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The procedure of sub-contractors' selection is very important because we have to find the most appropriate people for each job. The selection is not very easy because the factors of the selection are more than one. Health and safety is one of these factors.
During the procedure of selection each candidate-contractor will have to give as some written information about if they are familiar with the CDM 2007 regulations, or the HSE guidance on construction health and safety. In addition, it is very important to know if there is any named person responsible for the health and safety management for all the works carried out by the contractors' companies.
Additionally, information must be given about any kind of accidents or incidents that any worker of the contractors' stuff had the last 3 years.
A separate sheet will be needed which will include all the details of the accidents and incidents that happened in the past 3 years where one of your employees was off work for at least 3 days because of an accident or incident. The HSE improvement or prohibition notice can be attached.
All these written information must be sent to the principal contractor's office in order to decide, with the client, about all the sub-contractors who will be recruited for small jobs or small element of work.
The control of the sub-contractors is a duty of the principal contractor. The principal contractor has the management of all the construction works in the construction site.
2c (vi) The exchange of health and safety information between contractors
The co-operation between all the people who work on this project and especially between the contractors is needed to avoid any kind of conflicts which will affect the production.
This co-operation must also ensure that there will be no gaps - disagreements in the health and safety arrangements.
To do this, the client and the principal contractor have to ensure that all the relevant information between the contractors immunizes that everyone who works on this project knows all the health and safety arrangements and acts under them. Very important is that all the staff of the project has to act in such a way that will not affect the others.
At the beginning of the project all the people involved on this project will be informed about the health and safety arrangements that will apply in the construction. It will also be helpful for the management of the works of the site.
2c (vii) Site security
The site security is organized by the principal contractor and is very important. The following measures will be taken for the site security:
All the parts of the construction site should, so far as is practicable, be kept in good order.
Every part of the construction which is used as a place of work should be kept in a reasonable state of cleanliness.
According to the health and safety arrangements, a construction site has to, so far is practicable and in accordance with the risk level:
Have suitable signs in the entire perimeter. These signs shall be arranged in such a way that the extent of the site is easily identifiable,
Be fenced off,
Or both of them.
Any material with sharp edges such as timber should not be used in any work. In case that are used, they will not be allowed to remain in any place, if the sharp edges may be a source of danger to any person.
All the machines will be disabled for the hours that the site is closed, in order to avoid thieving and using.
In order to avoid children from the construction site, all the local residence around the site area will be informed about the construction.
There will be more securing in the site, in order to keep the materials storage areas and all the area safe.
If it is necessary, a CCTV system will be used in order to avoid any illegal actions by anyone.
2c (ix) On site training
Each contractor has to ensure, so far as is practicable, that his employees - workers have any information and training in order to do their particular works right and safe.
According to Regulation 13-4 of CDM 2007, the training of the workers shall:
Be repeated periodically where appropriate
Be adapted to take account of any crew or changed risks to the health and safety of the employees concerned, and
Take place during working hours.
If any employee - worker does not have the right knowledge about a work, he has to be trained by someone who knows the particular work. This kind of training must be given at that time, because the works must be done according to the schedule.
Additionally, in case that someone from the staff has an accident or incident, and he must be off the work for some days, someone else has to replace him. There is a possibility that there is not someone with the same professional skills that time. In that case, someone has to be trained for the work.
Generally, anyone new in the site will have to have the suitable on site training.
2c (x) Welfare facilities and first aid
The arrangements of the welfare facilities belong to the principal contractor's duties.
According to Schedule 2 of CDM 2007 Regulations, the following arrangements of welfare facilities will be made to the site:
Suitable and sufficient sanitary conveniences will be provided or made available at accessible places.
The rooms containing them will be kept in a clean and orderly condition. Also, the must be ventilated.
Separate sanitary facilities for men and women. All the doors will be capable of being secured from inside.
Washing facilities are needed in the site for health reasons.
Washing facilities will be in accessible places.
Rooms containing washing facilities shall be kept in a clean and orderly condition. They will be sufficiently ventilated too.
All washing facilities will include warm and cold running water, soap or other means of cleaning and towels or other means of drying.
Separate washing facilities shall be provided for men and women, except where and so far as they are provided in a room the door of which is capable of being secured from inside and the facilities in each such room are intended to be used by only one. It is not necessary for facilities which are provided for washing hands, forearms and face only.
Supply of drinking water will be provided or made available at accessible and suitable places.
Every supply of drinking water will be right signed for health and safety reasons.
At the places that the drinking water is provided, the right quantity of cups or other stuff suitable for drinking the water will be also provided.
Changing rooms and lockers
Suitable and sufficient changing rooms will be provided or made available at accessible places.
These rooms will be available to any worker who has to wear any special clothing for his work.
