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Climate change has emerged as the most important global environmental phenomenon. Addressing the impacts of global warming has become a social and economic dilemma as well as an environmental one. Today the developed world is under immense pressure to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in an attempt to curb the continuation of climate change. This has also meant that companies and individuals are also being urged to reduce their carbon foot print and hence their contributions to climate change.
2.0 Identification and Justification of Innovation
Innovation may be defined as exploring new ideas leading to the creation of a new product, process or service. It is not just the invention of a new idea that is important, but it is actually "bringing it to the market", putting into practice and exploiting it in a manner that leads to new products, service or systems that add value or improve quality. It possibly involves technological transformation and management restructuring. Innovation also means exploiting new technology and employing out of the box thinking to generate new value and to bring about significant changes in society.
According to Peter Drucker (Management expert), if an established organization, which is in this age necessitating innovation, is not able to innovate, it faces decline and extinction. In today's current economic scenario, innovativeness has become a major factor in influencing strategic planning. It has been acknowledged that innovation leads to wealth creation. Even though efficiency is essential for business success, in the long run, it cannot sustain business growth.
The innovation being proposed is the introduction and use of environmentally friendly andÂ sustainable energy technologies at the Calabash hotel to reduce the hotel's carbon foot print and consequently its contribution to climate change. Calabash hotel is a relatively large upscale hotel which caters to needs of a mainly affluent clientele. These clients demand the best services and goods which are provided. This can often come with a price but the clients are able to afford such luxuries. However amongst the client base there is a growing recognition of the important of environmental and social responsibility and an increasing sense of moral and historical obligation to address climate change.
3. Benefits and Implications of Innovation
Hotels normally have a reputation for excesses and luxurious living which can sometimes be at odds with attempts at environmental integrity and sustainability. However the introduction of energy and climate change friendly programme at the hotel could have tremendous benefits for the company. This forms the rational for the choice in innovation. Climate change is a global problems and it is incumbent of everyone to play their part in addressing the problem. These include individuals and corporate organization like the Calabash hotel. The Calabash name is synomonous with excellence and innovation. The following are a list of benefits that can be derived:
Energy and climate friendly technologies can be used to improve the hotel's corporate image in addition to the other economic and environmental benefits that can be derived from such a project.
The hotel may be able to become somewhat independent for some of its energy use which may give it more control over the amount ofÂ money which must be spent on energy.
In addition investment in sustainable energyÂ technologies usually have a good pay-back which will allow the hotel to save on some of it expenses and in other cases to implement better financial planning.
Money saved from implement more efficient technologiesÂ can be used for other investments or may also be used for climate or environmental charities and organizations. The latter would enhance the corporate image of the hotel.
Calabash has a demanding clientele that keeps up with social trends and technologies. The use of modern climate friendly technologiesÂ would be in-keeping with the hotel drive to incorporate state of the art and modern science and technology in its functioning. This would help to make better use of resources and improve the general efficiency of the hotel.
The hotel aims to provide the best service it can to today's demanding customers, and ensuring the necessary changes are made to meet the needs of future repeat business. Calabash also focuses on energy and reducing its consumption as a way of reducing cost in today's economic climate.
In industries like the hospitality, where success and failure is based on customer satisfaction, Calabash needs to cater to customers who are highly environmentally conscious. Keeping in mind saving energy is a good opportunity to cut costs and increase profitability in today's highly competitive market.
Many persons are seeking to make a contribution to society and are even prepared to pay extra for services that conserve or reduce the negative impact on the environment. These persons represent a huge market that ******* hotel can tap into.
