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In the present era Gurgoan is known as open place for business and one of the emerging places in the state of Haryana in India, systems that are subjected to great deal of change. Iffco square is one of the places where all main offices of different (MNC) from all around the world are located. Iffco square golf course is a two year project in the Gurgoan India. There are many reasons for making a golf course. The golf courses include all the facilities of 5 star hotels and resorts. On the other hand, a golf course in the vicinity enhances the real estate value of the surrounding residential plots attracting golfers and leisure lovers who generally tend to be representing the higher income section of the society. A golf course is always carpeted by green grass with beautiful trees and the water bodies in it which in turn attract the nature lovers and health retreaters. The golf course makes profit for company by provide catering services for their club member and also attract visitor.
In the Gurgoan golf course project we should know some issue such as:
How much land we need?
The cost of the project?
How much time we need to make the project?
How much staffing we need for the project?
How much land we need -The most golfers think a golf course should have the 9 holes and the green area for practice and practise range. The golf course requires 120 to 140 acres of usable land (William w Amick since 1959). There are some more facilities can be included in the golf course such as Gymnasium, swimming pool, parking lots, food and beverage facility for the club member.
The cost of the project - The cost of the project is depends on the type of soil and quality, how much earth must be moved, the method of constructing the green area, any major drainage required, the type of irrigation system require, who will do the construction. The cost of golf course in the recent scenario per holes approximate $ 50,000 dollar to $ 170000.Gymnasium, swimming pool and the parking lot area and food and beverage facility for club members will cost $120000 to $190000 approximate.
How much time we need to make the project - Keeping in mind the uneven weather condition, employment of heavy machinery, availability of working labour; the entire project may take more than 2 years for completion. As golf course is a large project we also keep in mind that, we require approval from the government body before start any construction in the any city such as gurgoan India.
Fig 1.1 PICTURE OF GOLF COURSE
How much staffing we need for the project - In the golf course project we need to build different team to achieved different task timely with cost efficiency, the team such as construction team, planning team, controlling team. As DLF India is world class real estate developer, so they do not need to hire staffs from any private construction company. They have their own machinery, own contractor, enough labour and the management to kick off the project of golf course in gurgoan.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objectives of golf course project are following;
The objective of the project is to finish project on time, lower cost, using minimal resources available.
The most important objective is to develop the golf course strive to be one to protect surrounding environment from the pollution and the fostering the biodiversity, supporting wild life habitat with the golf course maintenance" the best practise that minimise the use of irrigation, fertilizer and other chemical.
If we look at the economic objective of the project, the golf course are economically viable enterprise that meet the need of the of its club member and provide the best golf experience that is enjoyable for all the golfers.
If look at the social objective of the project, the golf course contributes to the social well being of the community by preserving and protecting environment by generate green space. The golf courses generate the economic activity and providing recreational amenities that enhance the quality of life in a community (David Hueber (2010).
In this project we will cover the construction of the gymnasium, swimming pool, parking lot, and food and beverage facility.
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP IN THE PROJECT
In the present era leadership is more about completion of job how to do thing in the team. Leadership in the team present vision, inspire and cheerleads to achieve goals before deadline of project. Leadership in teams inspire other team member to perform their duties and responsibilities efficiently. Leadership is everywhere no one can seem to determine or figure out what makes up good leadership (smith and Krueger: 1933).
In the modern world the leadership in project is equally denoted to the management to finish any project efficiently on time. However the management is believed that who, when, where in the project and leadership is believed on how we do thing in any particular work in team. The leadership is also give direction to leader to thing strategically for future of team in the project. Leadership cannot come from any single person; therefore it is an activity of team and members of the team (Bass & Stogdil's; 1990).
PROCESS OF LEADERSHIP
Fig 1.2 PROCESS OF LEADERSHIP
In the leadership process mainly three major mechanism are involve, first of leaders, employee and the culture. These three things are related to each other to make leadership effectively and finish project efficiently on time. If the leaders cannot be able to make the relationship of these three mechanisms in project, so leadership can be fail to run leadership for long time effectively (Hollander: 1978). Traits of successful leader is that understand that the most valuable asset for the project. In the modern world leader should have the ability to control their subordinate and motivate them without putting any pressure or give them time to time responsibility of work. For instance the virgin group" Mr Richard Branson "personally used to visit to their project sites and used to share new idea for the betterment of his brand image in the market and reputation among the employee.
