Provision Of Safe Drinking Water At An Affordable Price Construction Essay

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Introduction:

One of the central challenges of development for many countries is the provision of safe drinking water at an affordable price to citizens. Water supply service in urban areas, these days, is the prime concern of governments, users and donors, especially in developing countries, in Ethiopia in particular. Many developing countries face acute imbalance between demand and supply for safe and reliable water. There is more left with regarding to the quality of water, the quantity supplied and the service delivery approach. Inadequate water and sanitation are primary causes of diseases associated with millions of deaths each year and become a major cause of poverty and the growing disparity between the rich and the poor. Many millions of people in the developing world still remain un-served with the basic water services. For example: The average person in developing world uses 2.64 gallons of water a day. The average person in the United Kingdom uses 35.66 gallons of water per day. In china, India and Indonesia twice as many people are dying from diarrheal diseases as from HIV/AIDS. 1.8 million People die every year from diarrheal diseases. About 4,500 children die each day from unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation facilities. A child born in Europe or the United States is 520 times less likely to die from diarrhoeal disease that an infant in sub- Saharan Africa, where only 36% of the population can have access to hygiene sanitation. Over 90 % of the deaths due to unsafe water and sanitation in the developing world occur in children below 5 years old. 2.2 million People in developing countries, most of children, die every year from diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Some 6,000 children die every day from disease associated with lack of access safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene - equivalent to 20 jumbo jets crashing every day. In the last 10 years diarrhea has killed more children than all the people lost to armed conflicts since World War II. Meeting the development goal (DGD) targets on water and sanitation would cost approximately an additional USD$ 11.3 billion each year. Access to safe drinking water in 1990 in developing regions was 71%, and worldwide 77%.

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Source: UNICEF, some statistics on water and sanitation, compiled by the UN office for partnerships.

Objective of the study:

Many literatures suggest 'full cost recover tariff' as a means for the delivery of reliable and sustainable water supply service ensuring customer satisfaction from different perspectives, others proved that cost recovery efforts are constrained due to opposing reasons. The controversy of the issue require further exploring the subject, thus the objective of this paper, therefore, will try to assess some factors which are not adequately studied so far to see the effect of full cost recovery plan on customer satisfaction defined in their willingness to pay for the improved service, particularly, in light with the actual households conditions of the study area - Awassa, Ethiopia.

This paper is mainly intended for Ethiopian public owned urban water supply service enterprises, in general and Awassa in particular which is experiencing difficulties its financial needs because of insufficient revenues from operations and capital financing problems.

The main objective of the research is, therefore, to investigate at the applicability of full cost recovery plan by making a though analysis of the socio-economic condition of the households in the study area (Awassa, Ethiopia) through their willingness to pay. Finally, this thesis evaluates whether the full cost recovery plan, could be a viable opportunity to improve the service that is provided by Awassa Town Water Supply Service Enterprise. This paper concentrates on some essential factors that still have not been studied sufficiently such as the socio-economic condition - the level of affordability and willingness to pay of the society versus the water supply condition of the study area in order to analyze the effect of full cost recovery on customer satisfaction.

Contribution (relevance):

The research introduces the concept of 'full cost recovery' which can guide policy makers into carrying out appropriate tariff settings for users to bear and effective financing system for reliable and sustainable water supply service through the projection of expected customer reactions towards the an action ( full cost recovery plan) in order to improve the water supply condition

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The research findings will help policy makers i.e. the government of Ethiopia - the civil service reform commission and Awassa Town Water Supply Service Enterprise in particular by providing empirical evidence about the outcome of the full cost recovery plan. The study also contributes to water supply and cost recovery literatures by proving evidence on the Ethiopian context.

Research questions:

The study addresses the following research questions. Does the full cost recovery plan improve customer satisfaction? In addition to this major question the study has to find answer for the following sub-questions:

Does full cost recovery plan improve quality of water supply?

What are the pre-requisites for a successful implementation of the full cost recovery plan in Ethiopia, in Awassa in particular?

