Project Analysis Of Uk Airport Expansion Construction Essay

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BAA serves over 130 million passengers at its seven UK airports, including the world's busiest international airport, Heathrow. With Heathrow being one of the world's busiest international airports, and the second busiest cargo airport. The influx of passengers travelling by plane to, from and within the United Kingdom has constantly been on the increase, which has lead to congestion of the airport. In order to necessarily tackle this challenge without the need for a new runway or changing the way it is operated, the BAA proposed an expansion of the Heathrow. BAA considered that the best way to beat this challenge is to introduce a new terminal (T5).

Project Description

The proposed T5 is within the Green Belt, at junction 14 of the M25 off the A3044. This is a sewage treatment site, protected by the Government from building development. The site covers a total area of 260 ha.

T5 will provide an additional 60 aircraft stand, and boost the number of passengers by approximately 30 million per annum. The T5 includes the following;

A terminal building that would be equivalent to 13 storeys high and covering the same area as eight football pitches

The separate development of a 600 bedroom hotel

Multi-storey car parks for up to 8,000 cars

Multiple tunnels for getting people and bags between the terminal and planes and for new services, such as trains and the disposal of rainwater run-off.

The extension of the Piccadilly line and Heathrow Express train lines by approximately a mile to reach the new terminal.

Statement of Requirements

T5 will serve the British capital city, London. It would be used exclusively by the British Airways as a global hub, and should be designed to ultimately handle an approximate of about 30 million passengers after completion. The terminal is to fulfill numerous functions including retail facilities, rail terminal, multi-storey car park, river diversion, production line (baggage handling), office suite as well as passenger and aircraft handling facilities.

Stakeholders List

Client - BAA

Sole Tenant - BA

Design Consultants

Lead Architects - Richard Rogers Partnership

Co - Architects - Pascal + Watson (Production)

Chapman Taylor (Retail)

HOK (Rail Systems)

YRM (BA/BAA Liaison)

Structural Engineers - Arup

Civil Engineers - Mott McDonald

Quantity Surveyors - Turner & Townsend

E. C. Harris

Service Engineers - DSSR


Project Consultant - Parsons Brinkerhoff Ltd

Principal Contractors - Yet to be confirmed

Contractors - Yet to be confirmed

Sub-Contractors - Yet to be confirmed

Suppliers - Yet to be confirmed

End Users - Customers

Project Brief

Back ground

The Heathrow airport alone caters for about 60 million out of about 130 million passengers, managed by all seven airports. The number appears to be constantly on the increase.

The table below shows number of passengers from the past and projected number of passengers travelling by air.

Table 1: Passengers travelling to, from and within the UK (actual & projected)


Passengers (millions)















With the projected increase in the number of passengers, comes the need for another Terminal to present a way of increasing the Heathrow's capacity by 50%.

Project Sponsor

British Airport Authority (BAA)

Project Objectives

This section deals with the overall objectives of the T5.


BAA desired goals and objectives for the construction of T5 are set as follow;

To ensure that the project is delivered on-time and on-budget, and high quality;

To ensure excellent team work and safety standards are observed, and sensitivity to impact on the immediate environment;

To redefine the passenger experience at Heathrow and set new standards both in the terminal design and customer satisfaction.


Boost the growth of the economy at local, regional and national level.

Creation of more jobs, directly or indirectly.

It will provides companies based in the South East with a competitive advantage by providing more accessible link to the world;

It will facilitate tourism; and supports other vital industries.

It will make the airline industry highly competitive amongst its European counterparts.

It will make the Heathrow airport the premier international hub airport in Europe

It will increase the Heathrow's capacity in terms of passengers and freight/cargo by up to 50%.

Strengthens the route network, hence increasing more connection flights.

Proposed start date

September 2002

Proposed end date

March 2008


£4.2 billion

Expected outcomes

Terminal 5 would provide UK with a stunning new gateway to the world.

Flexibility of the terminal building to meet changing future demands.

Maximise revenue from infrastructures, i.e. flexible stand layout.