Every leader must be able to answer the key question such as; what is our business? Who is are our customers? What does the customer buy? What will our business be? What should our business be? (Cangemi, Kowalski & khan; 1998, p.20).
MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES OF THE TEAM LEADERS TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The management activities and processes in the project is the collection of tools and techniques used to achieved the objective of the project. The management of the project activity will leads the project into right direction and also keep on track. Project manager and leaders also need to manage the process and techniques of project in well structured and they will apply the same in the gurgoan course project. Management activity of the leaders in project done by project life cycle, it includes initiation of project, planning of project, execution of project and closure of project.
Fig 1.3 PROJECT LIFE CYCLE OF THE PROJECT
The management activities of team leader include the initiation of the gurgoan golf course project. In the initiation part of project objective are already set in the first part of the report by the project manger and we are fully aware of all the project specification, task etc.
(B) PLANNING OF GOLF COURSE
To construct an outstanding golf course is result of excellent design, proper vegetative measures, well thought of operations and maintenance. Proper planning of the golf course project design and construction practise will help in the future to reduce maintenance cost, such as water drainage management, preservation of good soil, excellent quality of grass to reduce the stress on the plant and negative moisture balance. It is also keep in mind that climate will impact on the construction and management practise.
As we have selected site of the golf course project in Gurgoan India. Gurgoan Golf course will occupy 120 to 140 acres of land including meadow, wetland, woodland, and food and beverage facility. Land include natural resource wildlife habitat, a thorough analysis of all environmental social and economical the golf course should performed according to plan.
DESIGN COMPONENT AND CONSIDERATION
In this section we need to identify factor mapped for the planning of golf course such as;
The property boundaries to protect from the outsiders.
Water resources, such as surface and ground water.
The mapping of soil by the authorised contractor.
The climate condition like heat by sun, wind orientation, rain etc.
From where we getting resources for the constructions.
We have to adjust the road connecting the construction site for the good flow of resources we are using to construct golf course.
THE LAND AND THE WATER CONSIDERATION
The careful planning of land such as wetland, ecosystem, and unique habitat will determine their effect on the golf course. The layout must be done in the proper manner to construct excellent golf course. The water surface must be used to improve stormwater and water quality benefits prevent fertilizer and pesticides from entering adjacent water resources.
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
There are three kind of stormwater management consider to make successful golf course project are following;
Detention - detention of the golf course is done control through basin, ponds and wetland system. The detention of the stormwater mostly control water quantity as well as improve the quality.
Filtration - filtration is done using construct wetlands.
Infiltration - infiltration is done of wetland basins, and bio-filtration areas.
These three things should be done in the first phase of construction to give competitive edge to the project.
IRRIGATION WATER CONSIDERATION
The irrigation of water is one of the critical issue and one of the important as well for golf course. The good supply of the water is very important for the maintenance of green area in golf course. The excellent design of course should permit for irrigation requirement through use of warm season grass and tolerant grass in rough area of the course.
The plantation of the golf course site can enhance the beautification and water quality benefits. Especially the tree can be incorporated into the characteristics of the golf course, affecting shot making strategy and enhancing outward appearance.
THE SUN AND WIND CONSIDERATION
The compass reading of sun and wind is another consideration. Longer holes can be positioned to take advantage of wind direction and not favourable impacted with rising or setting sun.
BUILDINGS AND PARKING CONSIDERATIONS
The construction of food and beverage facilities, parking lots, Gymnasium, swimming pool and maintenance area to keep all heavy batteries, house chemical, oil and grease. Especially to construct all maintenance area will be beneficial to save our water bodies and the surrounding green of the golf course. To construct parking lots especially we should have to use excellent quality of material because of traffic flow
TASK BASED BUDGETING AND STAFFING
The task based budgeting is plays a vital role to kick off the project efficiently, at effective cost and on time. The task based budgeting also help to project manager how much money they are investing on one to one activity in the project. In the gurgoan golf project the estimated budget of the green area and land is $ 29000 including 35 labours and 1 controller. In the making of all water management estimate cost $ 20000 including team 14 plumbers and 1 controller. The irrigation of water to maintained properly green area of golf course is much higher because it is most crucial, technical and time consuming work so the estimate of irrigation of water $34000 including team of 20 plumber and an irrigation water engineer.
