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This is a project planning report for Site "PM 12", which is a four storey office new build in Glasgow City centre. The site is located close to Sauchiehall Street which is one of the busiest shopping streets in the city. The report consists of two sections; a written report (tasks 1, 2, 3) and also a precedence diagram which shows the programme schedule.
Task 1 looks at the complications which are associated with the project, with attention being paid to the city centre location. Considerations are given to the supply of materials, namely the cladding and glazing panels. The panels are being supplied by a German manufacturer, so consideration needs to be given regarding the ordering of materials, as well as storage and transportation of the materials.
Task 2 addresses the risk associated with this project. A risk management plan is the ideal way to analyse the range of different risks which exist. Each project has risks which are more probable than others and will therefore require careful assessment. Once the risks have been identified, the next step is deciding what measures, if any, can be put in place to reduce the probability of these risks occurring. Managing risks does not just involve H&S, and trying to make the site a safer place; there a range of different risks. The risks which are most applicable to this project are highlighted within this task. Three Risk Assessment Forms will also detail risks for this project. The forms also give probability ratings for each risk, as well as what measures should be put in place to reduce them.
Task 3 analyses the seven German specialist fitters. They come from different backgrounds and some have quite strong opinions and could be difficult to control. Therefore, getting them to work as an efficient team will not be an easy task. Additionally, they don't have very good English language skills, meaning communication with them could be difficult. A brief summary will follow on from Task 3.
The second part of the report consists of the programme schedule. Firstly, the assumptions and the planning logic are discussed. Then the precedence diagram itself is included, which shows the duration of 30 activities. Additionally, a Gantt chart is included, to show further clarity regarding the schedule and also the time taken off for the Christmas holidays.
2.0 Task 1
Constructing a building in the city centre can be a complex exercise and requires in depth planning and thought. Below are a range of important factors with regards to the supply, location and installation of the cladding and glazing panels.
In this scenario the schedule of deliveries/logistics is an important topic. It is imperative that the panels arrive on site, as specified. The process of getting the material from the manufacturing stage to the site does not just include the transportation of the goods. Firstly, it is very important that the manufacturers are given enough time to produce the panels. Placing the order in time is essential to the overall success of the installation of the panels. It may be a straightforward task to carry out, but it will mean that the panels can therefore be transported from the manufacturing site on schedule. Also, placing an order of this size with a manufacturer on short notice will undoubtedly mean that the panels will be more expensive. Consequently, it will be much easier to control where the panels will go next. Ordering a large number of panels such as this will also mean a lower cost per unit, because the manufacturer has received an order in baulk.
The panels will be shipped over from Germany in containers. The 6m x 3m wide panels will be loaded into 30 ft containers. 6m is 19ft 8 inches approximately, however the 20 ft containers are too small, as the internal dimensions are only 19ft 3 inches. Likewise, the 3m x 1.2m wide panels will have to be transported in a 20ft container since the internal dimensions of a 10 ft container are slightly too small. http://www.sjonescontainers.co.uk/dimensions.htm
2.2 Storage of Panels
The panels may go directly from the manufacturers to a holding site, which is in close proximity to the site. The holding site could be a warehouse or small storage area. In this case the panels would be brought on site as required. Another option is that all the panels are brought directly to site and kept there. However, it would be risky to do this, for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is the problem with finding adequate space to store the panels. The site is compact and therefore finding space to house 230 cladding and 120 glazing panels is going to be challenging. Then there are the difficulties with accessing the panels in an easy way so they can be hoisted into place by crane, as required. There is always the risk that the panels could be damaged during this process or that it takes too long for a panel to be removed from the others and hoisted into place. This could be disruptive to the other workers on site as well, if the process is frustrating and not carried out in an efficient way.
The site office should also be suspended above the ground, to ensure that all usable ground space is being used.
2.3 Health and Safety
The problem with having a site in such a public area is that sometimes pedestrians try to gain access to the site. This is more likely to happen in the early hours of the morning, when drunken people are coming of out bars and nightclubs. Also, young boys in particular can see a building site as an ideal location to explore and climb. When employees get injured on site it is an unfortunate occurrence to happen and it would be reported and investigated appropriately. However, if a child got injured on site it would mean questions would be also be asked about how secure and how safe the site was. The site may be closed, therefore impacting upon the project's completion date. The contractor's reputation would be damaged and also there could be legal repercussions or a fine.
