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The major construction activities are to make an assessment of the site and to mobilize for construction. The contractor locates the slurry trench cutoff wall in the field with appropriate surveys. The contractor determines the equipment that will be needed, amounts of materials, and facilities that may be required. Plans are made for mobilizing personnel and moving equipment to the site. The designated location where a Reserve Component unit or individual mobilizes or moves after mobilization for further processing, training, and employment. A preconstruction meeting between the designer, contractor, and CQA engineer is recommended. In this meeting, materials, construction procedures, all aspects of the project, and corrective actions are discussed.
The Job-site manager's site-specification safety program documentation and information required for the effective executive of the work project should be in place before the first contractor mobilizes to the project site. The Pre-Job Planning Checklist (Form 9.1) provided at the end of the chapter is an example of the considerations that should be included in preparation for contractor mobilization and the sort of documentation that should be place at the start of the work project. Clearly, the checklist developed for each project will reflects the considerations specific to it. A grassroots refinery will include different considerations than will those of a steel mill upgrade. The development of the checklist will be based on notes and information gathered during the engineering and procurement phases of the projects. The checklist serves to ensure that nothing is overlooked in preparation for contractor mobilization.
Site mobilization can be categories into field site support and personnel factors.
Field site support encompasses those services used to help the construction, assembly, inspection, test, operation, and demonstration functions at the field site whereas personnel factors is the factors that affect field personnel and their families.
There are 8 factors in field site support which are communication, transportation, power, water system, test support equipment, heavy equipment, workshops, and fire protection. Communication can be simple as one telephone or as complex as a satellite relay network to provide a means of transmitting intelligence that will meet the requirements of the site. Sites should have sufficient lines and extensions at the required contact points so that communications will not become jammed. Adequate transportation is required to move hardware, mail, and personnel to, from, and around the site. Example: a vehicle can be rented and run by a field site driver, or preferably the bus and driver can be furnished as complete services under subcontractor. Power is one of the important things in site. Its purposes are to supply electricity. For isolated area, portable power units are used which consists of generators driven by either gasoline or diesel motors to provide anywhere from 1 to 10 kilowatts of power. Competent mechanics and electricians are needed to operate, maintain and overhaul the equipment. Thus spare parts such as fan belts, oil filters, and radiator hoses will have to be stored at the site including mechanic's tools and welding equipment. Next, discuss on water system. Water either can bring in by truck, pumped directly from a nearby lake or river or well. Test support equipment such as telescopes, transits tube, and high-speed cameras used for utilization of electromagnetic equipment, the particular radio frequencies must be cleared with the range frequency officer or with the local office. Heavy equipment such as tractors, bulldozers, cranes or road scraper must locate in proper area. Information on the use of the equipment and on the site environment should be collected before it is moving to the working area. Workshops include woodworking shop and metal shop. Fire protection and first aid facilities should be adequate to meet any site emergency.
There are 3 personnel factor in mobilizations which are housing, food, and medical facilities. Housing can be in-site or in-town. It have furnishes rooms and houses, clean, well heated or air-cooled rooms, bath facilities, and others. Food consumption by worker can be 10 or 15 miles away from site, crew's vehicle may be used to make a scheduled run for lunch. Medical facilities such as first aids kit must be prepared on the site or a vehicle is standby to sent any worker is injured during working.
Security and site access control should be given detailed attention. Where possible on large projects contractors should be provided with their own access gates If, by chance, both union and non-union workforces are being employed at the same location, each should be provided with their own job-site access gate. Where possible, contractor access to their work sites should not traverse areas where owner production activities are taking place.
A traffic control plan with consideration for traffic leading to and within the confines of the project site is an essential consideration. The job-site manager should provide for adequate turning room and good visibility for vehicle drivers at job-site entry and exit points in the site layout plan. Set out clear vehicles routes across the job-site avoiding sharp bends, blind corners, and narrows gaps. Protect any temporary structures such as scaffolds that might be damaged or made unsafe if struck by a vehicle. Protect excavations and areas alongside open water that vehicles must pass closely. Site traffic patterns should be defined to minimize the need for construction vehicles and equipment to across or come to pedestrian paths.
2. Discuss the project site layout plan in relation to site efficiency (materials, labour and machineries)
From the site layout plan, the material storage area is near to the Construction area. Indirectly, the efficiency to the site is high. It avoidance of double handling of materials. Hence, it minimum walking distance between working and materials storage area. Besides that, minimized on site traffic congestion by planning delivery arrivals, adequate parking facilities for staff and machineries and by having circle room for the delivery vehicle.
Next, the site efficiency that we need to discuss for the site is proper storage arrangements to ensure that materials are a correct type, quantities and available when required. Amount and types of materials to be stored, security and weather protection requirements, allocation of adequate areas for storing materials and allocating adequate working space around storage areas as required. Sitting of storage areas to reduce double handling to a minimum without impeding the general site circulation and/or works in progress.
Beside that, the efficiencies of site layout also depend on avoiding of loss by elements by providing adequate protection such as guards, hoarding and materials checking procedure. Materials and plant must be stored so as to protect them from the weather and from damage from site operations. This applies equally to materials stored on site for a short period and those stored for a longer period. Space for the construction and subsequent protection from damage of sample panels is a related consideration. The reduction of waste on the site is links to good site management and also to good detailing. When detailing a building, attention should be given to reducing the amount of cutting and hence waste generated on the site (which is expensive to dispose of).
3. Describe any improvement methods in improving the said site.
There are 4 aspects need to improve for the site that we visited. Firstly, sidewalks or footpaths should be established on the construction. For example, there must have footpaths or sidewalks from the main entrance to the site office. This is particularly important where the vehicles must come close to public pedestrian movement around construction activities should be minimized where possible. All general, public foot traffic parallel to construction traffic must be protected and where possible, barrier systems installed. Normal vehicle curbing is not usually an adequate substitute for barriers where the general public is involved. Where pedestrians must cross the path of construction vehicles, clear cross-walks should be delineated and traffic rules enforced.
Secondly, hazards created by equipment should be avoided. For example, generators, air compressors, and welding machines include noise, dust, and toxic fumes and should be considered when determining their placement. Prevailing winds and their effect on directing toxic fumes and dust should be the first of the elements considered. Isolation of large noise procedures in remote locations or the installation of noise deflectors and sound barriers should also be considered when in the vicinity of the densely occupied work areas.
Thirdly, services and accommodation also need to be improved on the site. As a minimum a suitable, metered supply of electricity and water will be required; so too will foul drainage. Site personnel require office space and comfort facilities. These are usually provided in specialist pre-fabricated site units that are hired by the contractor for the duration of the project. The wellbeing of construction workers and also visitors to the site is an important factors.
Lastly, security and safety also need to be improved on the site. It is required for two reasons. First, to protect the materials and plant left on the site overnight from inadvertently wandering on to the site and hence endangering their safety; thus perimeter fencing and physical barriers to unauthorized entry, many contractors also employ security firms to provide additional protection at night and at weekends. Monitoring of materials entering leaving the site is also required to prevent pilfering by the site workers.