Project Management Of The Important Factors Construction Essay

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Student Name: Shi Tao

Student Number: 22206078

Module Code and Name: BUS 3021F Contemporary Issues in Technology

Date Submitted: 13-1-2013

Assignment Number/Name: Assignment 2 - A seminar paper

Word Count: 2686

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FYIT (Singapore)





BSc (Hons) Engineering Management

BUS 3021F


Assignment 1 - A seminar paper


Lecturer: Ong Ah Huat

Submitted by: Shi Tao

Table of Contents

Project management definition…………………………………………………………………….4

The traditional approach…………………………………………………………………………….4

3 Project management of the important factors………………………………………………….…5

Risk management……………………………………………………………………………………6

Project example………………………………………………………………………………………6



What is project management?

Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavour with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), (Chatfield, Carl) undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, (Nokes, Sebastian 2007) typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), (Paul C. Dinsmore 2005) which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.

The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals (Lewis R. Ireland 2006) and objectives while honouring the preconceived constraints. (Joseph Phillips 2003)The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. (PMI 2010)The secondary -and more ambitious- challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.

The traditional approach

1. Project feasibility report

2. Planning and design

3. Execution and construction

4. Monitoring and controlling systems

5. Completion

1. Project feasibility report

Builders must show to the investors the project feasibility report before construction. Through the feasibility report investors will get the information he needed, such as the function of the project and he can get from the interests of the project. It is very important. It will determine the prospect of the project.

2. Planning and design

Through the feasibility report, investors agree to construction projects. The builders must submit the project plan and the project design. Through plan and design, the investors can realize more important information. How long can be finished the project? How much money will be cost in this project? What time can operation its function?

3. Execution and construction

Builder according to the plan and drawings hire professional personage to build.

4. Monitoring and controlling systems

The builders ensure the quality and schedule of the project in the construction process. Usually they will introduce some supervision mechanism to supervise the construction. The government will also have the supervision and inspection agencies project, ensure the normal construction project.

5. Completion

After a certain period of construction, the project finally complete consign is used.

Project management of the important factors





It is a time limit for a project. This refers to the construction of the project need to how much time. In the same conditions, the longer the time limit for a project means the costs more. On the contrary, the shorter the time limit for a project cost means the less cost.


It is the project need to spend how many money. Cost and profit is all investors care most about. Due to the project construction period is long; there will be many changes during, so as to produce a lot of additional expense. How to reduce unnecessary spending is an important subject of builders. The investors may not unlimited increase investment.


Quality also is a very important factor. Investors do not want to invest in a project quality was very poor. The customers also don't want to buy poor quality goods. The builder also doesn't want to spend a lot on repairs.

The essence of the construction management is to search a balance between the three. Between the three are interdependent. If you want to shorten the construction period, will be to increase investment, will affect the quality. If you want to save cost, must affect time limit for a project and quality. If you want to have the perfect quality, will affect the construction period, will increase the cost.

Risk Management

Risk management methods are mainly control type risk management and financial risk management type two kinds of technology.

Control type risk management

Avoid risk.

Risk prevention.

Spread risk.

Control risk.

Financial risk management

Keep self-risk. It means enterprise assume risk of damage by itself. It can predict the short term enterprise can withstand the biggest loss. It is divided into active and passive keep reserved.

Transfer risk. It is to show enterprise in order to avoid losses, the risk transfer to other enterprise.

Project example

Introduced the project

We will have a project in the woodland AVE 4. We want to build a multifunctional building. It can use for factory; also it can use for warehouse. The project started in Jun 2011. The project completed in Jan 2012.

This building has 10 layers. The building floor height is 6m from the 1st floor to 8th floor. The 9th and 10th floor only can use for office. This project has two buildings (block1 and block 2). It also have a 8 floor ramp. The truck can from 1st floor to 8th floor.

This building is frame structure. Its column is concrete. Its main beam is tensioned beam.

Its slab is hollow core slab. The hollow core top is BRC. Its slab surface is 75mm THK concrete. Its staircase wall is concrete wall, but the staircase is per-cast staircase. Its roof is steel structure. Its leftmost has a public car park from 2nd floor to 8th floor. The lift located in the middle of the building. It has 2 transported people lifts and 1 cargo lift. Every building has an escape staircase from 1st floor to 10th floor. It is steel staircase.

We only do part of the concrete structure.

Work breakdown structure

This project we finished 5000 tons of rebar, more than 200,000 m2 formwork, casting more than 40,000 m3 concrete. We are installation more than 60,000m2 hollow core slabs. We are installation 58 per-cast staircases.

Organization chart

Project Manager

David Lee

Site manager

Wan Zhen

Quality supervision

Islam Alan

Safety coordination


Project engineer

Shi Tao

Plaster Foreman

Chen Cun Gen

Carpenter Foreman

Zou Dong Hong

Rebar Foreman

Xu Guo Hua

Cost control method


Rebar worker: Workers will be divided into two parts. Part 1 does work in horizontal direction (tie in beam rebar, slab rebar). Part 2 does work in vertical direction (tie in wall rebar, column rebar). This distribution can improve workers skilled degree and tacit cooperation degree, in order to save manpower.

Carpenter: Worker also will be divided into two parts. It is same with rebar worker.

Plaster: Demand less, we join the Bengali in the plaster. So reduce the wage expenditure.


Our rebar will go outside making. We entrust a specialized iron processing factory production. So save processing machine rental and less rebar wastage. The column and wall rebar will in the backcourt processing, then use crane installation. The slab rebar will use BRC. It will save tie in rebar time. It also saves rebar.

We all use the system template. This will shorten the template installation and removal of time. The column template will use steel template. It wills saves the plywood and reduce the cost of the template.