What are the benefits and limitations to use full cost recovery plan in Ethiopia, in Awassa in particular?

Methodology and research design:

The study employed both primary and secondary data sources. While questionnaires, telephone call, e-mail constitutes the primary data source; review of written documents and use of Internet form the secondary data source. The main data collection technique will be questionnaires.

Expected outcomes:

In this research finding I expect:

The full cost recovery plan improves quality of water supply service,

The full cost recovery plan does not improve customer satisfaction because people can't afford

General back ground of the study area - Awassa, Ethiopia:

Awassa City is the Regional Capital of Southern Nation Nationalities & peoples of Ethiopia; with estimated population of about 143,400 people as of 2005.

The City of Awassa is rapidly expanding due to many factors chief among them being the rural-urban migration and the effects of urbanization. Another factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of population is the expansion of the educational institutions and government offices within the City. .

Awasa is not only the Capital City of SNNP but is easily the largest urban centre and also the political, economic and social nerve center of the southern region. Awassa town is located at eastern shore of Lake Awassa, 275 km south of the capital city of Ethiopia- Addis Ababa. The town is situated at an average altitude of 1,700 masl (meter above sea level). Awassa city lies between latitude. N 7o 03' and 38o 29' longitude .E Awassa City is divided in to two (Woredas) and fourteen Kebeles of administrative zones

Brief history of the water supply service enterprise, ATWSSE:

ATWSSE is an independent organisation responsible for planning, implementing and managing the water supply and sewerage functions for the City of Awassa. Its major responsibilities are as follows:

Supply adequate safe water for household consumption and other domestic uses, protection against fire and other forms of combustion, industrial and commercial uses and similar services

Provide waste water and sludge disposal services

Maintain water service facilities, safeguard surface and underground water from undue exploitation and prevent its contamination

ATWSSE is under the supervision of a Board headed by a City Mayer of Awassa City, which has in excess of 132 permanent and 56 contract employees.

The City of Awassa is currently suffering from a drinking water deficit, quality, and other service delivery problems.

Existing water Sources:

ATWSSE uses three types of water sources - River (surface), springs (sub surface) and bore holes (ground water) as sources producing a total of 5,180 m3 / day which was estimated to cover only 70 % of the demand according to the study carried in the year 2006 was estimated at 7,400 m3/day..

Major costs:

I

Water Treatment Chemicals

Annual Consumption (Kg)

1.

Aluminum Sulphate

4.

Chlorine

3.

Hydrated Lime

II

Pipes & Fittings

III

Water meter

IV

Salaries & Allowances

V

Electric charge

VI

Existing Tariff:

The prevailing tariff rates for Awassa water supply service enterprise is block rising tariff established to address affordability of low income consumers at public tapes. This tariff enables to cover only the operational costs but not for investment and replacement costs.

By now, Awassa town water supply service enterprise (ATWSSE) is planning to introduce a new costing system (i.e., full cost recovery plan) which requires customers to cover all costs (i...e the operational costs and investment and replacement costs).

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Source: unpublished documents of the organization,

Approach:

Literature review (Theoretical understanding)

Full cost recovery is defined as a tariff sufficient to provide for financing of investments as well as operating and maintenance expenses. Most often it is taken to mean that tariffs should cover operating and maintenance expenses plus depreciation expenses. However customers of small town water utilities may not be able to afford to implement full cost tariffs immediately. Therefore, it is recommended to define full cost recovery on a cash generation going forward basis, which means that tariffs should be set so that sufficient revenues are generated to cover operating and maintenance expenses plus renewal and replacement of existing assets and allow for expansion of the system as needed' and to allow for phase in.