In the golf course building facility including gymnasiums, food and beverage restaurant, swimming pool and car parking facility need a huge investment, the estimated cost to develop all that facility in the gurgoan golf course is $110000 including two teams of 20 labours and a construction manager. Plantation is not an expensive one estimated cost of plantation in all over the golf course site is $ $10000 with 8 gardeners and a head gardener. In the golf course project the project manager has estimated $ 15000 for other activity such as food canteen, maintenance of the equipment and machines etc.
DISCIPLINE IN THE PROJECT
While developing golf course project the discipline is plays a vital role for the successful outstanding golf course project; the disciplines include those details of all areas functioning, goal and objective. Most vital is the selection of project manager and suitable teams for the project, if the project manager and leaders are qualified, have experience, can handle all certainties and can manage risks efficiently.
Time - Managing the estimate time for the project is very important to built outstanding golf course, if the project is not completed on estimated time can result increase in budget. For instance Gantt chart
Cost - The managing the finance allocated for the project should spent on project resources, tasks, and service for employee etc.
Human resource - The human resource factor is one of most important factor to built outstanding golf course, because human resources help management to manage and give proper training to individuals, teams allocated for tasks.
Quality - Managing quality to built outstanding golf course is very important, there is some quality consideration is set for instance standard operating procedure (SOP)
Procurement - Right management of acquiring process of goods, services, machinery and equipment to achieve goal and objective of project.
Communication - Managing the communication in between all the department coordinates all activity taking place in the project is very important to finish the project on time efficiently.
Better communication can lead project in the right direction and make work coordination consistent.
Issues and Acceptance - managing all issue related to the project such as employee, change in the planning, problem with machinery and equipment using to develop golf course.
(C) PROJECT EXECUTION
Once planning is done properly there is need to do the execution project, to kick off the project on time. Execution of project is third phase of project management life cycle; it is a very important phase of the project, here the project manager will coordinate all work activity and use all resource to achieve objective of the project plan. Mainly the project manager is responsible to manage all activity and problem on the project, main key to finish efficiently project just simply follow the project plan.
In the execution phase of project teams actually perform work to produce deliverables. Deliverable word means no matter which the project deliver for their customer for instance golfer used all the facilities such as gymnasium, swimming pool, car parking and food and beverage etc. Project manager job is to do work and coordinates with team leaders to achieve objectives, project manager also track performance of any individual and teams. Execution face of project is help to keep project on track also help monitoring and controller process to achieve project objectives set by the top management. In the execution phase mostly manager indentify some changes looking at the performance and quality control data. Gathering reports of the project help to manager determine where the problem is and also helps to fix it.
Change control is a part of execution phase in the project, when project manger finds any problem so cannot just make change, because there is need to look at the effect of changes such as can be expensive, time consuming and the quality. If manager want make any change in the plan of any project, there is need to request for change with the "change control board.
Change control board is a group of people who consider the change in the project but before making any change in the project, control board always consult with the project sponsor or management for review and approval those changes document by project manager. Project manager also document what need to be done, by whom and when in the change request.
Fig 1.4:Â Picture show that the project manger showing to control board the document of change in the project
In this phase project manger sometimes find a way to kick off the project on time, when project is running behind the schedule by "Crashing". Crashing the schedule mean in the project management adding resources and cut down but crashing always increases the cost of the project or this is not necessary it always worked. If budget is fix so this techniques is worth to kick of the project on time because crashing of schedule increases overall cost of project.
Execution phase of the project also introduce one more management activity to kick of the project efficiently on time by doing "Fast tracking" of project. Fast tracking means to complete two activities in the same duration of project. Manager also can document both the plan and can choose in the future which plan is better, after doing comparison of both techniques to kick off the project on time efficiently. The objective of the project have been physically constructed and accepted by the management and by customer so the project is ready for closure.
