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The objectives of this project are to build factories and to ensure the successful construction. The following is a progress report on the project. It is a brief description on the proposed work.
The purposes of site investigation are to decide the site is generally suitable, to get specific information and to prepare alternatives. Desktop study need to be done using available data or information such as map and geological data. Geological maps and memoirs are probably the most important source of information as these give an excellent indication of the sort of ground conditions likely to be encountered. Site investigation is important for the successful completion of project. Every basic structure has various to each other. So that, every project has own difference steps because it is base to the surrounding environment. Therefore, each data which has taken from others site cannot be used in the new project. Soil investigation is also a part of site investigation. Soil investigation is required before constructing any new structure to avoid failure of foundation at a later stage. Nature of the soil is needed to determine the stability of foundation. Ground-water-table levels show up as color variations in the soil at certain depths in the pit-mottled or discolored soil is a sign of the seasonal water table level. These test pits also shown the preliminary check to determine the presence of bedrock and the nature of the soil. Inspection visit need to be done to the site to collect information about the present land use, surface topography, geology features and surface drainage.
1. Site preparation
Site preparation is that all the activities to prepare the site before construction start. Site clearing is the main steps of site preparation. Trees along the access road will be cut off as the required to promote the easy access to the site by big vehicles. Besides that, all trees that inside the fencing area will be cleared. Remove all waste material from the site to make sure the site cleans. Clearing and excavating will do at the same time.
A temporary fence will be installed. The fence will be maintained throughout the entire project. A project identification sign will be put near to the main entrance of the site.
Besides that, temporary buildings and temporary access road also need to be built. Temporary road is the road that linking all areas within a project site. Temporary buildings such as toilets, site office, store, canteen and others is the facilities that need by a project site.
Sub-structures are that all elements of a building that are located beneath the ground level. It consists of piling and foundation, ground beam and others. Foundation solutions chosen are depends on the ground conditions identified at the site. Different piles styles and piling techniques can be used to create deep foundation. Due to the building of factories, it is need to choose the piling that can create deep foundation. This is because to build factories, its need strong foundation.
Super-structures are that all elements that located above damp-proof material. It may consist of wall, roof, doors and windows, finishing and others. All the installation will be started once the foundation is done. Then it followed by utilities that proving basic conveniences or luxury. The most basic are water and power supply. Then it followed by septic tank, fire detector, security alarm and others. For a factory, it is necessary to have fire detector and security alarm. This is for the safety of the workers.
4. External works
External works is that all works that outside the buildings. It is mostly the finishing work at the end of construction. Vehicles parking is the most important external work for this project. This is because as a factory, it is necessary to provide parking lots for all the workers. Besides that, fencing and sewer also need to be installed.
The By-Laws is a legal document outlining the self-imposed rules that will regulate an organization's own actions and it are varies according to the locations. There are some laws that shall apply for the construction of a factory. Firstly, it is required to submit the plan of the factory to the State Government. The plan shall be drawn to the scale showing that the plan, elevation and necessary cross sections of the factory buildings indicating all relevant details relating to natural lighting, ventilation and means of escape in case of fire, and the position of the plant and machinery. Secondly, the structural requirements that need to ensure the minimum internal height of the workrooms at 4.5mt. Thirdly is parking space should be provided for the entire factory. Then it s followed by the requirement of water supply, drainage and sanitary installation.
As a conclusion, to prepare a project site, it is necessary to do site investigation. Then only will follow by the four stages of the construction stages. There are site preparations, sub-structures, super-structures and external works. All this stages are important to ensure the successful construction.
Bad site layout
The main purpose of site layout is to increase the site efficiency. Firstly, the site efficiency can be control by minimize walking distance within facilities and buildings to reduce time wastage. From this picture, we can see that the construction area having quite a distance with the others facilities. The construction areas located at one side while the toilet at the others side and so for the others facilities. The most important thing is that the valuable storage located far from the construction area. This can increase the walking distance for the workers and also wasting their time walking here and there. Secondly, we will talk about the space utilization. From this picture, we can see that there is lots of space between the facilities. The site area actually can be smaller if full use of the empty land. There are still lots of space. Besides that, the valuable storage located too near with the exit. Lastly, there is only one temporary access road. If the access road temporary cannot be used, the large vehicles cannot travel in. All access routes to the work site must be clearly marked. They should not be less than two meters wide. But for this site, the access road only 1.5 meters wide.