Cathy Revels - Financing options for Town Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy

'The water customer ensures through the payments that not only the operational costs but also the capital costs (amortization and interest of the investments) are completely covered. This does not mean that the public subsidies are not paid. In particular for the reconstruction of infrastructure in the new states in former German democratic republic (GDR) substantial special funding by the federal government and EU was made available. In addition to this there are varying funds available according to the individual states and regions to overcome ''disparities''- in order to minimize the difference between the rich and the poor. On practical level there are various subsidies and steering instruments which may in part have a counterproductive effect. In this context it is difficult to determine exactly weather the full cost recovery of the water supply in Germany are only present in a business perspective or also on a macro-economic level. Calculations which are available in current literature estimate that the current water fees cover 80% of the total cost (though slightly differ from one country to the other)

http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/wasser/wsektor/wasserdoku/english/stichworte_e.html

Full costs recovery practices in various countries:

Governments in developing countries are concerned with subsidizing for water supply services. Water tariffs differ among countries and users. Each country designs a special water tariff for houses connected to water supply systems and charges accordingly or on a monthly basis. The tariff system could be structured on increased block rates or uniform flat rates. In general, water charges are much lower than the actual costs of water production and distribution costs. In developed countries such as Germany, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, UK and Canada, the consumer pays $1.71, $1.31, $1.21, $1.27, $1.10, $0.41 per cubic meter of water. This represents, approximately, the actual water cost in these countries. Comparison of these prices and those of the water tariff in developing courtiers shows clearly that the medium sized families pays less than 20% of the water price in developed countries. It is necessary to reconsider this issue in order to conserve water resources and the resultant wastewater volumes. Increasing in water tariffs could be applied as an incentive to minimize water misuse, to conserve water resources, and to reduce the resultant wastewater volumes, besides to the main principle of covering its production costs and reflecting the actual value of water. The increase in water tariff could be taken as a primary measure to reducing water supply costs, and may also be used as an initial financing source of improving the efficiency of operation and maintenance of the water supply system - thus some literatures suggest that developing countries to adopt a full cost recovery system. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=13&sid=7714a9b4-c0f6-4f61-b110-d9404e1b0455@sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=3793146

In terms of economic and social characteristics, water will qualify for being a public good. Samuelson (1944) defines a pure public good in items of non exclusion and non rivalry in consumption. A pure public good is one for which it is technically impossible or prohibitively expensive to exclude beneficiaries, and for which the marginal cost of an individual consuming the good is zero. Even though the involvement of governments of developing countries in water supply service is justified, the potential performance of water utilities in developing countries in water supply system is well-documented. (Campos and Esfahani 1996, Eenretti and Dupont 2003, Estach et al., 2005). In the literature how ever there is a limitation of comparative analysis of the practice of different water utilities. This paper focuses, on the effect of full cost recovery plan in urban water supply services of Ethiopia, Awassa town in particular in the light of affordability of the society. The issue of affordability and willingness to pay: affordability is another important concept in the analysis of the relationship between cost and customer satisfaction. In this context affordability refers to the extent to which households can afford water services that they choose or are obliged to purchase. Affordability at house hold level is a real and growing problem for many water utility customers. There are a large number of customers who face tough choices and real economic hardships resulting in adverse public health and social consequences. Affordability can also be viewed in terms of assistance to households by other sectors. Even though there are no easy answers for solving these problems, some analysis made in many countries show that residential sector is subsidized from charge on industrial and commercial users, or direct government subsidies to reduce associated adverse effects. In the principle of cost recovery system, the major source of revenue required to meet the expenditures for new projects and to improve the existing water supply conditions are expected from customer charges for water consumption. This gives rise to an issue of customers' willingness to pay (WTP) for water supply services. Satisfaction of customers about water supply service, believe in the overall water supply and management system, and affordability might influence willingness to pay more for water, (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD 199d).

Data source, specifications and collection procedure

12.1 Data type and sources

The data used in this study was mainly primary data collected through questionnaire, telephone, and email and secondary data using relevant documents from the targeted organization (AWSSE).

Awassa city is divided in to two administrative zones (Weredas) each consisting of seven sub zones (Kebeles) in to which questionnaires were distributed following the two streams. I confined my sample size to be 100 respondents selected through convenience (random) sampling technique in attempt to cover the whole area of the city and representing both piped water customers and non-customers.

