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Maurice ILE Durable was first announced by the Prime Minister as a long term vision aimed at promoting sustainable development. The project is spearheaded by Professor Joel de Rosnay, Special Adviser of the Prime Minister, who also serves as adviser at the Cites des Sciences et de l'Industrie of La Villette, Paris
The main thrust of the project Mauritius Ile Durable, is to make Mauritius less dependent on fossil fuel, with a target of 65% autonomy by the year 2028 through increased utilization of renewable energy and a more efficient use of energy in general. According to Professor de Rosnay this objective can be achieved through the use of biomass, bio-ethanol, biogas - 35%, solar - 15%, wind - 6%, hydro - 3%, cogeneration - 3% and waves - 3%.
Maurice Ile Durable Fund
In June 2008, the MID Fund was set up by regulations under the Finance and Audit Act, as a specialized fund with the following objectives:
scheme for the preservation of local natural resources with a view to achieving sustainable development and adapting to climate change;
projects to explore and harness all potential for local sources of renewable energy and to reduce dependency on imported fossil fuels;
the promotion of energy saving through MDE;
programmes to reduce consumption of fossil fuels, achieve greater efficiency in the use of energy in enterprises, offices, homes, public sector, transportation sector ans in hotels;
schemes to encourage innovation by households as well as by business to produce their own energy requirements and for the sale of any surplus at a premium;
the provision of -
outright grants of 10,000 rupees for every solar water heater purchased by 31 December 2009, through the solar water heater loan scheme operated by the Development Bank of Mauritius;
an initial grant of up to 20 million rupees for CEB to provide compact fluorescent lamps at half the cost price; and
a grant to the bus Modernisation Programme to enable all bus operators to renew their fleet, at no extra cost, with new generation buses which are environmentally friendly with reduced emissions, more comfortable and with low floors to speed and facilitate boarding;
projects and programmes to support efforts to protect the environment through recycling of waste, to encourage more efficient use of energy and to increase reliance on renewable energy;
programmes for research and analysis pertaining to the development of renewable source of energy and consumption trends and to ensure environmental sustainability;
energy management programmes through networking with local and international partners;
awareness campaigns on energy and the use of renewable energy sources; and
such other projects incidental to or conducive to the attainment of any of the above objects."
Final Design and Permitting, Construction, Commissioning, Operation and reporting
As a direct result of JV Sotravic Ltd and the Government of Mauritius's ingenuity and focused drive towards green engineering solutions, the installation of the gas extraction system has allowed the Landfill site to become an important source of renewable energy.
The Sotravic JV has invested in two landfill gas engine generator sets with a capacity of 1.15 MW each, fuelled exclusively by the landfill gas. Provision to install a third engine has also been made. The plant will generate 110 million KWh over the next five years. The process involves the conversion of Landfill Gas into Energy by means of electrical generators capable of running on Landfill Gas. Previously the Landfill Gas collected at the Mare Chicose Landfill Site was simply flared; however the gas contains approximately 50% Methane and thus represents an important source of energy. With regards to Gas management, two flare stations exist on the landfill site each with a flaring capacity of 1500Nm3/hr. The flaring helps to reduce the effect of the Landfill Gas specially methane on the environment.
In order to capture the gas, JV Sotravic Ltd had to install vertical gas wells in the waste cells. The length of the gas wells varies between 9m to 30m. For a better management of the gas, the JV Sotravic Ltd has also invested on the construction of manifolds which are used to monitor the gas content and quality in a very professional manner.
Sotravic JV intends to develop an additional electric power generating plant of 1.15 MW to be located at the Mare Chicose Landfill.
Project Budget Overview
The preliminary estimated project cost for design and construction is (MUR) Rs 118,400,000. JV Sotravic Ltd is requesting (MUR) Rs 59,200,000 in funding from the Maurice Ile Durable, 50% of the project cost. Remaining funds will be provided by JV Sotravic Ltd by a combination of cash, loans, sale of Clean Renewable Energy Bonds and/or equity investment from a development partner.
The project will initially generate between 1 megawatts (MW) and 1.15 MW of power from landfill gas, a waste byproduct. LFG is considered a significant greenhouse gas and would otherwise be flared providing no other benefit to the community.