There will be separate changing rooms for men and women because of health and propriety reasons.
Changing rooms will be provided with seating and will include, where necessary, facilities to enable a person to dry any clothing.
Suitable and sufficient lockers will be provided at accessible places in order to enable the employees - workers to lock away any kind of clothing which cannot be taken home, their own clothing which is not worn during working hours and any other personal stuff.
Facilities for rest
Suitable and sufficient rest areas will be provided or made available at accessible places.
These areas will include arrangements to protect non-smokers from discomfort caused by tobacco smoke.
There will be available tables and seats for all the stuff. The rest areas will be equipped in such a way that can used by all the stuff in the same time.
Meals will can be prepared and eaten in the rest areas.
There will be means of boiling water.
The rest areas will be maintained at an appropriate temperature.
There will be ventilation in case that the windows cannot be opened. (because of the weather or a damage)
According to the regulations of 1995 employers must report accidents or incidents that happen in the workplace.
The principal contractor must ensure that any injured person in the site will be cared by a first aider or by the ambulance/hospital services. The health and safety regulations say that where more than 5 employed there should be s first aider trained by an HSE authorised trainer. On sites employing more than 50 there should be additional first aiders. First aid boxes will be kept stocked and cleaned in several points of the site. A large first aid kit, additional plasters and at least 1 litre of sterile eye wash should be located in the site safety station.
In case of an accident the first aider will care the injured person and will call an ambulance immediately. The site supervisor will be informed and will inform all the parties of an accident, including police, HSE and the family of the injured if it is appropriate. In addition if there is an accident connected with the work the enforcing authority has to be notified without delay.
Written statements by witnesses must be kept before they leave from the site. Records of any kind of injury, disease or dangerous incidents must be kept too. These records must include details of the facts. These details are about the date and the time of the fact, the details of the person involved in the fact and a precise description of the nature of the event.
The employer of the injured person will complete a RIDDOR form (form F2508) and sent it to the HSE by an e-mail in appropriate time. F2508 form is used for site incidents' report. There are other forms for use by railway and offshore industries.
2c (xi) RIDDOR forms + example
What is RIDDOR?
The RIDDOR gives the legal duty to report incidents to employers (contractors or the principal contractor), self-employed people and people who are in the control of premises to report about deaths that happened at work, major injuries, and accidents with over a 3 day injury, diseases related with the work and dangerous occurrences. The event should be reported to ICC (Incident Contact Centre). This can be done by 3 ways:
Calling at 0845 3009923;
Sending a fax at 08453009925, or
Online by filling the form on the ICC website.
Why should I report?
It is a legal requirement to report accidents and work incidents. Also, reporting accidents and work incidents help the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the local enforcing authorities to identify the risks and to investigate serious accidents. HSE and local authorities' staff may be able to help every employer to minimize the number of incidents at the works.
2c (xii) Production and approval of risk assessments and written systems of work
In general, the Risk Assessments and the written systems of work belong to the policy documents and information documents of the site.
Risk Assessments as required by the Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations 1999 are required to be undertaken and developed for all potentially dangerous works on site. The Principal Contractor shall collect and approve these documents from sub-contractors in addition to those created for his own works. Information and advice on the development and/or approval of Risk Assessments is available from the CDM Co-ordinator.
The Architect of the project develops the Risk Assessment before the construction phase, which is available, via the CDM Co-ordinator, to the Principal Contractor.
The Structural Engineer, the Principle Contractor, the Sub-Contractors and anyone else who belongs to the Project team must develop his own Risk Assessment which will include the dangers of his own work.
After that, the Principal Contractor will collect all these risk assessments from all the related parties and will give them to the CDM Co-ordinator to be included to the Health and Safety file of the project.
2c (xiii) Site rules including drug and alcohol policy
The rules of the site about use of drug and consumption of alcohol will be clearly defined to anyone who will work in the construction. Drug and alcohol are PROHIBITED during the working hours, 7.00 pm - 3.00 am, for health and propriety reasons.
If the site supervisor realizes that any work-related uses drugs or consumes alcohol, he will be fired.
In addition, people who do not use substances during working hours, but uses them before or after the work, will be fired too.
No one can enter the construction site under the influence of drug or alcohol.
The effects of drug and alcohol can affect the health of the workers. Accidents to themselves or to others can be caused. Both of them can affect the thought and the reflexes of anyone.
2c (xiv) Fire and emergency procedures
The Principal Contractor of the site must develop arrangements in case of emergency or fire. Anyone who is work-related must be informed about the procedures in case of emergency of fire. There are some duties of the principal contractor relating to health and safety on constructions' site.
According to the CDM 2007 regulations, some arrangements must be developed for dealing with any foreseeable emergency or fire. Procedures of evacuation of the site or any part of the site, if necessary, must be developed. In making arrangements under fire procedures, account will be taken of:
The type of work for which the construction site is being used.