32 question papers were distributed into zone- 1 and 68 were distributed in to zone- 2 based on the population density of the city

12.2 Questionnaire development

Developing a questionnaire was one of the important steps in this thesis based on the existing situation of the study area and the objective of the study. Due attention and care was made during designing the questionnaire in attempt to minimize biases such as

strategic bias- by making clear the overall objective and purpose of the questionnaire,

hypothetical- as the issue of water is the concern of the whole community, and

compliance bias- by avoiding ambiguous words, straight forward, and local language to make easy as if as possible

12.3 Questions Total questions

From 1.1 up to 1.6 6

From 2.1 up to 2.7 7

From 3.1 up to 3.21 21

From 4.1.1 up to 4.1.6 6

Total number of questions 40

Total number of pages of questionnaire 4

Total number of respondents 100

Questions were distributed in two streams according to the current administrative zoning of the city and population density. Accordingly,

32 question papers were distributed into keftegna -1 (zone -1) and

68 question papers were distributed into keftegna -2 (zone-2).

The study tried to cover and get a fair representation all residents in order to get a full picture of the existing water supply condition and future potential water users. Therefore, the total 86 respondents were represented by,

58 (20+38=58) were who has their own private water pipe line and

28 (9+19=28) were who has no their own piped water line

The questionnaires were prepared in such a way that some of the questions belong only to those who have their own private pipe line, others belong only to those who don't have their own private pipe line, and some others also belong to both.

Accordingly respondents were clearly indicated to respond according to the following,

1. Questions number 2.6, 3.15 and 3.16 belong to those who own their private pipe line.

2. Questions number 3.3 - 3.8, 3.12 - 3.14.1, and 3.20 - 3.21 belong only to those who do not have their own pipe lines.

3. Questions number 1.1 - 1.6, 2.1 - 2.5, 2.7, 3.1 - 3.4, 3.9 - 3.11, 3.17 - 3.19, and 4.1 - 4.1.6 belong to both.

The questionnaire was prepared in English and translated into local language - Amharic to make it more self-administered type so that gather the relevant information for the purpose, including:

Existing water supply situation

House hold characteristics and income

Attitude towards the service and

Data organization and design,

For the purpose of analysis, the 40 questions were grouped and summarized in to seven major household variables that could have influence on willingness to pay of users and could be easily measured within the scope of this study to test their effect on possible reaction of respondents towards full cost recovery based on empirical findings and theoretical literatures.

Gender has significant effect on the possible reaction to full cost recovery plan,

Income and expenditure of the house hold has direct effect on the trade offs of accepting or rejecting the measure to be taken to improve the service,

Family size of the house hold could influence the reaction towards the action for water service improvement

Educational level of the respondent greatly determines his/her response towards water service improvement,

Attitude towards the importance of improved water service, and trend of use characterised by age, occupation, responsibility and role in the house hold etc have direct effect towards responding to the action of improvement of the service,

Existing water supply condition including;

Availability- time (24 hours, during the day, night, once a week etc)

Quality- water born disease, water used for drinking, cooking, washing, etc),

quantity supplied- pressure condition, restriction for quantity used,

price (tariff),

access to get the service - number of people applied, time taken waiting for response, time for collection of service charge

customer handling and treatment govern the response towards the action for improving the water service delivery condition

Access to the use of alternative sources like public fountain, shallow boreholes in their compound, lake, river, rain water, etc.

Main variable

Specific variables

Effect

Gender has significant effect on the possible reaction to full cost recovery plan,

Sex

+ ve

ve

Income and expenditure of the house hold has direct effect on the trade offs of accepting or rejecting the measure to be taken to improve the service,

2.1What is your monthly income (in Birr) ------------

2.2 Who is the owner of the house?

2.4 What is your occupation?

2.5 What type of lighting do you use?

2.6.1 How much do you spend (birr) per month on? (expenditure capacity )

2.6.2Health ---------------------

2.6.3Food -------------------­

2.6.4 Housing rent (out of the 29 respondents who are living in rented houses

2.6.5Education (fee & materials) ---

2.6.6Electricity----

2.6.7 Telephone --

2.6.8 Others

3.1what is the main source of water you use?

