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'Projects should be organised in such a way that everyone is committed and empowered to achieve successful delivery. Roles and responsibilities should be clearly defined; there must be short and effective lines of communication to senior management so that they can take prompt action when needed' (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
'A project is a complex, non routine, one-time effort limited by time, budget, resources, and performance specifications designed to meet customer needs' (Garry & Larson 2008). The main goal of a project is to satisfy a customer's needs. Furthermore, projects have some specific characteristics which discriminate it from other activities of the organization. First, a project has a defined goal. Second, projects have a defined endpoint, a defined spam with a beginning and an end, which over against to the ongoing obligations and responsibilities of traditional jobs. Third, a project requires the combined efforts of a range of specialists. It demands across the organization participation. Project participants work closely together under the supervision of a project manager in order to complete the project. Fourth, it is nonroutine, it involves doing something never been done before, and has some unique elements. Finally a project has a specific time, cost and performance requirements. These three constrains require a higher level of accountability than you usually find in most jobs (Garry & Larson 2008).
The unique nature of project work can be also illustrated in terms of the project life cycle. Some project managers find it valuable to use the project life cycle as basis for managing projects. 'The project life cycle typically passes sequentially through four stages: defining, planning, executing, and delivering. Project effort starts slowly, builds to a peak, and then declines to delivery of the project to the customer' (Figure1) (Garry & Larson 2008).
In the defining stage the goals and the specifications of the projects are defined. Furthermore teams are form and responsibilities are assigned. In the planning stage the total effort is increased, schedules, budgets, resources, risks and staffing are been determined. In the executing stage a major portion of physical and mental of the project work takes place. In order to control the project time, cost, and specification measures are used. In the delivering stage the project product is delivered to the customer and rearranging project resources. Also, this stage may include customer training and relocating documents. Some project groups use the project life cycle to illustrate the timing of major tasks over the time of the project. For example quality team would be expecting their major effort to take place in the later stages of the project life cycle, in contrast with the design team which may plan a major obligation of resources in the defining stage (Garry & Larson 2008).
The client organisation must ensure the followings critical factors for the success of the project in all stages. It must make sure that business needs of the project are clearly understood by the client and the supplier. The investment decision maker for the project approves the need for the specific project, taking in mind the company objectives. The right people with the capable knowledge on the required outcome of the business, skills and experiences, are set the roles of senior responsible owner (SRO) and the project sponsor. SRO is the person who is responsible for the success of the project. Project sponsor has the authority to obtain decisions on behalf of the SRO. The right suppliers are selected, with the capability and capacity to deliver, to act as partners. It must ensure that everyone (client, designers, contractors and specialist suppliers) participated in the project works with efficient communication and coordination, as an integrated team. The right person must be assigned the role of project manager to create and lead the project team. The result of the project and the outcome on the organisation must be analysed and planned in order to ensure that it is aligned with the company. The levels of the assigned authority for the project team must be clearly understood in order to achieve effective decision-making. Roles and responsibilities must be defined and understood sustained by an uncomplicated project management structure. Finally it must ensure that procurement route for the project supports integrated team working (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
'The client organisation undertaking each project should have clearly identified responsibilities for investment decisions, project ownership and project sponsorship; the people concerned should have formal statements of their responsibilities and be accountable for them'. SRO must be a formal appointment in the part of the business, with adequate seniority to understand the business drivers and to make decisions on behalf of the business' (Office of Government Commerce, 2003). Furthermore, it must be given a priority in order to ensure that project delivery teams are consisted of high quality individuals (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
In addition, the project must be delivered by integrated project team consist 'of the client project team, consultants, constructors and specialist supplier' Office of Government Commerce, 2003). This approach helps to innovate and avoid an adversarial culture and also, it supports a cooperative responsibility for a successful result. It encourages a centre of attention on whole-life value for money. It also 'support collective responsibility for buildability and considerations of health and safety, sustainability and design quality; shared responsibility for managing risk; greater efficiency and reduced waste' (see AE5: The integrated project team for more information) (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
According to O.G.C (2003) the first essential role in the project is the investment decision maker or IDM who takes the decision for use of resources, based on clarification of 'business needs, whole-life value for money, affordability and cost-effectiveness'. Resources include capital, operational and manpower resources (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
The second important role is the senior responsible owner or SRO. This individual defines the scope of the project for achieving the business benefits and is personally accountable for the achievement of the project. This role must be taken by an individual senior in the organisation, who must have the status to provide the needed leadership and has clear accountability for the success of the project. This role also is responsible to make sure that sufficient resources are made available in order to enable a successful outcome (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
The interface between ownership and delivery is a responsibility of the project sponsor. This individual is responsible for an ongoing day-to-day management and taking decisions on behalf of the SRO in order to make sure that the desired project objectives are delivered. Also, this role should have the sufficient knowledge about the business and the project in order to make informed decisions (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
The last essential role is the independent client advisers, who should be independent from suppliers in aid of avoiding conflict of interest. It is an essential role in the whole process of the project because an independent advice might be necessary on a variety of issues including financial, legal, and technical aspects (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
'Different terms may be found in use across the public sector, although the functions of each key role are similar. Figure 1 shows the recommended OGC terms, together with equivalents that are widely used in other parts of the public sector.'
Furthermore, there are more essential roles but often outside the client organisation. At first, the project manager might be seconded to the client and independent of the supplier. Project manager plan, schedule, control, motivate as other managers. Project managers are unique because they manage temporary, no routine activities, in order to complete a fixed life project. Garry & Larson (2008) states that project managers build 'a project team and organization where none existed before' in contrast with functional managers who undertakes existing operations. They should come to a decision, what and how things must be done instead of just managing a set of procedures. They must take over the challenges of every phase of the life cycle of the project. A project manager, when the project is completed, should manage the dissolution of their operation. Project managers work with a diverse set of project stakeholders (Garry & Larson 2008).
They are the direct link to the costumer and should manage the tension between what is reasonable and feasible to be done and customer expectations. Project team is usually built of part-time members loyal to their functional sectors. They must provide integration, coordination, and direction to the project team. Vendors, suppliers, subcontractors, who project managers work with, are not obligate to share the project allegiance. Project managers are responsible for performance and success of the project. They should ensure that trade-offs are completed between the cost, time and performance requirements of the time. They must ensure that right people are used at the right time to address the right issues and take the right decisions (Garry & Larson 2008).
The second essential role usually outside the client organisation is the supply team. The supply team is responsible to deliver the required outputs and it might include designers and cost consultants, engineers, constructors and specialist suppliers. They must be an integrated team with responsibility for project delivery. They also have the responsibility for the management of risks. The members of supply team, during the planning stages of the project, must be brought together as a single team, with the client's project members (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
The last essential role is the facility managers, who are in charge to manage on behalf of the client, the finished facility. They must be involved at the design stage 'of the project as members of the integrated project team for design, construction, operation and maintenance' (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
In addition project sponsor must make sure that, stakeholders offer important input in the whole process of the project. Also, there might be a requirement for a project board. Project board is an advisory panel, which include a technical adviser and a business adviser, in order to make sure stakeholder buy-in at a high level (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).
'For smaller projects there is unlikely to be a project board, but it will still be important to capture the views of users and stakeholders. The key delivery roles will be those of the senior responsible owner (responsible for project success), project sponsor and project manager (responsible for project delivery)' (Office of Government Commerce, 2003).