Preparation for implementation
Discussion of specific activities, timeline and distribution of work
Submission of completed work plan and budget
Establishment of innovation team
Social Acceptability Analysis
Administration of social survey in the form of questionnaire to gauge how the new concept will be received by staff and guests
Conduct of energy audit which includes collection of relevant historical data( including energy consumption, water use, transportation etc) and identification of feasible measures to reduce hotels carbon footprint
Introduction of Low carbon foot print concept
Decide on actual measures to be introduced such energy efficient and renewable energy technologies
Procurement of new products and equipment
Establishment of new guidelines for operation in energy, water, waste and transportation aspects of operation at the hotel
Implementation and Initial Monitoring
The progress and success rate is achieved by looking for reduction in energy use and the amount of greenhouse gases produced by hotel activities
Meeting of stakeholders of hotel to report on progress
Submission of Initial Report
Hotel to submit finding of newly introduced innovation to stakeholders
Assessment of project
Innovation team , management and key stakeholder group to assess the findings
Preparation of new operations guidelines for the hotel
Hotel management to fully integrate the new concept in the management and operation of the hotel. To provide incentives and measures for sustainability of concept and promote continued enhancement
Production of final report
Review of final report prepared
Advertising and marketing
Identify ways to use the success of this new project as a marketing tool to improve corporate image of the hotel
3.0 Implementation of the activity
The reduction of the Calabash hotel's footprint is an initiative which require in depth analysis, support at all levels and some time for readjustment in the normal operations of the hotels. Some investments may also be necessary at the hotel. Once the decision has been made specific personnel must be allocated to the task. In addition, a research component must be undertaken beginning first with the data collection exercise which will investigate the consumption patterns at the hotel. To facilitate this monthly energy records going back to at least 2 years must be available for analysis. The consumption records for water are also needed. The records for procurement of food and materials for the hotels should also be analysed. These areas of operation must be analysed as based on preliminary information, the most like areas where measure to reduce the carbon footprint of the hotel can de implement are, 1) Energy Consumption 2) Water Consumption , 3) Material Consumption and Waste disposal and 4) Transportation. A brief analysis of these areas is provided below.
Average hotel carbon footprint by percentage
(direct and indirect emissions)
Figure 1. showing potential for reducing Hotel carbon footprint
Within the hotel there is much potential for implementing a project that will reduce the carbon footprint. Figure 1 above shows the main areas where measures can be implemented to reduce the greenhouses gases from a typical hotel.
Energy consumption accounts for the largest proportion of carbon footprint in the hotel and is one of the most costly aspects from both a financial and environmental standpoint. Without reducing on the service provided and diminishing the well being of the hotels guests and staff reducing consumption can be achieved in a number of ways example energy saving products, on site power generation and effective energy controls and management. The easiest way of way of reducing the energy consumption at the hotel and subsequently its carbon footprint is the introduction of energy efficient technologies and measures these include: Energy efficient light bulbs or motion sensors or timer switches can also help reduce energy by automatically turning off and on when someone walks into a room or by diming when there is enough natural sunlight in the room
Reducing energy consumption includes switching to low energy light bulbs or LED lighting turning off lights and all equipment when not in use such as computers and printers, by printing only essential materials and using recycled paper are ways of saving energy and installing motion sensors or timers
Air conditioning and Heating are other areas area where big energy savings and efficiencies can be made.
There is a strong link between water and energy consumption as energy is needed to purify, transport and heat water. This means that reducing water use can reduce the carbon footprint of a hotel. Approximately 80% of water used in the hotel is from showers, toilets, taps and kitchens with low fixtures such as taps and showerheads. Some measure which can be used to reduce water use include installing of push taps or taps with sensors ,low flow toilets, urinals, showerheads in guests' rooms and sinks in restrooms and public areas of the hotel to help save water without compromising the guest experience. The hotel can introduce towel reuse scheme for guests, the restaurants and bars could use filtered tap water rather than bottle water, waste water to water plants and flush toilets.
Waste disposal from a hotel adds to the carbon footprint of a hotel in a number of ways including the production of greenhouse gases at the landfill. Waste can be reduced by careful planning of menus, encouraging reduced packaging and using reusable plastic containers A waste management plan will be implemented include recycling all waste from guests rooms example paper, bottle, boxes etc including other area of the hotel such as the kitchen, lobby areas and all offices and also making recycled bin available. During conferencing, meeting and private events, the hotel should consider the use of cloth napkins and unless requested by guests provide water pitchers instead of bottle water.
There are simple measures the company can take to reduce carbon footprint in the office during a normal working day the amount of paper being consumed, which can be recycled. Employees should be encouraged to take small measure to go green. such as switching off all computers and printers at the end of the day, lights, air conditions etc. keep electronic records instead of hard copies, print essential materials and use both sides will save on paper and also encourage using the stairs instead of the elevators. These simple ideas will make a significant difference and reduce the impact on the environment.