3.2for what purpose do you use the water?

3.4 If no, are you willing to buy the amount of water you want if you are provided from the water service office?

3.5 Why don't you have your own private pipe? Because,

3.6 How much water does your household consume per day? --

3.7 How much do you pay per bucket? --­

3.8 How much do you spend, on average, per month for water consumption? ------ (Birr per month)

3.9What do you think about the cost of water supply?

3.11 Do you get the quantity of water available at any time?

3.12 Do you use any water purification method (such as boiling) before you drink?

3.13 If your answer to question No 3.12 above is no, what is the reason?

3.7Do you pay for the water you get other than the piped water?

3.18If yes how much do you pay per bucket? --------------- Cents

3.20Have you applied to have private piped water?

4.1If you are provided with a good (improved) quality of water which is safe for health, quantity of water available at any time throughout the year, and accessible in a way that would not take much of your time and effort

4.1.1Would you be interested to have a private connection from this new water system?

4.1.2If yes, how much are you willing to pay for?

If your answer to question No 4.1.1 above is no, what is the reason

Family size of the house hold could influence the reaction towards the action for water service improvement

Educational level of the respondent greatly determines his/her response towards water service improvement,

1.5 Have you ever been to school?

1.6 If yes, what level have you completed? ---

4.1.4 Would you be interested to have a private connection from this new water system?

4.1.5 Who do you think is mainly responsible for water supply improvement?

Attitude towards the importance of improved water service, and trend of use characterised by age, occupation, responsibility and role in the house hold etc have direct effect towards responding to the action of improvement of the service,

1.2 How old are you? ---,

1.3 Are you the head of the household?

2.4 What is your occupation?

2.7Please list the following services in order of importance- priority preference (list as first, second, etc)

3.4 If no, are you willing to buy the amount of water you want if you are provided from the water service office?

3.5 How much do you spend, on average, per month for water consumption? ------ (Birr per month)

3.9 What do you think about the cost of water supply?

3.10 How do you rank the existing water supply quality you use?

3.11 Do you get the quantity of water available at any time?

3.12 Do you use any water purification method (such as boiling) before you drink?

3.13 If your answer to question No 3.12 above is no, what is the reason?

3.15 During which time is water available (only those who have private piped water)?

3.20Have you applied to have private piped water?

3.21If yes, how long is it since you applied to get the access? ---

4.1 If you are provided with a good (improved) quality of water which is safe for health, quantity of water available at any time throughout the year, and accessible in a way that would not take much of your time and effort

4.1.1 Would you be interested to have a private connection from this new water system?

4.1.3 If your answer to question No 4.1.1 above is no, what is the reason

4.1.4 Can you imagine the cost of construction of a new system or rehabilitation of the existing water system?

4.1.5 Who do you think is mainly responsible for water supply improvement?

Existing water supply condition including;

Availability- time (24 hours, during the day, night, once a week etc)

Quality- water born disease, water used for drinking, cooking, washing, etc),

quantity supplied- pressure condition, restriction for quantity used,

price (tariff),

access to get the service - number of people applied, time taken waiting for response, time for collection of service charge

customer handling and treatment govern the response towards the action for improving the water service delivery condition,

3.1 What is the main source of water you use?

3.2 For what purpose do you use the water?

3.4 If no, are you willing to buy the amount of water you want if you are provided from the water service office?

3.5why don't you have your own private pipe? Because,

3.6 How much water does your household consume per day? --------- (20 litre standard bucket)

3.9 What do you think about the cost of water supply?

3.10, How do you rank the existing water supply quality you use?

3.11 Do you get the quantity of water available at any time?

3.12do you use any water purification method (such as boiling) before you drink?