The characteristics and the size of the site and the number and the location of places of work on the site.
Equipment that will be used for the construction works.
Maximum number of people likely to present on the site at any one time.
Physics and chemical characteristics of any kind of material or substances that are used for the construction works.
Except these arrangements, some rules must be followed in order to avoid fire cases.
Rules for flammable materials
If there is any LPG cylinder (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) or other flammable materials in the site then:
They must not in open places, because explosions can be caused by the sun. In case of open storage place, this place must be shade during day.
The storage areas must be outside of areas that are used by people many times per day. (rest area, washing facilities, etc)
The storage areas-rooms must be made of steel, if it is necessary. (depends on the kind of the flammable material)
All the storage areas-rooms must be ventilated and secure.
There will be signs for flammable materials to avoid fire accidents.
LPG supplies must be turned off when they are not in use. Explosions have been occurred after some cabins in the site were filled with gas because they were not turned off.
LPG equipment must be properly maintained. Damages on the cylinder racks can be very dangerous, especially in construction site conditions.
If there is any suspicion for gas leaks, the LPG cylinder must be checked after stop using them. Leaks can be identified by hissing, smell or using soapy water.
Burning waste material on site must be avoided. No petrol or other fire accelerator to start or encourage fires. No-smoking next to any kind of flammable material because explosions can be caused.
Fire-fighting equipment must be in several locations in the site. Fire detectors and fire alarms will be in several locations in the site too. The fire detectors will be divided into two categories, smoke detectors and temperature detectors. The entire fire-fighting and fire-detection equipment must be tested before the works start and be well maintained. There will be automatic and non-automating fire-fighting equipment. Equipment which is non-automatic must be easily accessible. Anyone work-related must know how to use the fire-fighting equipment, in case that is needed. Fire-fighting equipment will be indicated by suitable signs.
In case of fire
In case of fire the fire alarms have to ring by the first person that finds the fire. All the fire alarms of the construction site will ring and all the people that are in the site will be informed about the fire. If the first one who finds the fire cannot find the fire alarm, he has to shout "FIRE, FIRE" in order to inform the others about the fire.
In the event of a fire it is VERY IMPORTANT that the correct extinguishing agent is selected for the right application, otherwise it could make the situation worse, or even cause severe injury or death. In order to avoid something like this, a list is needed with materials. This list is used in order to select the appropriate extinguishing agent in case of fire.
SOLIDS such as paper, wood, plastic etc
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS such as paraffin, petrol, oil etc
FLAMMABLE GASES such as propane, butane, methane etc
METALS such as aluminium, magnesium, titanium etc
Fires involving ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Cooking OIL & FAT etc
Before we use a fire extinguisher we have to be sure about if we have chosen the correct one for the right application. The following kinds of fire extinguishers will be available in the site:
Water Fire Extinguisher
Red in colour. Contains 9 litres of water under pressure. The discharge time is 60-100 seconds.
Used for Class A fires. Not suitable for Class B (Liquid) fires, or where electricity is involved.
Foam Fire Extinguisher
Blue in colour. Contains 9 litres of film-forming foam. The discharge time is 40-90 seconds.
Used for Classes A & B fires. Foam spray extinguishers are not recommended for fires involving electricity, but are safer than water if inadvertently sprayed onto live electrical apparatus.
CO2 Fire Extinguisher
Red in colour with a black line. The discharge time depends on the size of the extinguisher.
Carbon Dioxide is ideal for fires involving electrical apparatus, and will also extinguish class B liquid fires, but has NO POST FIRE SECURITY and the fire could re-ignite.
Dry Chemical Extinguisher
Red in colour with a white line. Contains a bi-carbonate based powder. Often termed the 'multi-purpose' extinguisher, as it can be used on classes A, B & C fires. Best for running liquid fires (Class B). Will efficiently extinguish Class C gas fires, BUT BEWARE, IT CAN BE DANGEROUS TO EXTINGUISH A GAS FIRE WITHOUT FIRST ISOLATING THE GAS SUPPLY.Â Special powders are available for class D metal fires.
The maintenance of the extinguishers is very important. They must be subject to an annual service. Every 5 years they will be discharged and recharged. They need replacement every 20 years. Their maintenance must be undertaken by suitable personal. It is needed to report all the used and damaged equipment in order to be replaced.
In case of fire or smoke evacuation
Rescue any person danger if it is safe
Raise the alarm if it is not activated and call for Emergency assistance
Close all the doors to contain the fire or the smoke
Follow the instructions of the site supervisor
Close all the doors behind as you leave if no one follows
Do not return to your work until it is safe
Leave the construction by the concrete core's stairs or the scaffolding
Proceed to the designated Emergency area