We will use 18mm plywood, because it will saves the plywood change times. The 12mm plywood every use 3 times must change, but the 18mm plywood can use more than 5 times.

The engineer must strict calculation of concrete volume. Booking a moderate amount of concrete, prevent waste.


Due to the venue are bigger, rent three tower cranes. A lot of material needs to crane transportation. The column rebar, wall rebar and system template need crane to installation.

Installation construction elevator reduces the personnel and time. It can save workers time on the way. The workers have more time to working.

Safety work procedure

1. Lifting work (general)

Rigging of loads

Apply PTW prior to work.

Rig materials correctly and tightly.

Use hoisting net for loose materials

Lifting of loads

Tagling to be installed first.

Hoist 1m high and ensure materials no swings again before hoisting up

Signalman to remind workers to keep out

Control not to hit anything during lifting.

Control the weight of materials before hoisting

Unrigging of loads

Signalman to control unloading speed;

Ensure materials unload on a plain and firm area.

Workers to operate carefully and avoid hand or foot being crushed by materials

2. Work at Height

Apply PTW first before working at height.

Use approved scaffolding for working,

Scaffoldings to be check weekly by scaffold supervisor

No materials or tools to be placed on working platform.

No materials or tools to be thrown down from height.

Workers must anchor safety harness to barricade.

Workers to use safe access when accessing to other working platform.

3. Scaffolding


Qualified scaffold erectors to operate.

Use qualified materials to erect and ensure all materials in good conditions.

Enough bracing and horizontal connections to be provided to keep scaffold firm and stable.

No materials or tools to be placed on working platform.

No materials or tools to be thrown down from height.

Erectors to wear harness during erection.

Enough working platform be provided (width not less than 600mm).

Put red unsafe mark before scaffold supervisor inspection and warn others not to use.

Enough barricades or lifeline to be provided full time.

Working on scaffold

Use approved scaffolding for working,

Scaffoldings to be check weekly by scaffold supervisor.

Never overload.

No bracing or inclined strut to be removed without permission.

No materials or tools to be placed on working platform.

No materials or tools to be thrown down from height.

Erectors to wear harness during erection.

Enough working platform be provided (width not less than 600mm).

Put red unsafe mark before scaffold supervisor inspection and warn others not to use.

Enough barricades or lifeline to be provided full time.

4. Rebar work

Receipt /storage of rebar

Hoisting refer to lifting work procedure .

Unloading on plain and firm area and timbers to be placed behind to keep rebar away from the ground about 300mm.

Clear debris and water from storage area

Cutting &bending by machine

Guard provided on machine

Inspection before using.

Monthly maintenance by supplier

Fixing rebar to beam & slab

Provide proper and enough walking planks.

Proper access be provided for walking over beam & slab

Proper hand gloves to be worn during working

Fixing rebar to wall & column

Ensure no workers working below.

No materials to be placed on working platform.

Using proper working platform.

Anchor safety harness while working at height,

600mm wide work planks to be provided for working

Proper hand gloves to be worn during working.

Fabricate rebar cage

Ensure supporting's enough to bear the load of cage,

Cages to be placed on firm and plain area

5. Concrete Work

Cleaning work

Ear plug to be used during working

wear proper face mask

Casting by bucket

Wear safety harness and anchor to barricade during working.

use safe working platform

Ensure no workers working below.

No tools ,machines or concretes to be placed on working platform edge.

Provide sufficient lighting during night casting.

Use proper bucket to cast.

Ensure working platform width not less than 600mm

Wear face mask and gloves to prevent concrete splash into eyes or cause skin diease

Hacking concrete

Wet hacking area to reduce dust.

Wear face mask during working2.Wear ear plug during working.


Clear concretes from machines, working platform and formworks after finishing casting or hacking.

Wash bucket in given place and clear in time

6. System formwork

Hoisting by crane

Hook properly and hoist 1m up and ensure it in balance before hoisting up again

Hook correctly and hoist according to lifting work safe procedure.

No workers to stay around hoisting area.


Ropes to be tied with formwork to control.

No persons to be allowed to operate before formwork ceasing to move

Ensure not to remove hooks before formwork can stand separately and having enough propping.


Ropes to be tied with formwork to control .

No persons to be allowed to operate before formwork ceasing to move Ensure not to remove hooks before formwork can stand separately and having enough proping.

Workers to wear safety harness.

Working platform to be provided for working.


Workers to wear safety harness and hook to barriers during working

No materials or tools to be placed on working platform.

No materials or tools to be thrown down from height.

No workers to be allowed to work below during casting


Inclined strut to be removed only before removal of formwork, keep formwork steady and no rotation during work

Physical checks to ensure materials, tools, concrete or debris are cleared before dismantling.

Suitable access (ladder, tower scaffold, scissors lift) to be provided for accessing to higher level

Working platform (min x2 metal deck) will be provided and secured for operation at height.

Anchorage point of safety harness with 2 lanyards to be separated.

Anchorage point must not be on members of the system which are to be removed.

Area of dismantling shall be adequately barricaded, monitored by watchmen, and sufficient signage.

Only workers who are trained in the SGB system will be involved in the operation and allowed entry into the area.

Dismantled materials will be tidied up or removed from location immediately so as not to hinder the access. Full supervision by formwork supervisor at all times.


The project management is a comprehensive discipline. It from the last century developed so far. It constantly was absorbing other domain knowledge. Project management is a huge system now, so manage a project is not an easy thing.

I think to be a good project managers must have the following ability.

Ability to civil engineering technology primarily theoretical knowledge and practical skills.

Have the relevant management theory and method.

Have the relevant economic theory.

Understanding of the relevant laws and regulations.

Using the computer aided engineering management question ability.

Have strong personal communication skills.