3.13 If your answer to question No 3.12 above is no, what is the reason?

3.14 Have you/ your family member/ ever suffered from any of the following disease, which are caused by poor quality of water?

3.14.1 If yes, which was the most serious?

3.16 When piped water is not available, where do you get water/, which other sources do you use? (Only those who have private piped water)

3.20Have you applied to have private piped water?

3.21If yes, how long is it since you applied to get the access? -------

4.1 If you are provided with a good (improved) quality of water which is safe for health, quantity of water available at any time throughout the year, and accessible in a way that would not take much of your time and effort

4.1.1Would you be interested to have a private connection from this new water system?

7 Access to the use of alternative sources like public fountain, shallow boreholes in their compound, lake, river, rain water, etc.

16 When piped water is not available, where do you get water/, which other sources do you use? (Only those who have private piped water)

3.7Do you pay for the water you get other than the piped water?

3.18, If yes how much do you pay per bucket? --------------- Cents

319, How much time do you spend to collect water from this source? -------- Minute

3.20 Have you applied to have private piped water?

4.1 If you are provided with a good (improved) quality of water which is safe for health, quantity of water available at any time throughout the year, and accessible in a way that would not take much of your time and effort

4.1.1Would you be interested to have a private connection from this new water system?

Theoretical hypothesis and expectations,

Possible expected reactions of respondents defined by each specific demographic and Socio-economic characteristic (variable) best identified and chosen to be tested according to the results of empirical evidence and theoretical literature describe the possible expected reactions behaviour of respondents towards an action that could be taken in order to improve drinking water provision (full cost recovery system), in the context of Awassa city, Ethiopia,

Gender- it is obvious that the Burdon for fetching water by walking far a distance, cooking food and taking health care of children and the whole family falls on the shoulder of women hence it could be hypothesised that women would be more concerned about the importance of improved water supply than would men. On the other hand, majority of women in Africa are house wives, economically dependent on husbands so that they may not have power in decision making for the spending.

Age- aged people (50 years and above) could be considered to have traditional outlook on the importance of improved water supply, less knowledge of the cost of water production, and less attention to the quality issues and associated water born diseases, hence they could be reluctant in spending for water supply system improvement. Young people (below 30 years old) could also be negligent towards the action for water supply system improvement for the assumption that it could be easier for them to fetch water from where is available and less family care responsibility

responsibility in the household (head or member of the household) - the response from head of the households could be expected to be positive in the sense that would have responsibility to take care of the whole family, but on the other hand, since head of households have responsibility to manage and compete resources for all alternative ends, to cover every hole of household expenditure, they be less willing to support for the improvement of water service.

family size - in this case we can see what the reaction of the respondent could be from various points of view: as the family size increases, water consumption (water requirement) by the household increases, hence spending for water increases, therefore, opportunity cost will be high. In addition, in a large family size there could be an option to use labour to fetch water from public fountains at lesser price. Hence large family size could be expected to be less responsive to water supply service improvement

Education level - education could have positive relation-ship to water supply service improvement for the following hypothesis. Educated people (at least those who get formal education level) would be expected to have better awareness about health benefit of improved water, higher opportunity cost of their time for fetching water, understanding of relationship of improved water to all development issues

occupation - government employs could have access to know about the heavy task for water system improvement and associated cost requirements, could be aware of health benefit of improved water, relatively better income status- all these contributing for the respondent to incline towards supporting the action for improvement

Income and expenditure status - income status of the household is the main determinant factor in response towards an action to improve the water supply system. Quantity demanded and income is positively related in the case of normal goods. but the magnitude of income is measured in terms of the expenditure requirements to satisfy the household requirements - thus it needs to reconcile the income and expenditure status of the household in order to determine the net effect on the response towards water supply system improvement

attitude towards the service,- this parameter includes a wide range of customer behaviour towards the service including,

priority preference for the service (drinking water) as compared with other social services,- though most of the services like health, toilet, and education could be directly related and complementary with one another, those respondents who ranked water service as their priority importance could be considered as prime supporters of the measure towards its improvement,