Reducing on the transportation of imported goods
This would ensure that the goods and products used at the hotel are normally sourced in the vicinityÂ of the hotel. Sourcing locally would cut down on food miles, and reduces carbon footprint whilst at the same time supports local artisans and growers.
3.1 Alternative courses of action
There are other ways to reduce the carbon foot print of Calabash hotel such as the use of renewable energy. The electricity used at the hotel is primarily fossil fuels which contribute to climate change. Using alternative energy sources like solar power to heat water, or consider installing a ground source heat pump is another way to reduce heating costs can reduce the carbon footprint of hotel. The following renewable energy can be used at the hotel.
Solar energy: is the energy obtained from the sun that is harnessed and converted to thermal energy or electricity. Solar energy is green which mean it does not pollute and leave dangerous by product when it's used and also does not use up the earth's exhaustible sources of energy. Being an unconditional source of electricity, solar energy is proven to be clean and safe and does not harm the ozone layer of the earth. In fact, all this makes it completely environment friendly, hence it is considered a green fuel. The Calabash hotel can save up to 90 percent of it conventional electricity if considered using solar energy.
Wind energy: is defined as the "power generated by harnessing the wind, usually by windmills" (Mayhews). In scientific terms, wind energy is the "force" of winds blowing across the earth's surface. Wind energy is a great supplement to fossil fuels.
Geothermal energy: is the earth's thermal energy that is generated by heat stored beneath the earth's surface. It's clean and sustainable.
3.2 Analysis of Social Acceptability of New Innovation
The first step of the implementation plan is to undertake a reconnaissance study. This study can be undertaken with the aid of a questionnaire. The questionnaire can be administered to a sample group of staff and guests at the hotel. The purpose of the questionnaire is to determine if the clients and guest feel that reducing the hotels carbon foot print is feasible and important. It will also give some preliminary indication as to whether the use of energy efficiency can be undertaken in the hotel. For instance, it will indicate the level of willingness of r the staff and guests are to participate in a low carbon programme. This will give an indication of how easily the concept of reducing the hotels carbon footprint will be accepted among the hotels stakeholders and how much effort needs to be exerted in getting ownership and co-operation in implementing such a project.
3.3 Technical Survey
The second step is technical survey of the hotels practices to get a clear idea of what opportunities exists for saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions Part of this technical An energy audit of the hotelÂ is the most important step in reducing the hotel carbon footprint. An energy audit is an evaluation of energy consumption, as in a home or business, to determine ways in which energy can be conserved. The energy audit is a comprehensive examination of a company's energy use through out its operation. An energy audit will identify the most cost effective opportunities for energy savings. The audit will review the hotels historical energy consumption and show trends and areas of greatest energy wastage.
To undertake the energy audit an energy service company may be called in or other energy experts who undertake energy audits on a regular basis. Although ************ does have an engineering and facilities management staff, they do not normally undertake energy audits and as a result additional expertise would be required. It is expected that the hotel maintenance and facilities management staff will be working with these consultants in undertaking the energy audit. Such collaboration is necessary so that the accurate and up to date information is supplied for the energy audit.
In addition, the participation of the hotel staff will provide training for them in undertaking energyÂ management which will be importantÂ to the hotel implementation of the new innovation measures being introduced. Participation of the hotels staff will also help generate interest amongst the staff members andÂ engender ownership of the new programme. Other staff members suchÂ as representatives from management and the accounts department may also be part of the energy audit team.
In addition to an energy audit, an assessment of the other practices of the hotel that influence the greenhouse gas emissions contributed directly or indirectly by the hotel should also be assessed. This will look at measures such as water consumption, waste
The results of the energy audits will include a list of technologies and measures that can be utilized at the hotel. How much energy such innovation can save and how much it will cost. It will also give an indication of the pay back period for each innovation being proposed. It will also give a list of options of what can be implemented in the short, medium and long-term. Depending of the requirements of the hotel the energy audits may also give options on where the technologies can be sourced and finding options for the new investments.
