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This report provides information on how to prevent or reduce the risk of steel-framed farm buildings collapsing during erection. Whenever a steelwork structure is being erected, there is a risk of collapse, unless proper precautions are taken. There have been a number of incidents on farms involving such collapses, some of which resulted in serious injuries or fatalities due to the sudden nature of the collapse and weight of steel involved. Farmers and their workers should not erect steelwork structures unless they are competent to do so. For example a large portal framed farm building which was collapsed during construction in 1993. The building measured 64m in length by 24m in width and 4.4m to the eaves. There were 15 portal frames making up the building length. The frame was intended to be stabilized in its final state by concreting the legs of each portal frame into the ground. As a consequence of this design there were no base plates provided to the portal legs, nor was there any longitudinal bracing detailed which causes collapsed the building and have the potential for serious injury or death.
Government is committed to ensuring the health, safety and welfare of all employees, for which there is a legal responsibility under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and further detailed within the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.
The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (CDM 2007) is a revision of previous construction legislation, namely the Construction Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CDM 1994) and the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) (CHSW) Regulations 1996 - resulting in a single, simplified set of Regulations.
CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPAL LEGISLATION
The relevant legislation includes:
The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
The Management of Health, Safety and Welfare at Work Regulations 1999
The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
The Fire Safety (Reform Order) 2005
The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006
The Building Regulations 2000
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995
AIM OF CDM 2007
The key aim of CDM 2007 is to integrate health and safety into the management of the project and to encourage everyone involved to work together towards:
Improving the planning and management of projects from the very start
Identifying hazards early on, so they can be eliminated or reduced at the design or planning stage and the remaining risks can be properly managed
Targeting effort where it can do the most good in terms of health and safety and
Discouraging unnecessary bureaucracy
APPLICATION OF THE REGULATIONS
The Regulations apply to ALL construction works except construction works undertaken for domestic clients. However, certain requirements of the regulations only apply to projects that are deemed "notifiable" to the HSE:
A notifiable project is a project where the work is expected to:
Last more than 30 working days, or
Involve more than 500 person days (for example 50 persons working for over 10 days).
Prepare, monitor, update and implement the construction phase plan
Facilitate compliance by the duty holders with their general duties to co-operate and co-ordinate
Liaise with the CDM Co-ordinator
Ensure site welfare facilities are provided
Draw up site rules for the protection of health and safety, if necessary
Direct contractors to allow the principal contractor to meets its obligations under CDM 2007
Inform contractors of the time for preparation and planning
Provide information to, and consult with, contractors so that the contractors can:
comply with the construction phase plan;
carry out their works without risks to health and safety; and
provide information to the CDM coordinator for the health and safety file
Display health and safety information on site
Take reasonable steps to prevent unauthorised site access
Take all reasonable steps to see that all site workers are trained, inducted onto the site and provided with appropriate health and safety information
CDM CO-ORDINATOR (NB ONLY REQUIRED FOR NOTIFIABLE PROJECTS)
Apply the principles of prevention
Prepare the health & safety file
Advise & assist client to help the client meet its duties
Make arrangements & take all reasonable steps to see that duty holders comply in practice with their general duties to co-operate and co-ordinate.
Liaise with principal contractor regarding the health & safety file, the construction phase plan and design development. Identify and collect relevant project information and share that information.
Notify the project to the HSE (or Office of Rail Regulation where appropriate)
CHAPTER 3 RISK ASSESSMENT
The principles of prevention
All duty holders should apply the principles of prevention in identifying and implementing precautions which are necessary to control risks associated with a project.
(a) Avoiding risks
(b) Evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided
(c) Combating the risks at source
(d) Adapting the work to the individual, especially as regards the design of workplaces, the choice of work equipment and the choice of working and production methods, with a view, in particular, to alleviating monotonous work and work at a predetermined work-rate and to reducing their effect on health
(e) Developing a coherent overall prevention policy which covers technology, organisation of work, working conditions, social relationships and the influence of factors relating to the working environment
(f) Replacing the dangerous by the non-dangerous or the less dangerous
(g) Developing a coherent overall prevention policy which covers technology, organisation of work, working conditions, social relationships and the influence of factors relating to the working environment
(h) Giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures
(i) Giving appropriate instructions to employees
Below is a list of typical hazards in construction (this list is not exhaustive):
falling from an open edge or through fragile materials
being struck by site vehicles
collapse of an excavation or part of a structure
work with materials (for example, lead, asbestos or solvents) which could be a health problem
dust from cutting, grinding, drilling or scabbling
confined spaces working drowning
The risk assessments will help identify the hazards and the appropriate control measures that should be put in place. Method statements are not required by law, but they have proved to be an effective and a practical management tool. They can take account of risks identified by the risk assessment and communicate the safe system of work to those undertaking it, especially for higher-risk complex or unusual work (for example, steel and formwork erection, demolition or the use of hazardous substances). A method statement draws together the information compiled about the various hazards and the ways in which they are to be controlled in a particular job.
For a notifiable project, risk assessment and the methodology of how the work will be undertaken safely will form part of the construction phase plan. The CDM Coordinator can advise the client on the suitability of the initial construction phase plan, but it is the client's duty to ensure construction work does not commence until the plan has been suitably developed.