perceived value of the existing service in terms of water quality, price, delivery condition- administration, etc and trend of using the service- respondents having a perceived poor quality of existing water, who suffered from water born diseases, and who perceived a lower reliability of the existing water supply system (less access to the required amount, at the right time and availability at the easiest place), could be positive to support the effort for its improvement. Those who perceived the existing water price as a reasonable or cheap could be willing to extend their support for actions towards its improvement. Respondents who would like the existing water supply trend to continue, or push the mandate for improving the water supply system to government or another body rather than to commit as their own responsibility, do not have trust in the efficiency of the water supply authority to overcome the problem and negative perception in the overall administration, would be short of hand to support any plan designed for water supply system improvement.

Existing water supply source and situation - respondents who are using from private piped line, in general, would be expected to be more willing to contribute their part in the effort for improvement for the fact that they already have realized the benefits from improved water. Those who get water at random condition would be expected to stand front to collaborate for its improvement because they really understand the loss from the absence of water.

Data analysis,

Out of the total number of respondents (100) who were given a questionnaire, only 88 returned by completing and the rest 12 did not respond, i.e. (code Numbers: 1010,1017,1028, 1033, 1037, 1040, 1049, 1068, 1074, 1088, 1093, and 1098) were identified being defaulted. Out of the 88 which were returned complete, two questionnaires (code Numbers: 1050 and1081) were also incomplete (invalid for analysis) and rejected; therefore, only 86 papers were used for the whole analysis.

Out of the 86 total respondents: a) 58 were who has their own private water pipe line and b) 28 were who has no their own piped water line.

The result in question number 2.6 was the summary of analysis from 2.6.1 up to 2.6.8

Out of the 86 total respondents in question number 2.2, only the 29 who are living in rented houses belong to question number 2.3

The result in question number 2.6.4 is out of the total respondents (86), only 29 were living in rented houses and the rest 57respondents were shown as living in their own private houses and without paying rents as per the responses to question 2.2.

From the 29 living in rented houses only 18 have their own private piped water lines, and thus why the rest 11respondents in question number 2.2 do not belong to question number 2.6.4

Out of the total respondents in question number 3.17, only 64 belong to question number 3.18

Summary of questionnaire,

Location

Total number of respondents

Status

Returned in properly completed

Returned but not properly completed

Not returned at all

Remark

Keftegna-1 (Zone -1)

32

29

0

3

Keftegna-2 (Zone-2)

68

57

2

9

Total

100

86

2

12

Findings were summarized in to the above mention major socio-economic variables of the respondents,

35 (41%) of the respondents were female whereas 51 (59%) were identified to be male respondents

age range of majority of the respondents 42 (49%) was between 31 - 50 years old and the next age range 36 (42%) of the respondents had been identified to be greater than 50 years old

Of the total respondents 83 (97%) were identified as head of their households

Majority of the households 43 (50%) consist of 3 - 5 members and the next major family size (22 (26%) ranges consisting of from 7 - 8 members.

100% of the respondents were identified to be somehow illiterate (completed some educational level), of which majority 31 (36%) were high school complete and the next major group 25 (29%) were also junior school completed.

Monthly income of majority of the households 55 (64%) fall in the range of birr 500 - 1500 which means average per capita income of the household (2 - 5 members of family size) being birr 250 - 300.

Majority of the respondents 54(63%) own private houses. 29 (33%) of the sample size were considered to living in rented houses- 14% rented from renting agency, 9% rented from kebele (government- relatively cheaper), and 10% rented from private. The rest 3% were identified as given by relatives for free.