"Construction site thefts are growing at a rate of 25%. The construction industry suffers an estimated loss of over 40 million pounds a year through theft and vandalism." http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=5017HYPERLINK "http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=5017&fileExtension=PDF"&HYPERLINK "http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=5017&fileExtension=PDF"fileExtension=PDF (Page 152)
The very nature of a building site means that there will be broken bricks or blocks, pieces of timber, pieces of metal which could all be used to inflict damage upon the building which is being constructed. In the case of this project, the glazing would be the target if a pedestrian gained access to the site and was wishing to cause vandalism. The site should have hoardings around the perimeter to keep out pedestrians. Signs should be displayed to show that construction is underway and that no members of the public should enter the site. Additionally, if there is a security man present during the night, this will discourage pedestrians from attempting to gain access into the site.
As mentioned earlier, space will be at a premium on this site. Therefore, the efficient usage of large plant/machinery such as cranes and forklifts will impact on how congested the site is. It is important to plan ahead and ensure that the crane isn't sitting idle on site, taking up space and also costing money, if it has been rented. This again requires careful consideration at the planning stage. If large pieces of plant are not required on site, they simply shouldn't be there.
Considering the risks involved with having all the panels on a compact site at the same time, it is preferred that the panels are therefore stored off site and brought on site by lorry, as they are required. Looking at the sizes of the panels and the internal dimensions of the containers, it would appear that it will be difficult to use the space of the containers efficiently. Larger containers will also cost money. Therefore, it would be sensible to wait for further instruction from the panel manufacturer about how they can facilitate the order, before planning to bring all the panels over at the same time. The drawings should be in German and in English to avoid confusion, because the Germans will have measurements in centimetres, while the other employees use millimetres as their form of measurement.
3.0 Task 2
Before the risks can be managed, there is a step by step process which should be followed in order to be certain that the risks are fully addressed. This is a document called the risk management plan and is completed before work on site has begun.
3.1 Risk Management Plan
Lester (2007) states that there are 5 steps within this plan. They include; 1.Risk awareness, 2.Risk identification, 3.Risk assessment, 4.Risk evaluation and 5.Risk management.
3.1.1 Risk Awareness
Risk awareness is the starting point in the process because the employees have to be made aware of all risks that they could encounter. Secondly, the risks have to be identified. There are various types of risks involved throughout the entire duration of the project. Lester (2007, p.66) notes that the variety of risks include;
Security" (safety, theft, vandalism)
3.1.2 Risk Identification
This framework can be applied to this site, as most of the risks mentioned are relevant. For example, environmental risks include adverse weather conditions, which will result in the site closing. Social risks include members of the team not working well together, which is probable since the German fitters are from different backgrounds. Resource risks could be the shortage of staff. For example, if any of the German fitters have to go home for personal reasons or are missing through illness. They are specialists who have been brought over to install the panels. Therefore, if one or two out of the seven are not on site when they are required, this will substantially slow the progress of the project. Financial risks are in relation to the company going bankrupt or into liquidation. The finances have to be in order to ensure the project can be complete. Checking a company's financial background is easy to do. It can be done online simply by using Financial Analysis Made Easy (FAME). Carrying out this type of research is known as due diligence.
3.1.3 Risk Assessment
Step 3 involves assessing the risks. This means studying a risk and deciding what the probability is that it will actually occur. Trends and past experiences from similar type projects are useful for this.
Following on from that is the evaluation, which involves rating the risks. Risk Rating= Probability x Impact (Severity). *Refer to Risk Assessment examples below
3.1.4 Risk Management
Now that the risks have been fully identified and rated, the final step is deciding how they should be managed. Naturally this depends on the risk rating and also what available measures there are to ensure the safety on site can be improved. Lester (2007, p.70) lists the options available as; "avoidance, reduction, sharing, transfer, deference, mitigation, contingency, insurance and acceptance." It is worthwhile to briefly look at some of these options for further clarity.
Avoidance and acceptance can strangely be two options for the same risk. If the project is struggling financially, then avoidance will mean that the work doesn't go ahead, or doesn't continue any further. Likewise, there could be acceptance with this risk and it is decided that the project will be completed, even though it isn't sensible from a financial point of view. Risk transfer will mean re-negotiating the contract so the risk is the concern of one of the other parties involved. This could be a complex exercise however, as it may be difficult to re-negotiate the contract because no party is willing to be held responsible for managing that risk.
3.2 Risk Assessment Forms
Below are Risk Assessment Forms which detail the risks and risk ratings for some tasks on this project.