3.3 Introducing the Low Carbon footprint Concept
a) Establishment of Innovation team
Once the surveys have been undertaken, the next step is and the report has been submitted to the management of Calabash hotel, the next step involves the creation of an innovation team to carry out the recommendations for the hotel. This team is a formal group from persons from the hotel; ideally represent most of the hotel department including management, housekeeping, security, guest relations, accounting etc that will be responsible for the introduction and upkeep of the innovation programme. This team is intended to be the champions of the new innovation, responsible for ensuring the success of the project by encouraging and facilitating incorporation into the daily operations of the hotel. In this regard they should be well informed on the project, be able to answer questions that other colleagues may have and encourage them when may be failing in attaining the goal.
b) Deciding on the Low carbon Innovation Programme
The hotel innovation team will review the results and recommendations of the energy audit and a make a proposal to the management of the hotel on what actions should be implemented, when they should be implement and the expected benefits.
Specific targets should be set for the hotel to reduce its carbon footprint. The innovation team together with managers will decided what is feasible based on economical and technical assessments for the hotel. They will also decide on specific targets and deadlines to achieve those targets. The team should advise management of what measures are needed within the organization for achieving targets decided for the hotel.
The team will also decide on specific guidelines and procedures based on the functioning and prevailing practices at the hotel. As an energyÂ innovation project is a new initiative for Calabash all staff must become fully aware of this new innovation at the hotel. They must also be provided with the necessary information and skills to ensue the success of the project. Training measure could include, seminars, workshops for staff members. Information can also be passed on through the internal modes of communication at the hotel including emails, newsletters, memos etc.
Information for guest is an envisioned to be a very delicate matter of utmost importance. It is very important that the guest s receive the right information so that they can understand how this project will positively impact both the hotel and them. The guest should be able to appreciate andÂ embrace this new project and feel some genuine ownership of the new project. Public relations are a critical aspect of the hotel and the new measures should not be seen in any way to cut back from the normal high quality of serviceÂ and comfort offered by the hotel.
3.4 Implementation and Monitoring
To ensure that the goals set by the energy innovation team for the project are materialized; there should be continued monitoring and evaluation of the project. The hotels' carbon footprint should be measured periodically, such as every three months to see if it is decreasing. Monitoring and evaluation of the innovation project will also show which areas of the projects are achieving most success and the areas where it is more difficult to implement. This would allow adaptation and modification of the project where needed. For instance if the housekeeping section is not meeting its targets in reducing its greenhouse gas emissions then the hotels may need to invest in new machinery or encourage the guest to reuse towels.
3.5 Sustaining the Innovation Project
Ensuring the longevity of such an innovation project at the hotel is important once it is working. The figure below shows the cycle needed to sustain the low carbon footprint programme at the hotel. The managers and the innovation team must enforce established guidelines for the project and encourage staff and guest to continue to support the project. The established guidelines should be clear and reminders should be sent to keep the programme running. Incentives can be provided where possible. For example prizes can be given to the hotel departments which are the most successful under the programme.
3.6 Advertising and Marketing
The finally step in the implementation of the energy innovation projectÂ is the dissemination of information on the project and using the success as a marketing tool. This should involve a information of the energy savings made translated into to green house gas reductions. This should give an idea of the hotels carbon foot print and if the energy innovation project has been successfully implement there should be a progressive reduction in the carbon foot print over time until a level that is acceptable by the energy innovation team. These reductions in the hotels carbon foot print should not result in any disruption of services but should rather result in improved services and image of the hotel. This will ensure that all stakeholders are satisfied including owners, staff and guests.
4. 0 Reflection
Theory of Process
The aim of this paper is to explain the relevant of theory of process as applied to organisations and business and evaluate how application of this theory enhances organisation performance.
Leadership is a process by which an exclusive person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organisation in a way that makes it more cohesive or coherent. Leadership is different from Management but both are necessary for success in a complex and volatile business environment. According to Covey (1992) 'leadership deals with direction which makes sure that the ladder is learning against the right wall as well as vision with keeping the mission in sight and with effectiveness and results. Management deals with establishing structure and systems to get results as well as speed.
Whilst leadership focuses on the top line, it derives it its power from values and correct principles. Management on the other hand on the bottom line and organises resources to serve selected objectives to produce the bottom line. Management and Leadership are not mutually exclusive; in fact leadership is the highest component of management.