Capturing LFG and using it as an energy resource can produce significant energy, environmental, economic and other benefits. Specifically, using LFG helps the Government of Mauritius to:
Reduce emissions of Green House Gases (GHGs)
Generate additional revenue
Increase economic benefits through job creation and market development
Demonstrate environmental leadership
Improve air quality
Project Cost Summary
Price (Mauritian Rupees)
Total Project Cost (including estimates through construction)
Grant Funds Requested
Other Funds to be provided
Total Grant Costs (sum of 2 and 3)
Estimates Benefits (Savings per year)
Project Management Plan
2.1 Project Manager
Mr. Joseph Kong will manage this grant program. Mr. Kong is currently the Managing Director of the Engineering Department and has over 15 years of engineering experience including management of grant-funded design and construction projects. Mr. Kong will utilize Departmental engineering staff and contract support to oversee development of this project
2.2 Project Schedule
A Gantt presentation of key project tasks and milestones in attached as Index 1. Key milestones include:
Award of MID Grant - 19-Dec-12
Award Design / Build contract - 1-Jan-13
Sign power sales agreement - 15-Feb-13
Complete preliminary design - 15-Mar-13
Submit Permit applications - 28-Mar-13 (6-8 months)
Submit building permit application - 1-Apr-13 (4-6 weeks)
Obtain building permit - 15-May-13
Order building components - 15-May-13 (6-8 weeks)
Begin site grading / utility prep work - 15-May-13
Structural fabrication complete- 1-Aug-13
Obtain Air Permits - 1-Nov-13
Building construction complete - 15-Feb-14
Facility startup and commissioning - 31-Mar-14
2.3 Project Milestone
Obtain Air Permits by 1-Nov-13 - A permit must be obtained before installation or startup of emissions-producing equipment. Typically this permit review requires 4 to 6 months to process, but may be longer due to high workload at the permitting agency. Application by March 31, 2013 is needed to meet this deadline. The size of the proposed facility and its proximity to the existing permitted flare installation may accelerate the permitting process.
Building construction complete by 15-Feb-14 - A pre-engineered steel shell is anticipated to house the generating equipment. All earthwork, grading and foundations can be constructed while the building is being fabricated and shipped to site. It is estimated that erection of this structure will require approximately 2 months. Consequently, building permit review must be completed by mid-May 2013 to meet this deadline. Electrical and mechanical systems must be installed after the building shell is completed.
Facility startup and commissioning completed by 31-Mar-14 - in addition to the prior key milestones, the generator sets must be procured and delivered by January 15, 2014. Delivery times vary by manufacturer, but the current lead time for this equipment is 6 to 8 months.
2.4 Project Resources
JV Sotravic Ltd intends to enter into a relationship with a project development partner for execution of the project. Currently, it is planned that the partner will enter into a design-build-operate contract with a life of not less than 10 years. Solicitation and procurement for this partnership will take place prior to the end of 2012.
JV Sotravic Ltd has conducted preliminary discussions with CEB for a long-term power sales agreement.
2.5 Project Communications
The project will be overseen by JV Sotravic Ltd engineering staff that will provide the MID with monthly status and financial report as required by the grant agreement. JV Sotravic Ltd will meet with key design / construction staff on a weekly basis to ensure progress and schedules are being met, and key issues which could impede progress of the project are being addressed. JV Sotravic Ltd and its development partner will meet with MID staff to present project progress at key milestones such as completion of design, substantial completion of construction and facility startup. MID staff is welcome and encouraged to visit the project site during construction and operation, and participate periodically in project staff progress meetings.
2.6 Project Risk
Key project risks include permitting delays, procurement delays, and power sales contracts. While any of these risks may delay startup of the project, none are considered fatal flaws to project development.
The key permit delay would be associated with the Construction Permit (Air Quality). JV Sotravic Ltd has maintained an excellent working relationship with the Government authorities (Ministry of Local Government) throughout permitting and operation of the existing gas collection system. The permit application must be submitted in March 2013 to ensure that there is adequate time to process this permit application.
The key procurement issue will be acquisition of generator equipment. Typical lead time for these units is 6 to 8 months. Equipment will be ordered as early as practical to ensure adequate lead time on these items.
JV Sotravic Ltd believes that a power sales agreement can be negotiated with CEB that is mutually beneficial to both parties.
Project Description and Task
3.1 Proposed Energy Resources
The Mare Chicose Landfill project was initiated under the Environmental Investment Program in the early 90's. Provision was made for the closure of the 21 open dumps and the construction of a sanitary landfill so as to improve disposal practices. It is to be noted that concurrently a network of transfer stations were constructed to improved collection and transfer of waste. Operations at Landfill started on 3rd November 1997 and the present landfill has a footprint of 32 Hectares and an additional 13 Hectares of land has been secured for future waste disposal and development.
As at to-date there are six Cells and a total of about 5 million tons of waste has been landfilled. The landfilled waste mainly comprises wastes of organic nature and after decomposition greenhouse gasses (GHG) like carbon dioxide and methane gas are generated .The landfill generates about 1800 m3 of biogas which contains about 50-55% of methane. The landfill will continue to generate greenhouse gasses over the next 30 years.
JV Sotravic Ltd has invested in two landfill gas engine generator sets with a capacity of 1.15 MMW each, fuelled exclusively by the landfill gas. By using the landfill gas to produce electricity the project is displacing fossil fuels and this green electricity is sent to the Central Electricity Board national grid and contributes to 1.0 % of the country's electricity production. The implementation of an additional plant has the capacity to generate 1600 MWh of electricity per year, which represent an increase of 0.4% of green electricity sent to the CEB national grid.