Definitions: Probability- Very probable 3, probable 2, improbable 1.
Severity/Impact- Serious 3, significant 2, minor 1.
Risk Rating- 1-2 = Controls are adequate, 3-4 = Review management systems reduce SFARP, 6-9 = Cease work immediately. Risk reduction to be implemented.
Assessor Name:J O'N
Task:Working from scaffold/podium
Assessment Date: June 2010
Current Control Measures
Falling from Height
Scaffold to be erected and adjusted by trained personnel (Certificated in erection / use).
Scaffolding to be used in accordance with manufacturer instructions.
Panels Fitters to carry out inspection of scaffold prior to use.
Defects or areas of concern to be rectified immediately or reported to project manager for appropriate action. Ground condition to be suitable for using podium. Podium/scaffold not to be moved whilst in use (i.e. person(s) on it). Castors/wheels to be locked in position during use. Wear appropriate PPE at all times
Current Control Measures
Struck by falling objects
Work within working platform area. Podium to be inspected Unwanted/surplus materials and debris removed. If required, establish exclusion zones. Communication (verbal) between fellow workers / trades. Programming works to avoid conflict of trades and workspace. Wear appropriate PPE at all times.
Assessor Name:J O'N
Task:Operation of telehandler/forklift
Assessment Date: June 2010
Current Control Measures
Only trained operatives to operate vehicle.
Load to be kept at correct level (i.e. lowest) during transportation and ensure load is secure.
Speed limit of 5 MPH.
Vehicle checklists to be completed, to ensure equipment is properly maintained and safe for use.
Ensure ground conditions are suitable and housekeeping standards are maintained at a high level.
Employees, Contractor, Visitors
Area to be organised to maximise operational space.
Banksman to be used during reversing manoeuvres.
Beacon and audible warning devices to be fully operational.
Employees, Contractor, Visitors
Current Control Measures
Loss of load
SWL of vehicle not to be exceeded.
Load to be checked prior to lifting that it is secure and safe to lift.
Employees, Contractor, Visitors
By implementing a risk management plan, the likelihood of people being killed or injured is being reduced. Construction is a dangerous industry to work in, but figures in recent years have shown that the number of deaths has more than halved. The number of deaths has decreased from 72 in 2007/8 to 53 in 2007/8, to 35 in 2009/10. http://www.constructionenquirer.com/2010/05/13/death-rates-fall-to-record-low-levels/
Working at height is likely to be the most hazardous task on site, so it is imperative that the German fitters are informed of how to install the panels in a way which doesn't endanger anyone on site.
3.3 Historical Data
As mentioned earlier, one of the benefits of investigating the risks is that the risk assessments could be looked at again as a reference or guide for jobs in the future. It is important to also realise that projects are often very complex and have a broad range of complications. Applying data from one project to another project is only wise if they are both similar. The Health and Safety Executive list 5 basic steps for assessing the risks in the workplace. The fifth step is "Review your risk assessment and update if necessary" http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf
Simply applying the same control measures for every project will not result in risks being addressed, because a number of risks will be overlooked. Having a yearly review of the risk assessment procedure which is being used will show what improvements or changes have been made, and the possible changes or improvements that could still be made.
3.4 Method Statement
The risk management plan compliments the method statement, which is a document detailing how certain tasks should be carried out on site. It will also remind everyone of their responsibilities throughout the duration of the project. The method statement will be made up of a number of different sections. Examples for this project will include;
General Information- details of what the project involves, relevant documentation for H&S file such as test certificates for the plant.
Construction Drawings- layouts and section details will be given to the fitters to follow.
Installations of the panels- how the panels will be packaged when they arrive on site, how they are unloaded, hoisted and manoeuvred into place and then installed. After installation- the cleaning down of the panels.
Site induction and briefing on H&S.
4.0 Task 3
Construction is a collaborative industry. Every team member has got his/her own ideas on problem solving or how a task should be carried out. These fitters are experts and have been assigned to this project because of their ability. However, they are not a "formal group" because they are individuals from different backgrounds who have been brought together. Johann and Paulos are friends but the rest are strangers to each other.
It may be very optimistic to expect all of the fitters to be friendly with each other; such is the diversity of their backgrounds. However, this problem is not just associated with this project, it relates to teams of workers in any job/industry. People will always have personal differences but this should be put aside to ensure targets are met and that there is no tension between team members.
There must be an effective relationship between team members, which will result in mutual trust and co-operation between everyone (CIOB, 2010).