Theories are management approaches, some focusing on particular aspects while others seek to cover all aspects, and the different view point provide a perspective. Theory is a systematically organised body of knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances, especially a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyse, predict, or otherwise explain the nature of behaviour of a specified set of phenomena.
Adair defined leading as being about giving directions 'especially in times of change; inspiring or motivating people to work willingly; building and maintain teamwork; providing an example; producing a personal output.'
John Adair has a long pedigree in the world of leadership. The Adair model is that the action-centred leader gets the job done through the work team and relationships with fellow managers and staff.
According to Adair's explanation an action-centred leader must:
â€¢ direct the job to be done (task structuring)
â€¢ support and review the individual people doing it
â€¢ co-ordinate and foster the work team as a whole
Figure Action-centred Leadership Model (Adair, 1973)
His famous three circle diagram is a simplification of the variability of human interaction, but is a useful tool for thinking about what constitutes an effective leader/manager in relation to the job he/she has to do. The effective leader/manager carries out the functions and exhibits the behaviours depicted by the three circles. Situational and contingent elements call for different responses by the leader. Hence imagine that the various circles may be bigger or smaller as the situation varies i.e. the leader will give more or less emphasis to the functionally-oriented behaviours according to what the actual situation
involves. The challenge for the leader is to manage all sectors of the diagram:
define the task
make the plan
allocate work and resources
control quality and rate of work
check performance against plan
adjust the plan
build team spirit
encourage, motivate, give a sense of purpose
ensure communication within group
develop the group
attend to personal problems
recognise and use individual ability
develop the individual
Distinguish between beliefs, attitude and values
Beliefs are the convictions that one generally hold to be true, usually without actual proof or evidence. Beliefs are basically assumptions that we make about the world and our values stem from those beliefs and are not always connected to religion.
A person belief grows from what they hear, see experience and think about. Beliefs derive a person values which can be correct or incorrect when compared with evidence, but nonetheless hold true to them. Everyone has an internalised system of belief and values that have developed through out their lives and it may stem from religion or develop separately from religion. Belief can also be strengthened by experience or evidence. For example a person might have a love one recover from a terrible experience. Beliefs and values determine our attitude.
According to the Business Dictionary.com attitude is defined as predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards. Attitudes are generally positive or negative response.
Attitude is also defined as the manner, disposition, feeling, position, with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind (Dictionary.com)
Values are things that we deem important and can include concepts such as honesty, loyalty, faithfulness, equality etc. Values govern the way we behave, communicate and interact with others. Values can range from the commonplace, such as the belief in hard work and punctuality, to the more psychological, such as self reliance, and concern for others.
Values are ideals we hold that give significance and meaning to our lives and hence they underpin our beliefs influencing the decisions we make and the actions we take, as well as the life we lead. Values exist and have meaning within other values not in isolation for example, if someone places priority on honesty, u expect them to always speak the truth. We accumulate our values from childhood based on teachings and observations of our parents, teachers, religious leaders, and other influential and powerful people.
Own beliefs, attitude and values identified
I determine who I am and people judge and respond to me, based on my words, actions and habits. Everything starts with a thought and thoughts are very powerful. It is important to choose the way I think and act as it determine how life will respond to me and what I receive in life. A system belief is often what creates those thoughts and the key to changing that system belief is changing those thoughts. "All that a man achieves and all that he fails to achieve is the direct result of his own thoughts." - James Allen
Develop Positive Attitude
Developing positive attitude at work will determine success in my career, this can be tough especially when things might go wrong but I need to take responsibility and think positive. Therefore my guiding principle will be pride; this will be my personal definition as a positive attitude in the work place meaning self dignity.
Giving everything I do my best shot. Passion will be the burning desire and love for the work that I will do, which will pull me through the tough times. And last but not least is belief believing in myself will create the vigor and force that fuels my journey of achieving my career success.
Believe and Achieve
Taking personal responsibility of my actions will create the vigor and force that fuels my journey of achieving my career success. Believing in myself knowing that I can do it, I will achieve as nothing is impossible.
Success is a Journey
Success is one of my values and I view failure as a stepping stone to my success. Changing my perspective is the key to me finding success in seeming failure. My mistakes I will learn from and turn any failure into an opportunity. It is my attitude towards failure that will also determine how successful I become in my life and career.