landlords should ensure that common parts of buildings, common facilities, common services and means of access comply with the Regulations. Tenants should co-operate with each other and with the landlord.


Employers must maintain the workplace and any equipment required by the WHSW Regulations, including mechanical ventilation systems, in safe working order. Regular maintenance should be carried out, potentially dangerous defects should be remedied, and records should be maintained.


Workplaces should be kept clean, indoor surfaces should be capable of being cleaned, and waste material should not be allowed to accumulate outside suitable containers. Floors should be cleaned at least once a week. Cleaning should be carried out by a safe method.


Workers should be able to get to and from workstations and move about freely. The recommended minimum space is 11 cubic metres per person, including the space occupied by furniture, and the minimum area is 3.7 square metres per person. More space per person may be required by the contents and layout of the room and by the nature of the work.


Workstations must be suitable both for the users and for the work so that all operations can be performed safely. Where work can be done sitting down, a seat must be provided, together with a footrest where necessary. The particular requirements of disabled workers must be considered.

Floors and stairs

Floors and traffic routes should not have holes and slopes or be uneven or slippery. Defects in floors should be guarded against. Floors likely to get wet should have a slip-resistant coating. Leaks and spills should be dealt with promptly. There should be no obstructions particularly at any place which is likely to cause slips, trips or falls. Handrails or guards should be provided on at least one side of staircases unless this obstructs access.

Toilets and washing

Toilets and washstations (basins, showers) should be in adequately ventilated and lit rooms and the toilets and rooms should be kept in a clean and orderly condition. There should be separate toilets and washstations for men and women unless each is in a separate room which can be locked from the inside. Toilets need not be in the workplace or even in the building but must be available at all material times. Toilet paper in a dispenser and a coat hook must be provided. For women, suitable means should be provided for the disposal of sanitary dressings. Washstations should be provided in the immediate vicinity of toilets. Clean hot and cold or warm water should be provided (preferably running water) together with soap and towels or other suitable means of cleaning and drying. Privacy must be protected in toilets and washstations. The minimum number of facilities is specified (broadly - up to 5 people, 1 toilet and washstation; 6-25 people, 2 toilets and washstations; 1 extra toilet and washstation for each subsequent 25 people). For men a mixture of toilets and urinals can be provided. On temporary sites toilets and washstations should be provided as far as possible. On remote sites water in containers and chemical closets should be provided. Toilets should never communicate directly with a room in which food is prepared or eaten.

The objects of the Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act and Regulations include:

to secure the health, safety and welfare of persons at work

to eliminate, at their source, risks to the health, safety and welfare of persons at work

to protect the public against risks to health or safety arising out of or in connection with the activities of persons at work or the use or operation of various types of plant

to involve employees and employers in issues affecting occupational health, safety and welfare

to encourage registered associations to take a constructive role in promoting improvements in occupational health, safety and welfare practices and assisting employers and employees to achieve a healthier and safer working environment


Responsibilities of the main or general employer in construction safety

The serious nature of common construction jobsite hazards typically involved in such work, in terms of the relatively high frequency and severity of worker injuries, should dictate special efforts by top construction management to establish and conduct conspicuous, high quality safety programming for the benefit of all persons at their jobsites.

Because workplace safety is so important in regard to construction work, it is essential that initial responsibility for overall jobsite safety be clearly accepted by one party with the authority to initiate and accomplish what is required to achieve jobsite safety.

In terms of effectiveness, safe working conditions at construction jobsites are best achieved when the prime or general contractor assumes his rightful leadership role and takes primary responsibility to (a) establish, (b) coordinate, (c) monitor, and (d) generally manage the overall basic safety program content and structure for all parties and persons at his jobsite. Undefined authority among the parties involved related to jobsite safety is not a workable arrangement for such an important matter that literally effects the life and limb of each and every worker on the jobsite.

It is a logical conclusion that the prime or general contractor should assume initial and overall safety responsibility and safety program leadership at his jobsite. He has primary and overall authority and control of his jobsite. He ultimately controls access to the construction site. All persons performing work at his jobsite are either his employees or have been directly or indirectly hired or controlled by him. In addition, the prime or general contractor will, in various degrees, direct, supervise, coordinate, or monitor the progress of the work and perform various inspections to assure that the work complies with provisions of the contract and associated plans and specifications.

Monitoring and reporting are vital parts of a health and safety. Management systems must allow the board to receive both specific and routine reports on the performance of health and safety policy.

Much day-to-day health and safety information need be reported only at the time of a formal review. But only a strong system of monitoring can ensure that the formal review can proceed as planned and that relevant events in the interim are brought to the manager's attention.

Important actions that should be taken

The management should ensure that:

appropriate weight is given to reporting both preventive information (such as progress of training and maintenance programmes) and incident data (such as accident and sickness absence rates);

periodic audits of the effectiveness of management structures and risk controls for health and safety are carried out;

the impact of changes such as the introduction of new procedures, work processes or products, or any major health and safety failure, is reported as soon as possible to the board;

there are procedures to implement new and changed legal requirements and to consider other external developments and events

Good practice

Effective monitoring of sickness absence and workplace health can alert the board to underlying problems that could seriously damage performance or result in accidents and long-term illness.

The collection of workplace health and safety data can allow the board to benchmark the organisation's performance against others in its sector.

Appraisals of senior managers can include an assessment of their contribution to health and safety performance.

Boards can receive regular reports on the health and safety performance and actions of contractors.

Some organisations have found they win greater support for health and safety by involving workers in monitoring.

Implementation of health and safety

Within an organisation the main part of the companys health and safety policy is the part in which health and safety is enforced and implemented.

This may contain many things and involve various different things involved in enforcing health and safety such as;

Having a smoking policy within the working environment

Establishing a safety committee in which people can go to them if they need information or advice

Enforcing coshh regulations

To make sure that the workforce knows how to deal with asbestos.

Allocate sufficient resources for OH&S management

Incorporate OH&S activities into the Organisational Unit strategic plan.

Schedule time for the undertaking of training and other OH&S tasks.

Provide a budget allocation for OH&S resources including hazard control measures, protective equipment, training, building and furniture modifications.

Where applicable, prepare a statement of contractor and purchasing controls which requires contractors/suppliers to conform to the company's workplace health and safety standards and procedures.

Implement a risk management program

Establish a system for the identification of hazards, evaluation of risks, and design and implementation of hazard control measures - applicable to research projects, teaching, field work, purchasing (plant, equipment or chemicals), service operations and minor or major works.

Ensure appropriate documentation of procedures and interventions arising from risk assessments.

Incorporate occupational health and safety considerations into the design specification, purchase, hire, lease and supply of new plant including equipment, materials, products and substances used in the workplace.

Monitor the performance and effectiveness of the risk management program and other OH&S management systems.


From 6 April 2007 the design and management of construction work in Great Britain will be regulated by a single set of construction regulations - the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (the CDM 2007 Regulations), which replace the CDM 1994 Regulations.  At the same time a new Approved Code of Practice will be introduced containing practical guidance on compliance. 

The CDM 2007 Regulations not only address design and management issues but now extend to regulate far wider health, safety and welfare matters previously covered by the Construction (General Provisions) Regulations 1991 and the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 which are revoked, simplified and replaced.

The new regulations not only apply to projects that begin after 6 April 2007 but also have retrospective effect on many projects.

Duty holders under the CDM 1994 Regulations should not make the mistake of assuming that they can rely upon current competences and the procedures and documents that they have fine-tuned since March 1995.  The CDM 2007 Regulations have been introduced to address growing concern about the existing rules and in particular:

To improve the planning and management of projects;

To identify and eliminate risks at the design and planning stages and ensure remaining risks are managed properly;

To better target effort; and

To avoid unnecessary bureaucracy (a worrying feature of many projects since 1994).

The main regulations are divided into 3 parts including:

Part 2 - General management duties applying to all construction projects.

Part 3 - Additional duties when a construction project is notifiable (likely to involve more than 30 days or 500 person days of construction work)

Part 4 - Health and Safety duties for all construction sites.

When does CDM apply;

CDM 2007 applies to all projects, however projects of 30 days or over, or those which involve 500 person days or more, have to be notified to

the Health and Safety Executive. Notifiable projects attract additional duties for Clients, Designers and Contractors, and require the

appointment of a CDM Co-ordinator (replacing the Planning Supervisor) and a Principal Contractor. Clients who do not appoint a CDM Coordinator

(CDM-C) or a Principal Contractor (PC) in good time, are deemed to be responsible for the duties associated with those roles,

during the period of the deficiency. There is no distinction between demolition projects and other projects in terms of notification, but a written

method statement is required for all demolition projects.

Clients changes

The main changes are to the Client's role throughout the project. A fundamental principle of CDM 2007 is to motivate Clients to take more responsibility for the selection of the project team and the working environment. Since the 6th April, it has been the client's responsibility to ensure the project team is competent, and significantly, this legal liability of their role cannot be passed onto a third party (previously the Client's Agent). This means that, although Chartered Surveyors can still act on behalf of the Client, if there is a breach of the regulations, the Client retains the criminal liability.

This explicit requirement means that Clients should be even more cautious when appointing the project team to ensure that all parties, and particularly the Client's Agent, are competent to perform their roles as Duty Holders. The CDM Coordinator (previously the Planning Supervisor) retains the responsibility to advise and assist the Client on the appointment of competent persons and their ability to control risks arising from the project.

Planning and management

Clients to ensure suitable management arrangements. (This is interpreted to mean that the Client will perform site H&S audits and inspections.)

The 'Client's Agent' is removed from the regulations, so the client cannot transfer the client's duties to another body under contract.

Co-ordinator appointed to help client and co-ordinate design phase.

Client will assume the duties of 'Co-ordinator' and/or 'Principal Contractor' if no appointments are made.

Minimum competence requirements for co-ordinators, designers and

contractors as organisations and individuals are included within the ACoP,

Changes to the Planning Supervisor Role

The title is proposed to be changed to 'Co-ordinator', although the industry tends to favour 'Project Safety Co-ordinator' or 'CDM Co-ordinator'.

The 'Co-ordinator' was proposed to have functions, but the HSE have subsequently agreed to the 'Co-ordinator' having duties.

Specific requirement to support and educate the client. (This support may include performing site H&S audits and inspections on behalf of the client).

Required to assist the client in the clients duties to appoint/engage competent and adequately resourced parties to the project, and to establish the sufficiency of time allowed within the project programme.

Coordination of design to include a buildability/maintainability/usability review. (The 'Co-ordinator' would have to understand the functional issues, such as the Building Regulations.)

Required to review the Construction Health and Safety Plan on behalf of the client.

Be more specifically responsible for the gathering and communication of information (site/design), i.e. assisting the client.

Early appointment is to be made mandatory.

The ACoP specifies minimum qualifications/experience to perform the role.

Changes/Clarifications to the Designers' Role

There have been many changes to the designers role, such as;

Clarify regulation 13 to make the requirements more specific and less subjective. (Will be regulation 14 in the new regulations.)

Added legal responsibility under the regulations to design for safe use to comply with the Workplace Regulations and Building Regulations, in addition to designing for safe construction, maintenance, repair and cleaning.

Accept balance between health and safety and other reasonable design considerations, e.g. functionality, aesthetics, environmental, etc. This is a matter for informed professional judgement.

Avoid risks to constructors, cleaners, maintainers, users or any other person affected by their designs by eliminating and reducing risks in their design and focusing on collective safeguards, e.g. barriers not fall arrest harnesses.

Designers must not perform any design, except preliminary designs, until they have confirmed the appointment of the Co-ordinator and the notification of the project.

Where design is performed outside Great Britain, the person commissioning the design, or if they are not GB based, the Client must verify that the design complies with the designer's duties.

Clarifications of the Principal Contractor's Role

The Principal Contractor must consult with the workforce on health and safety matters. The Principal Contractor must 'implement' the Construction Health and Safety Plan.

The Principal Contractor must make available to the workforce key documents, e.g. health and safety file information, site surveys, designers' information, risk assessments and the Health and Safety Plan

Principal Contractor plans and manages the construction phase, but Contractors manage their own work, including inspections and audits. Principal Contractor is to ensure compliance.

Contractors must not commence construction work until they have confirmed the appointment of the Co-ordinator and Principal Contractor, and the notification of the project.

Communication of the project team.

it is estimated that defects in the UK construction industry, many of which are the result of the inefficient use and communication of information, cost at least £20 billion to correct every year.

Building projects that adopt effective knowledge management systems, such as better communication and sharing of information between designers, engineers and contractors, are more likely to be on time, on budget and experience less snagging problems.

At the outset and/or the contract stage, the ways in which project communication will

be designed to work should be agreed. Issues to be agreed include the following:

Method issues

Meeting types and frequencies.

Method(s) of drawing transfer.

Use and control of amended, or unconfirmed drawings.

Grading, reporting and tracking of defects.

Meetings are a good way of getting the members of the project team communicating with each other. It encourages them to get together in the same place and discuss problems with the design or to gather more information that would enable them to progress the work forwards. By having meetings it strengthens relationships between companies because workers from different companies are contacting each other forming a working relationship.

All aspects of the project team would have to attend some form of meeting to iron out there problems, the designers, main contractors, employers and the CDM-C's would all attend meetings, whether it be with each other or with sub contractors such as architects or a consulting engineering firm.

Also telephone conferences are another way of contacting the team if discussions need to be held. They will all at some point contact each other and discuss vital information about the project that could improve it.

Not all members of the project team need to be present in meetings or telephone conferences. Meetings are specific and may only require the designer and the employer to be there, for example for design alterations there would be no reason for the CDM-C to be present as it doesn't really affect their role, however the employer may need to be present.

The Tables to the right

Show the severity

Rating over the

Probability likelihood

In terms of impact

Scoring to determine

How much of a risk

certain Things are.