Entire project is cost effective.


This will range from small numbers of relatively large suppliers to higher numbers of work packages. They will be, however to the minimum value.

The small number deliverables will include;

Excavation and civil works

Steelworks (to include roofs)

Concrete works

The backbone mechanical and electrical systems

While the high numbers of deliverables during the fit-out phase will include;

123 modular lifts

63 escalators

22,000 light fittings

67,000 square meters floor tiles

226, 000 square walls

15km length of baggage conveyor belts

115, 000 area in square meters of ceilings

3,000 prefabricated modules containing the building services to be installed.

Scope of Work

T5 program will consist of 16 major integrated projects, e.g., buildings, air traffic control tower, earthworks, airfield, baggage handling system, and two train extensions. These projects will be subdivided in 147 sub-projects.

The scope of work includes:

A main terminal building (270,000m²)

Two satellite buildings (each the size of Terminal 4)

A control tower to serve all of Heathrow Airport (87 meter high).

Supporting infrastructure works includes:

A major tunnel to connect T5 with existing terminals

The construction taxi-ways and aircraft stands

A direct link to Heathrow's central terminal area by an airside road tunnel and track system

The extension of Heathrow Express, Piccadilly lines and overland rail

The twin river diversions.

A landscaped motorway off the M25.


The following items are not in the scope of this project



The possible risks that could be associated with the T5 development are categorized in the areas below;

Commencement of the project

Design modification

Construction process

Contract related risk

Integration and fit out


Please refer to section for further details on the risks assessment and management strategies.

Constraints and Assumptions


This section identifies known issues or conditions that impose limitations on the smooth operation of the project.


The project will be under strict conditions by the local council because it is located in the green belt which is meant to be left as an open space and the fear of the harmful effect the project might have on local community.


From the North and South end of the T5 site are two of the world's most heavily utilised runways, to the east are existing terminals and to the opposite end are Europe's busiest motorway interchange (M25/M4) this in itself poses a physical constraint on the site. And also, the need to have a single entrance and exit point through which all construction-related vehicles and people must use in order to minimise construction traffic on local roads will present a huge logistical challenge to the project team.



The rate of general inflation will be around 2.2% in 2002, rising to 2.7% in 2003 before falling to 2.6% in 2004.


New work output will rise in 2002 by 4.0%, rising by 3.0% in 2003 and 2.5% in 2004.


Building Workers: Increases of 5.0% from June 2003 and 4.5% from June 2004.

Plumbers: Increases of 13.0% from December 2002 and 7.0% from September 2003.

Glaziers: Increases of 2.5% from January 2003 and 2.5% from January 2004.

Electricians: Increases of 5.0% from January 2003 and 7.2% from January 2004.

Heating and Ventilating Operatives: Increases of 16.2% from October 2002, 7.0% from September 2003 and 4.5% from September 2004.

Steelworkers: Increases of 5.5% from April 2003 and 4.5% from April 2004.


The annual rate of inflation for materials will be 1.7% in the year to 3rd quarter 2003 and 2.8% the year after."

BCIS Online - ...


Work Breakdown Structure

The project is divided into two phase; phase 1 and phase 2.

The construction phases are seen below:

The first phase is broken down into five main stages and is scheduled to run for the first five years:

Stage1 - Site preparation and enabling works:

This stage consists majorly of construction activities which involve the surveying of the site by archaeologist, leveling and removal of sludge lagoons. Construction of temporary and support facilities such as road, office complex and logistics centers.

Stage2 -Groundwork and substructures works:

Excavation works will begin during this stage, which will enable the construction of the M25 spur road and landscaping of the Colne Valley. This will also give way for the construction of foundation, substructures for the terminal basements, drainage system and rail system.

Stage 3 - Major structures:

This stage shall involve the roofs erection and internal superstructures of both terminal buildings.

Works on the multi-storey car parks and ancillary buildings will also kick off in this stage.

Stage 4 - Fit out:

At this stage, the supplies needed for the installation of the building services (i.e. power, heating, and ventilation systems); baggage, tracked transit, and specialist electronic systems will be delivered to site and installed.