(D)CLOSURE OF THE PROJECT
The closure of the project is last phase in the project life cycle, this is vital to kick the project in the formalise manner; it is also vital to successful closing of the project. At the time of closure of the project the manger keep entire document regarding to project safe for future reference. The closure phase of the project also helps to management how to over come problem, risk and uncertainty while developing any project. If the project is successes full, manager also does staff evolutions, key learning from the past mistake at the time of project.
When the project schedule is made project manager always thing about the project activity need to perform efficiently and properly close the project. The closure activity of the project include following activities:
CONDUCT PROJECT CONCLUSION MEETING - A meeting of the project closure should happen with sponsors, stakeholder to officially conclude the project. In meeting the manger include the performance of teams to make project successful, project recap, documenting strength and weakness of the project and the process of project management. Discuss the changes have done in the project: discuss reason for change, what was the change, by whom and when. Discuss the key learning of the project with everyone in the meeting and Key learning's that seem to work consistently on many projects, in many circumstances, might be raised to the level of a best practice and be utilized for all similar projects.
In the last phase of the project, the project manger list of thing for the conclusion meeting should focus on what the project was supposed to achieve and what the project actually achieved. The list of thing include following;
Discuss the purpose of the meeting
Develop ground rules for the future project
List what the project should have achieved
Describe what the project actually achieved
Agree on a set of lessons-learned for future projects
List and document any remaining work required to close the project
DECLARE SUCCESS OR FAILURE WHILE CLOSURE - Sometimes it is clear the project was absolutely successful and in other cases the project is a total failure. However, in many cases, there are mixed results. For instance, the major deliverables such as irrigation of water may have been finished, but the project was over budget because of some changes. Or, the project team delivered on time and within budget, but the solution only met 80% of the business needs.
TRANSITION THE SOLUTION TO SUPPORT (IF APPLICABLE) -Â If the solution will exist outside of the project, it should be transitioned to the suitable support organization. The transition includes knowledge transfer to the support team, completion and turnover of all documentation, turnover of the list of remaining work, etc. For instance if the project is real estate so they can share knowledge from out the country such as American company who built the same kind of project.
CONDUCT PERFORMANCE REVIEWS -Â If the project was successful or may not by any reason, it may be necessary to do performance reviews after the project completion. In case of successful completion of the project, the project sponsor evaluates the performance of project manager. The project manager reviews the whole team and direct reports to the management about the good performance of any team or any individual. Occasionally the team is rated as a whole and team members comes later to use the team rating as input into a personal performance review. On the other hand, the team members may have individual reviews based on only their own contributions.
It is a prime responsibility of the project manager to kick off all project activities on time efficiently include in the project life cycle. The project is not considered complete until the closure activities are performed.
(III)RECOMMENDATION TO MAKE PROJECT MORE SUCCESSFUL AND TEAM BUILDING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN THE PROJECT
This very important to built an outstanding project and kick off efficiently on time, mostly the management follow project management life cycle to make it successful. The following recommendation can make project more successful in all aspect:
Setting the start date of the project
Set work calendar of the project
Set working time of teams working
Set the task based budgeting using project worksheet
Use work breakdown structure (WBS) and set milestone
SETTING THE START DATE OF THE PROJECT - This is really very important to set the starting date of the project and discus with allocated teams by the management for instance 2nd July 2010. The setting the start date of project helps to teams set to appropriate perform work physically and mindfully. Project manager should use the current date to track the project progress and he should also record the progress of every task scheduled to be in progress.
