Reviewing The Complex Construction Industry Organization Construction Essay

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Construction industry is a very unique and complex organization. The activities is involved many parties from different sectors which is the owner, the consultant, the contractor, the supplier, man power, finance and other sectors. These activities showed that the construction industry generate activities in other industries and producing a chain of economic activities.

Construction possesses unique characteristics, which make the individual planning of each project essential. There are many planning techniques available which could be applied to any work, but it is generally accepted that different ones are more useful in different situations and for different purposes (Michael J Mawdesley, William H.Askew, Saad H. Al-Jibouri, 2004).

The pricing of Construction Contracts is generally divided into three categories which is requirement or component or facilities that need to be provided prior to commencement of any actual implementation of physical work. This category is generally referred to as 'Preliminaries'.

Second categories is components that involve actual implementation of main works and the third categories is components that works or supplies that is generally to be undertaken by contractors who have knowledge and facilities that are relevant to the specialized nature of the work to be done. This works is categorized as 'Prime Cost Items' (Gursharan Singh, 2008).

The preliminaries section in a bill of quantities is one of the most important sections that require to be priced. In this section the contractor must allow for all matters affecting his costs that arise out of the conditions of contract, any special requirements of his clients or their professional advisers, and for all temporary works necessary to the carrying out of the contract (John A. Milne, 1980).

As a general rule, preliminary items, consisting as they do of such generalities, cannot be measured and do not therefore require quantities (Colin Dent, M Phil, 1980).

Preliminaries work is executed in the early stage of the construction process. It is important part of tender document which need to be prepared by the Quantity Surveyor whom are knowledgeable and has experience in preparing preliminaries and estimation. It plays important roles in influencing the cost of a project. Therefore, a detail attention in preparation and estimating preliminaries must take into consideration because any misconduct will cause serious problems to a project. However, the others estimation part in the tender document are fixed because of the requirement in the designs made up by consultants.


Preliminary works will be undertaken before major construction commences. Preliminary works are including prepare for construction work on site, obtain consent to construct, implement the time activity programme prepared for the contract period and other related works such as site clearances.

To make sure that all preliminary works for the construction of elevated interchanges at Jalan Pudu, Jalan Imbi and Jalan Hang Tuah will implement with smoothly, a good cooperation between team works such as consultant and contractor and also public must been take into considerations.

The problems in providing of preliminaries are the Preliminaries Bill not includes the important item such as item for cleaning of public road. Besides that, uncompleted and unclear information also give the problem because the estimator not receives the exact information to estimate that items and this will affect the cost. To solve this problem, the Preliminaries Bill must check time to time during its preparation process.

The preliminary items that important in a project are:

Description of the works

Temporary access road

Site location

Temporary site office

Project signboard

Temporary lighting and power

Temporary water for the works

Temporary telephone and facsimile

Programme of works


Construction plant and machine

Progress report and photograph

Site meeting

Site safety equipment

Fire precaution

Condition of contract

Insurance policy coverage

Contingency sum


The aim of the research is to study and understand about the process of preliminary works for the construction of elevated interchange at Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Imbi and Jalan Hang Tuah junction.


There are a few objectives in this study that need to fulfill to ensure the overall of aim of this study is achieved. The objectives are as follows:

To study the method of construction in providing preliminaries.

To study the cost involve on preliminaries work in the project.

To identify the factors that influences the cost for preliminaries.

To identify the problems occur during the preliminary works.


The scope of study can be divided into a various aspects as provided below:

Provision of Preliminaries

The study will focus on the work done for provide preliminaries for the construction of elevated interchange of Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Imbi and Jalan Hang Tuah. Comparisons to other project that will be discussed which is referring to propose the construction of interchanges of Jalan Tun Razak/ Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Cheras and Jalan Chan Sow Lin (Design and Build).

Cost management and cost preparation of preliminaries

The study will highlight the cost studies on the preliminaries of the project and also to investigate the cost of preliminaries.


To obtain information and all necessary data in preparing this dissertation, the following method has been applied in order to get valuable information for the search of methodology:-

1.6.1 Literature Review (secondary data)

These include Bill of Quantities, journals, articles from magazines and internet and related books. Titles of each material involved, the publishers, date of publishing and the authors are enclosed in this dissertation in the References section.

Site Visit and Interviews (primary data)

This method used to collect information on how to prepare and estimates Preliminaries Bill. Interviews are conducted with related representative of the project to get their opinion about the preliminaries. The both method are used the construction of elevated interchange at Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Imbi and Jalan Hang Tuah as the project and the construction of interchanges of Jalan Tun Razak/ Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Cheras and Jalan Chan Sow Lin (Design and Build) as the comparison project.

Comparison between proposed project

All data and information will be collected and analyzed based on selected project and also comparison project which are the following:

The construction of elevated interchange at Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Imbi and Jalan Hang Tuah.

The construction of interchanges of Jalan Tun Razak/ Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Cheras and Jalan Chan Sow Lin (Design and Build).

Aim and Objectives

Research Methodology

Site Visit and Interview

Case Study

Literature Review

Analyzed the Data

Establish Findings

Conclusion and Recommendations

Figure 1.1: Research Process



This chapter will covers the objectives, scope of study and the methodology employed in order to achieve the aim of this study. It also consists of a general outline of the study.


This chapter focuses on the project such as the background, the parties involved and the procurement.


This Chapter will explain in details about how the construction executed at the site, identify main component in the preliminary works and will highlight the problems that occur during providing and estimating preliminaries and how the related parties control, monitor and solve the problems.


This chapter represents the cost involved in order to complete the preliminary works of the project and the comparison of cost with other similar project which is propose the construction of interchanges of Jalan Tun Razak/ Jalan Pudu/ Jalan Cheras and Jalan Chan Sow Lin (Design and Build).


This final chapter provides the conclusions of the dissertation derived from previous chapter. It provides some recommendation based on the findings of the study.