Major expenses of the households including water billing (refers particularly to those who have private water connection)

Average monthly house rent payment of those living in rented houses ranges from birr 150 - 350,

Almost all households (91%) use electric light (private meter) and the average monthly payment for eclectic light consumption of most households (40%) ranges from birr 50 - 80,

Majority of the households (38%) have monthly health expenditure ranging from birr 50 - 100,

Expenditure for food for majority of the households (33) ranges from birr 200 - 500

Monthly telephone expenditure of majority of the households (45%) looks to range from 50 - 100,

Educational expenditure for majority of the households (38%) seemed to range from birr 100 - 250,

Monthly expenditure for water consumption for majority of the households (38%) ranges from birr 20 - 40, relatively cheaper as compared to other services

The findings indicated that majority of the respondents 45(52%) were government employees

According to the findings for priority preference for major services, water has got first importance (62%), health second (14%), toilet third (13%) respectively.

Although it is indicated that there are some households that they used piped water for drinking and cooking only and other sources for other uses, generally, it can be concluded that almost the whole community (94%) of Awassa city uses piped water directly or indirectly (using private pipe line, from public tap, shared tap or direct purchase from private owners)

Even those who have private pipe line do not get enough amount of water as they would like to consume and able to buy i.e. 50 % of the total respondents indicated that they get water only during the night and some others (16%) indicated that they can't predict when the water comes (get only in a rare chance or in an unpredictable time) so majority of the households were forced to fetch water from other places where it could be available in shift by paying on average up to 0.30 cents per bucket (20 litres) and wasting up to 1 hr and above of their time. It is also indicated that the water that they can fetch from none piped sources is paid as well. 91% of the respondents showed interest to buy from an improved system if they were provided adequate amount and reliable supply of water with reasonable price increase

majority of the respondents 56% explained their worry about the quality of the water they used justifying that at least one of their household member gets suffer of water born diseases, particularly typhoid (39%), diarrhea (25%), other disease like Jardia, Amoebae, etc.(25%) and decay of teeth and bone (11%), but still they proved that they do not attempted to use any purification mechanism for the fact that it will be costly and time taking,

Majority (79%) of those who do not have their own private pipe line connection explained that they are suffering of buying 3 - 5 bucket of water per day for birr 0.30 - 1.00 per bucket and that majority (54%) applied for private pipe line and they are still waiting for one year and above to get response from the water supply authority. It also observed that those who do not have private water pipe line connection spend more for water (birr 20 - 70/month) as compared to those who own private pipe line connection and to the reverse of their income status.

Majority (79%) of the respondents showed their interest to use from the improved water supply system if the water utility take initiative for improvement and majority (47%) are willing to pay a tariff the authority would set. Considerable number of respondents (41%) showed their interest to accept the improvement but at the current price condition (birr 3 - 5/m3). Small number of respondents (10) explained the reason for their reservation that they could not afford above the exiting tariff level and others very small number of respondents (6) also explained that it is the government's responsibility to cover any cost above the existing tariff level,

58% of the total respondents do not have know-how about the cost requirement of constructing a new water system or improvement of the existing system. Only 42 % are aware of about the cost requirements for improvement of water supply system. indeed, majority (43%) of the total respondents would like to carry responsibility for improving the water supply system. some respondents 28%, pushed the responsibility for in to the shoulder of government, some 17% are not clear with who the responsibility belongs to, and some 12% also claimed to big consumers (private companies) to carry the responsibility

Lastly, majority of the respondents suggested that the exiting water problem is due to weaknesses and inefficiencies of the water supply enterprise, that they would be cooperative, in case, if they were needed for help, some also commented that government did not give enough attention for the improvement of the water supply system, others raised the issue of unclear accountability and long hierarchical structure of the organization as the cause for the perpetuating water problem, etc.

Limitation of the study:

Because of poor infrastructure, like Internet access, slow postal services, expensive telephone services, etc and mainly because of the current political situation in Ethiopia (uninstable political situation) my research will focus only on Awassa Town Water Supply Service Enterprise which is located at the capital city of southern region of the country i.e. Awassa.

Note: The poor performance of water supply service related to the limitations of the service organization such as inappropriate institutional frame-work, lack of regulatory mechanisms, absence of sense of ownership and responsibility, lack of skills, lack of explicit directives and incentives to serve the society are not given attention in this research, but left for father analysis.

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