SETTING OF WORK CALENDAR - Setting the work calendar is critical and important task to make project more successful. The project manager should have use the Gantt chart to show all the activity in the project and discuss progress of work with teams. A Gantt chart, named after the engineer" Henry Gantt" who pioneered the procedure in 1990s is a chart used to plan the time scale of the project. For instance Gantt chart will display the time relationship between work activities of project and show that the actual time of every activity. The project manger should use Gantt chart to show all activities clearly and project progress. For instance in the case of gurgoan golf course the project manger should show all activities and progress with the duration of project:
Start date2ndJuly 2010 finish date- 2ndJuly 2012
July- A S O N D J F M April- M J J A S O N D February M A M J J
Storm water management
Irrigation of water
Building and car parking
Above Gantt chart is shown that the times scale of activities in Gurgoan golf course project. The green area including making land useful to root grass on it takes July 2010 to march 2011. If we look at the storm water management takes long time, because most important or crucial work is provide water for the green bodies in the golf course and keep it maintain for long time, so storm water management take most of time November 2010 to December 2011 to kick off storm water management work. Irrigation of water supply for green bodies in the course is takes June 2011 to November 2011. After finish all water management and irrigation of water, now it is a comfortable time to kick off the work of plantation including flower plants make the beautifications of the course site to attract people. Building including such as gymnasium, food and beverage facility, swimming pool, and car parking is a vital for the golf course project. Building all these facility will give the long term return in the future. Other activity such as building a path to riding electronic car to ride from one part to another part in the course, built food canteen for employees etc.
SETTING WORKING TIME OF TEAMS WORKING - The work management of team is also very important to make project more successful. Working hours of every employee, working in the project should be specified clearly however the weakly roster should manage by the team leader and with help of project manager. Finally it should be clear how many employees is on holidays and how many employee working in the project.
SET THE TASK BASED BUDGETING - The project manger should do task based budgeting using budget worksheet, to show that on which task how much should we spend including material and labour cost to kick off any particular activity. The manger should use top down method and bottom down method of budgeting, top down budgeting is done by the senior management of the company, by looking at the similar project undertaken by company and bottom down budget is done by project manager after consulting all teams based on task that make up the project (The budget can be changed because of increase in the labour cost and the material cost). For instance the budgeting work sheet of the project;
Project Name - Golf course project Date Worksheet Complete - 10thDecember 2010
Project Manager - Vikas Tewathiya
Responsible Staff Member
Estimated Labour Cost and Material Cost
Green area and land
Irrigation of water
Building car parking
With the helping of budgeting worksheet above, project manager should make the scheduling of project according to task, requisition of the staff required for the project and the estimated cost of material will be use to achieve project objectives as well as keep in mind the labour cost of the project. Once the budgeting is done project manager should make the work coordination between team member and their team leader, this is because teams leader straight report to project manager discuses the work progress and the problem of the project.
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
The work breakdown structure (WBS) should use by project manager to make project more successful its useful tool now days apply by the project manager to kick off the project on time. They should work by breaking down project work to different team and allocating the responsibility as well. It also helps to analysis the work require to complete the project into manageable components and work breakdown structure is considers the outputs required to produce.
The work breakdown structure can allow some analysis, stating the major phase any project and breaking down in the major activities. In the gurgoan golf project the project manager break down the major activity of work into teams.
These all are the recommendation to make project more successful
TEAM BUILDING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES COULD HAVE BEEN USED BY THE PROJECT MANGER
Team building is really vital to make project more successful, but firstly we should what is team building? A team building is collection of individual assembled for a specific task, energised by their ability to work together and committed to give high level of outputs in the project. The tools and technique to build effective team to make project more successful includes following;
Characteristic of team in the project
Benefits of team building in the project
Requirement of team member
CHARACTERISTICS OF TEAMS IN THE PROJECT - In the characteristics of teams to achieve project objective efficiently on time, team should be communicating, a strong commitment to achieving the project objective, concern about project growth and maturity, sees conflicts as healthy and necessary in the climate of trust, openness and understanding of work, lastly decision making by consensus.
BENEFITS OF TEAMS BUILDING IN THE PROJECT - Effective team building is very important for better understanding of work situation and problem in the project. Team building in the project is make better environment for work and increase the greater commitment to achieve objective of project. It develops openness and trust between team members, team building also increase growth chance of any individual performing well in the teams.
REQUIREMENT OF TEAM MEMBERS - To make project successful the manger and leader should focus on these points before selection of any member in the project teams.
Relevant expertise in the problem area
Full and willing participation to achieve objective of the project
Committed to achieve project objective
Increase the involvement of other in the group.