4.1 Appoint of a Team Leader
Bringing the fitters on site a week before they actually begin installing the panels is a good way to introduce them to the project. It may be the first time that some or indeed all of them have worked in the UK. Since all of the fitters have a poor understanding of the English language, this means that a team leader needs to be appointed. Such an appointment will result in communication and instructions being understood better between the fitters and other employees on site.
Appointing a team leader for this project isn't an easy task, as there is little information available about each individual. To be a good team leader the person needs to have a range of skills and abilities such as;
keeping the team members focused,
allowing all team members to voice their opinion and ensuring that everyone's contribution is valued and is important,
not attaching blame to individuals, as this could dampen the atmosphere within the team,
being considerate of team members feelings and loyalties outside of the work environment,
not to show any favouritism,
not to accept individual credit from others, when it was in fact a team effort. http://www.constructingexcellence.org.uk/resources/themes/internal/teamworking.jsp
After taking these qualities into account, as well as assessing the profiles of the seven fitters; it is decided that Maria should be the team leader. Maria seems to have ambition and is described as working long hours. This shows that she has a drive to get work complete and also won't accept any short cuts being taken when installing the panels. Therefore, a high standard of workmanship can be expected. This is also important for the future, as this team is likely to be used in more projects. So having a stable team, were everyone is content and aware of their responsibilities is of upmost importance.
One way of trying to ensure the team performs as needed is to offer incentives. These could be in the form of cash bonuses or may be something as simple as a night out for a meal and drinks. Socialising with each other will also help to improve the atmosphere within the team, as people get to know each other better.
4.3 Unsettled Fitters
The fitters may also be homesick and therefore unhappy with being on this project. Gretchen in particular may feel this way, as she has a 6 month old child and also speaks for an hour on the phone to her elderly parents each day. So she will constantly be thinking of how her family is doing back home. The fitters should be motivated to complete the project on time and ensure that no delays are incurred. This will mean they can see their families sooner.
4.3.1 Motivation Theories
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory looks at how employees need to be satisfied with different aspects of the workplace environment so they are motivated to carry out their work. This basically means that if the employees are not happy, they will not be productive. There are 5 types of needs, ranging from basic needs to more complex needs. For example, Physiological needs, such as food are the most basic. After these needs have been satisfied, employees have Safety needs, such as job security. Then there are Social needs, which include interaction with others and making friends. Following on from that there is Esteem needs. These include internal motivators such as accomplishment, as well as external motivators, such as recognition. The final level is Self Actualisation, which is very rarely satisfied. http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp
The first four needs can certainly be satisfied with regards to this project and that is the aim.
There are other theories on motivation, such as Herzberg's two factor theory. This theory is that there are hygiene factors and there are motivators. The hygiene factors are things which people are dissatisfied with, such as working conditions or salary. Motivators include recognition and achievement. However, since they are separate, removing the dissatisfactory factors doesn't mean the workers are satisfied; because the motivating factors have to be satisfied as well for this to happen. http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/herzberg_needs.htm
Having the fitters wearing uniforms may help the morale within the group, as they will appear to be one team and not a group of individuals. They would also be easily identified by the other employees. However, the wearing of uniforms on this project is not recommended, as it may actually segregate and separate the fitters from the other employees. The fitters shouldn't be seen as different from anyone else. By wearing a uniform the fitters are excluded from the other employees and seen as outsiders. This shouldn't be the case, especially if the fitters are going to the used on future projects, which may involve the same employees.
4.5 Controlling the team
Although Maria is the team leader, she cannot be expected to control the team without any complications. Yunos, Marta, Johann, Paulos and Hubert are prone to disagreeing with working a full week, for example. They have to be informed that work has to be carried out Monday to Friday until the panels are installed. They can't take days off or bring a lazy attitude to work. Maria could use Gretchen to help motivate the others, since Gretchen has a family and so does Yunos and Marta. People who have something in common with each other can use that to help bring unity to the team. Johann and Paulos are good at meeting people, so if they can both be motivated into working with the proper attitude, then this is likely to have a positive impact on others and how they view their work. Marta is quite outspoken and may be the hardest member to keep focused, since she is currently getting divorced. If she has a negative approach to work, she will air this view and this could cause discontent amongst the others. So it is important that Marta is highly focused on the project and doesn't influence the team morale in a negative way.
This report looked at a variety of complications which have to be addressed throughout this project. If the issues raised in this report are dealt with accordingly, then there is no reason why this project won't be a success.