Stage 5 - Operational Readiness:

During this stage, all the terminal systems and processes will be tested, involving members of the general public to witness the operational readiness of the T5.

The trials will involve the public seeing every element of the terminal, from check-in and security through to baggage reclaims and way finding, to be tested and proven.

The second Phase will include a second satellite and additional stands. This will start after the vacation of the residual sewage sludge treatment site in 2006.

See appendix for Gantt chart

Organisation Breakdown Structure

The division of the project will fall under four major project categories -

Civil works (Airside and landside civil);


Enabling earthworks

Landslide campus

Western perimeter corridor

Rail and Tunnels works;

Heathrow Express extension

Piccadilly line extension

Airside road tunnel

Tracked transit system

Buildings works;

T5 concourse A

T5 concourse B

Air traffic control tower

Other works


baggage systems

British Airways projects



Solutions .


Change in design throughout the life cycle of project to meet new technological solutions and changes in security, space requirements or facilities functionality.

Contract Related Risk

Cultural confusion and the reluctance to acknowledge risk

Measures to keeping the effect minimal

BAA will setup monitoring sites alongside with the local council, to measure dust and air quality throughout the project.

If the air quality gets above a set limit, due to the ongoing project, BAA will investigate and deal with the problem immediately.

Setting up a 24 hour hotline for complaints about any problems arising from the T5 construction.

Holding regular meeting with the council, community representatives to discuss and work through any issues arising from the project

Providing a community trust fund (£1 million a year for the next 15 years) to aid several community projects.

Keeping the people constantly informed about what is going on, by sending copies of all planning applications to libraries, local newspapers publications, public exhibitions.

Logistic Solution

The 'just in time' or 'pull' strategy will be used. This method is used in factory-based manufacturing; materials will be brought to site by suppliers only when the site is ready to receive them. This strategy will eliminate the need for lay-down space materials and also increase reliability and efficiency in the use of materials.



The Project Execution Plan (PEP) is the governing document that is prepared as a guideline in which the project manager uses to establish the means to execute, monitor, and control, projects. This document is prepared to serve as a channel of communication between all stakeholders involved in the T5 project, and it is subject to review and amendments to meet all changed conditions during the life cycle of the project.

This document will remain live throughout the life cycle of this project, and will be updated constantly to reflect design changes, tendering and construction periods. An entire document will be issued, approved and channeled through the author (Consultant Project Manager) where revisions constitute considerable redrafting of the PEP.


The main purpose of this document is to:

Provide justification for the project and how the objective is to be met;

Provide sufficient guidance and clear understanding for the project team to develop their approach to their own roles and responsibilities;

Provide a medium for audit, review and means of feedback throughout the life cycle of the project.

Project Description and Brief

Project Description

As seen in the section above.

Project Brief

As seen in the section above.

Roles and Responsibilities


Management of the project will be centred on the concept of the project being composed of a series of products delivered by integrated teams, comprising a fully integrated supply chain in which BAA will take proactive leadership roles.

The project will comprise of teams with three parts:

Client team

Principal Design team

Principal contractor team

Teams will not be formed conventionally, i.e. not by company or discipline, but assembled around 'specialised services'. Teams will be made up of individuals identified as having the right set of skills for the activity in hand, not minding the organisation they work for.

Project Organization Structure

Roles and Responsibilities

Client Team

BAA Executives

Over sees the project

Main point of contact and primarily responsible for managing all the projects.

Ensures the T5 agreement is functional

Audits and reviews the project delivery strategies

Provides managerial support and guidance to all the project teams.

Principal Design Team

BAA Technical Director

Principal Contractor Team

Principal contractor

Project Cost plan and Cost Management Procedures


The document for control cost on the project is based on the approved budget

Funding Details

The project is solely funded by BAA

The source of funding is determined by five yearly reviews of landing charges by it regulators.

Cost Breakdown Structure

Please refer to appendix ..

Cost Management Procedures