For non-notifiable projects, a CDM Coordinator's appointment is not required. Notwithstanding the above, the client must ensure that risk assessments are suitable and sufficient and is satisfied with the proposed work methodology before allowing work to commence
CHAPTER 4 PRINCIPLES, PRINCIPLES & STRUCTURE INTEGRITY
The factors responsible for improvement the health and safety issues and also take care of work performance of individuals include client leadership , integrated project teams and address all public issues related to safety and health at construction site.
Too few clients take care of these safety and health issues of their working people and understand that the buildings are their responsibility but most of clients not realize that health and safety of public. All safety and health major issues are dependent on the design and plan of construction site quality apart from this many designers faced problems due to unwanted pressure from client due to lack of time and money [OGC: 2003].
Health and safety department comes under the most senior team member and integrated into the project's management strategy.
Planning supervisor appointed and client is fulfilling all CDM duties
Feasibility studies address and quantify major health and safety risks with business case revised into risk management plan to achieve best practice standards
The proposed contract includes
specific health and safety people throughout the whole life of the project
Health and safety management regularly assessed.
Policies can be provided for separate aspects of health and safety.
Control measures to prevent the risk of death or injury from the collapse of structures during construction are:
ensuring inherent designed stability of the structure
maintenance of column stability during erection
maintenance of beam stability during erection
Ensuring proper installation of chemical and mechanical anchorages.
The erection of any component or subassembly should start only when the necessary equipment to ensure stability of the structure is available and stability of the structure can be maintained at all times.
Where required by design, erection should start in a nominated braced bay in order that the structure can be plumbed and made self-supporting. This stable and self-supporting bay can then be used to support the erection of further steelwork.
Footings for support of columns during erection should be checked to ensure adequate structural capacity for the erection conditions, such as wind loadings on columns to prevent rotation of column in the footing.
ORGANISING THE WORK
Decide who will supervise the work - check that they are adequately trained and experienced.
When taking on workers, ask about the training they have received and ask for certificates of training achievement. Get them to demonstrate their knowledge or to show examples of safe working practice before setting them to work.
Make sure that firms coming onto site provide adequate supervision for their workers. Agree what training they will have received or will be provided at the site
CHAPTER 6 ERECTION PROCEDURE FOR PORTAL FRAME BUILDING
Temporary stability criteria of the structure
Structures can only be safely set up if the stable end core ( first bay) is fully stabilized before the remaining steel bays are erected.
Figure Typical steel-framed agricultural building showing preferred
The preferred system of erection, using temporary or permanent bracings, is shown in Figure 1. UpÂ to a time that the stable end core is in position, effective props and/or supports require to be in place to make stable or put into equilibrium position the incomplete structure
An alternative system using cast-in concrete foundation bases is shown in Figure 2. In this case the stable end core will only be achieved when:
two mainframes are fully connected;
stanchions to mainframes are bolted onto cured
concrete foundation bases or cast into cured concrete pocket bases; and a minimum of three purlins are securely connected on each roof pitch
Figure Alternative cast-in bases to achieve temporary stability
In both cases, all temporary bracings should stay in position till the structure is finish; remember that roof plan structuralÂ member usedÂ to stiffen a framework; purlins or the overhang at the lower edge of a roof beams by themselves will not provide adequate stability.
This erection procedure is for portal frame buildings with conventional bracing in the buildings longitudinal direction. The bracing will usually be located near the ends of the building at the end bay or the bay adjacent to the end bay.
CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT REQUIREMNT
This section provides a brief advice on the process for integrating health and safety into construction projects [OGC: 2003]. This outlines the main health and safety management requirements during a construction project by including and addressing the following project specifies:
Objectives, the key health and safety performance and success criteria during construction and for the finished asset.
Background, the key health and safety drives ( such as the intention to achieve excellence as a client and to align the project with current national improvement campaigns.
A business case that recognizes the need for client health and safety leadership and commitment
Quality plans that measure health and safety performance during design, procurement and construction(including , where appropriate, facilities maintenance etc)
Risk management plans that identify major health, safety and people risks and how these will be managed
A list of stakeholders acknowledging from the outset that the following groups of people have a stake in health and safety impacts:
Those who will be at risk during construction, including the IST's supply chains, both onsite and during off-site prefabrication
Others who will be affected but not directly involved , such as the local community and business
Those who will operate maintain, alter, refurbish, repair and ultimately decommission and deconstruct the facility
Project organization as part of project governance for the management of health and safety risks.
Rules to prevent falls
Don t work at height unless it is essential.
Make sure the working platform is secure. Check that it:
will support the weight of workers using it and any materials and equipment they are likely to use or store on it;
Provide guard rails, barriers etc at open edges, including edges of floors, floor openings, edges of roofs and edges of working platforms.
First aid can save lives, reduce pain and help an injured person make a quicker recovery. The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations (NI) 1982 set out the basic requirements.
There should always be on site:
â€¢ A first aid box with enough equipment to cope with the number of workers on site;
â€¢ An appointed person who knows how to contact the accident and emergency services;
â€¢ Information telling workers the name of the appointed person or first aider and where to find them. A notice in the site hut is a good way of doing this.