3.2 Existing Energy system
3.2.1 Basic Configuration of existing energy system
Energy Supply in Mauritius is provided by the CEB which generate power from a combination of large scale diesel engines and hydroelectric power. Power systems are interconnected to allow movement of power throughout the region. The proposed project will supplement this power supply but not replace any single component.
3.2.2 Existing energy resources used
Current energy production in Mauritius is fueled primarily by diesel and hydroelectric generation. This project will offset some fuel usage at existing plants however the plant will meet only a small percentage of overall power consumption in Mauritius.
3.2.3 Existing energy market
JV Sotravic Ltd is currently selling its electricity produced from existing landfill to gas plants at a privilege price of Rs 5.15 KW per hour. JV Sotravic Ltd will be selling the electricity form the plant at the same price.
3.3 Proposed System
3.3.1 System Design
The proposed electrical generating plant will use landfill gas supplied from the LFG collection system. A tap will be required in the exhaust line from the existing blower station to divert gas to the power plant. Minimal gas processing may be required, primarily moisture removal and compression to required inlet pressure for the generating equipment.
The power plant will use a generator driven by internal combustion engines specifically modified to operate on medium BTU fuel such as landfill gas. The plant is anticipated to operate a relatively constant output of approximately 1150 kW with an availability of approximately 8,146 hours per year (93%). For preliminary engineering analysis, Caterpillar G3520CPGL generators sets were assumed.
Included in the project are site development and building costs to house generating equipment. A pre-engineered metal building is anticipated for this structure.
3.3.2 Land Ownership
The project will be constructed within the boundaries of the Mare Chicose Landfill on land owned by the Government of Mauritius. No land issues are anticipated.
Construction Permit (typically requires 6 to 8 months to develop and process. Permit application will be submitted upon completion of initial engineering when all data will be available for application completion. No significant barriers are anticipated.)
Operating Permit (will be a modification of existing permit for gas collection system blower / flare station. Will require approximately 2 months for permit modification and can be conducted concurrent with Construction permit application. No significant barriers are anticipated)
Municipal Building Permit (requires 4 to 6 weeks for review and processing of comments. Permit application will be submitted upon completion of engineering design and will include structure, mechanical, electrical, fire safety, land use, and zoning. No significant barriers are anticipated.)
The project will be constructed within the boundaries of the Mare Chicose Landfill on land owned by the Government of Mauritius. An environmental impact assessment was completed in 1997 for development of the landfill. No issues with threatened or endangered species, habitat, wetlands, or archeological or historical significance were identified. No adverse environmental impacts or other barriers to development are anticipated
Proposed New System Costs (Total Estimated Costs and proposed Revenues)
4.1 Project Development Cost
The current preliminary engineering cost estimate for this project is Rs 118,400,000 for completion of design and construction of the facility. These costs can be divided as Rs 7,040,000 for completion of Design and Permitting and Rs 111,360,000 for Construction and Commissioning. A detailed breakdown of costs by major task / component is presented on Annex 2.
JV Sotravic Ltd is requesting grants to fund 50 % of the project or Rs 59,200,000. Remaining funding would come from the sale of Clean Renewable Energy Bonds other loans to be identified or equity investment from a development partner.
4.2 Project Operating and Maintenance Costs
Operation and maintenance of the generating plant is anticipated to be Rs 10,976,000 annually, based on operating costs experienced at LFG-to-energy plants of similar size and design. Operation and Management costs would be funded from revenues generated by power sales. No grant funding is requested for these expenses
4.3 Power Purchase/Sale
JV Sotravic Ltd has initiated preliminary discussion with the CEB regarding the terms of a potential power sales agreement. CEB has indicated that they would purchase our power for a rate not higher than Rs 5.15/kwh.
4.4 Costing Sheet
A Cost Worksheet is attached as Index 3. Costs presented are based on project development experience by JV Sotravic Ltd, who has participated in design and construction of two existing or proposed LFG-to-Energy projects.
4.5 Business Plan
JV Sotravic Ltd will be responsible for project management as well as gas production and environmental management of the landfill side of the project. JV Sotravic Ltd will also be responsible for power generation and environmental compliance in the power plant. Since the overall system (gas collection and power production) will become part of the air quality compliance system, gas consumption and compliance monitoring must be closely coordinated.
The power production system has the potential to grow to approximately double the proposed initial capacity as more methane is produced from the addition of refuse in the future. A portion of revenues generated from power sales will be used to maintain and expand the LFG collection system to ensure adequate gas supply for power production.
4.6 Analysis and recommendations
With the LFG project, the revenues would be from the sale of electricity. The economic analysis below varied both power sales prices and the availability of capital grants for the project.
Three power sales prices were analyzed: Rs 3.50 per kilowatt hour, Rs 4.20 per kilowatt hour, Rs 5.15 per kilowatt hour. In addition, two capital funding scenarios analyzed funding with and without grant monies. The analysis below summarizes the price per kilowatt hour and the effect of 50% grant funding: