The organising works need the property manager to manage in the building. The function of property manager is to maintain building to an appropriate and acceptable standard at reasonable cost with the minimum inconvenience to the occupier. To ensure the safety of the buildings and to protect it, the equipment should parallel with the standard of requirements and has a good implementation of organising maintenance.
Therefore, this report presents the organising maintenance work be planned and how to carry out smoothly. The maintenance manager or property manager must keep the detailed records of maintenance expenditure and must know what unit costs to be sustain. It is important to clear out the objectives of maintenance as well as the benefit gained from the maintenance work which can be short-term or long-term.
Moreover, this report was to suggest a few solutions for a better maintenance work in building for future generation. Maintenance work has also been categorised as 'predictable' and 'avoidable' specified types of maintenance.
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Besides that, organisation set-up is to ensure the smooth running of the work, one organization should be set up by property manager to work of maintenance more efficiency and effectiveness. When the Property Manager categorized the maintenance, it will be know how to prevent the damages in the building because at the early stage have a planned maintenance. Planned maintenance is to know the success or failure of a plan may only be measured in terms of the degree to which it has achieved the goals set.
There are numerous definitions of 'maintenance' but it is proposed to use the one offered by the Committee on Building Maintenance of the Department of the Environment contained in its report published in 1972 which was based on a definition contained in BS 3811: 1964
'Building maintenance is work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve every facility part of a building, its services and surrounds, to a currently accepted standard and to sustain the utility and value of the facility' (BSc, 1983)
The concept of building maintenance it is highly desirable but hardly feasible to produce buildings that are maintenance-free, although much can be done at the design stage to reduce the amount of subsequent maintenance work. All elements of the buildings deteriorate at a greater or lesser rate dependent on materials and methods of construction, environmental conditions and the use of the building (Seeley, 1987).
The responsibility for maintenance, property manager may have direct control of maintenance work but more often will have only a supervisory role in ensuring that the tenant performs his covenant to maintain the property.
The term 'maintenance organisation' is used to describe the person or persons responsible for the planning and control of maintenance operations. The position of a maintenance department within an organisation is dependent on the strategic objectives of that organisation and the importance it attached to the condition of its buildings and the maintenance department must consider such as its position within the overall organisation structure and the organisation of the maintenance department itself. To establish the organisation's attitude to maintenance, as this will influence the policy framework within which maintenance operates. This is turn will have a major effect not only on organisational matters, but also on some other facets, such as operational details, and approach of the organisation to the procurement of buildings (Wordsworth, 2001).
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Specified Types of Maintenance
Maintenance work has also been categorised as 'predictable' and 'avoidable'. Predictable maintenance is regular periodic work that may be necessary to retain the performance characteristic of a building, as well as that required replacing or repair the requirement the building after it has achieved a useful life span of the building. Avoidable maintenance is the work required to rectify failures caused by the incorrect installation or the issue of faulty materials for maintenance work. This is achieved by the comparing the information received on the condition of the building from inspection based on types of the maintenance because it should be systematic, economical both short and medium term considerations (Seeley, 1987).
2.2 Organisation Set Up
To ensure the smooth running of the work, one organization should be set up by property manager to work of maintenance more efficiency & effectiveness. The position within the organisation, its relationship with other department and functions, it is the single biggest indicator of the degree of importance attached to maintenance by senior management.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
The term 'maintenance department' is used to describe the person or person responsible for the planning, control and execution of maintenance operations. This may be wholly in house or, as is now much more likely, may include independent bodies, such as consultants and contractors. In considering the maintenance management system to be used, the relationships with these bodies and the rest of the business organisation must therefore be carefully taken into account. The nature of these interfaces will influence operational methods and management systems profoundly. In general, each of the following phases must be considered in structuring maintenance department:
Generation of maintenance work
Execution of the work
Control of operations
Provision of feedback
Evaluation of performance
The organisation set up to deal with maintenance needs must address two major concerns. Firstly, it must ensure that an appropriate services is provided within the guidelines establish by proper consideration of cooperate objectives, and secondly, it must be capable of judging own effectiveness (or that an external provider) by monitoring and controlling performance. The organisation of the maintenance department will normally be determined by the characteristics of the parent organisation and the policy it adopts for its execution (Seeley, 1987).
2.3 Categorised The Maintenance
The organising maintenance work should be categorised to know the types of defect in the building. When the Manager Maintenance categorized the maintenance, it will be know how to prevent the damages in the building. The specification forms an extremely important document on building maintenance, conversion and improvement contracts, as it constitutes a schedule of instructions to the contractor and prescribed the materials and workmanship requirement. The categorised building maintenance by means of the following:
Can be defined as the maintenance that been organised and carried out with forethought, control and the used of records to a predetermined plan (Seeley, 1987).
Can be defined as the maintenance carried out to know the predetermined plan (Seeley, 1987).
Can be defined as the maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals or corresponding to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the probability of failure or the performance degradation of an item (Seeley, 1987).
Can be defined as the maintenance carried out after a failure has occurred and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform its required function (Seeley, 1987).
Can be defined as the maintenance which it is necessary to put in hand immediately to avoid serious consequence. This is sometimes referred to as day to day maintenance, resulting from such incidents as gas leaks and gale damage (Seeley, 1987).
Condition based maintenance
Can be defined as the preventive maintenance initiated as a result of knowledge of the condition of an item from routine or continuous monitoring (Seeley, 1987).
Can be defined as the preventive maintenance carried out to a predetermine interval of time, number of operations, mileage and etc (Seeley, 1987).
2.4 Planned Maintenance
The object of planning is to ensure that work considered necessary is carried out with maximum economy that the work done satisfies the criteria for effectiveness and efficiency. 'Efficiency' means how well a particular process is carried out. 'Effectiveness' means to what degree the outcomes of the work (however efficient or inefficient) fulfil the goals of the plan. It should be noted that the existence of any kind of plan presupposes a series of goals or policy objectives, or else the plan is pointless and without direction. The success or failure of a plan may only be measured in terms of the degree to which it has achieved the goals set (Wordsworth, 2001).
The planned maintenance of buildings can be subdivided into three main categories:
Preventive running maintenance - work which can be done while the facility is in services.
Corrective shut-down maintenance - work which can only be done when the facility is, or is taken, out of services.
Corrective breakdown maintenance - work which is carried out after a failure, but for which advance provision has been made, in the form of spares, materials, labour and equipment.
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The example of planned maintenance:
Cleaning can be fact be regarded as part of maintenance in that in part it is a preventive and protective activity. For example, regular washing down of painted wall surfaced reduces subsequent costing work. Programming of cleaning work should be preceded by a survey of the various floors and wall finishes with their respective areas and users. Work sheets a compile for daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual operations and these will provide the basis for estimating labour requirements. Supervision and inspection of cleaning work is vitally important, and cleaning equipment must be properly maintained.
Choosing the correct paint for the project is vitally important. The difference in initial cost between a satisfactory material and cheap paint is insignificant compared with the additional labour and disruption costs in having to repaint 1 year earlier, together with possible deterioration of the base material in the meantime. If planning done properly it will save time, money and manpower.
In the planned maintenance of engineering services in the building, it is vital to define clearly the tasks to be performed and then to programme the work in a logical manner. If properly planned, malfunctioning components will be detected at an early stage, enabling simple corrective action to be taken, rather than waiting for a complete failure and then being faced with an expensive replacement, in addition productivity will be increased by the reduction in travelling and waiting time. The condition monitoring can be applied in 3 ways such as simple inspection, condition checking and trend monitoring.
2.5 Programming And Progressive Maintenance Work
To maintain regular progress of building maintenance work, a progress chart should be prepared before the work is commenced, usually in the form of a bar chart, with bar lines representing the time period allocated to each operation. The progress chart is used throughout the contract to record the actual progress and any variations required discussion and adjustment of labour and materials to bring the work back on to target. The scheduled maintenance is important because it helps to keep inspection works running smoothly. Scheduled maintenance can also extend the life of the building and help prevent unnecessary and expensive repairs.
A schedule or programme for the whole project is thus devised. Computer-aided network analysis offers the advantages to speed, accuracy and optimisation of resources utilisation. The prime advantages of network analysis are:
It shows the interrelationship of jobs and enables people to see not only the overall plan but also the ways in which their own activities depend upon, influence, those of others.
It separates planning the sequence of jobs from scheduling times for the job.
The total requirement of manpower and plant can be readily calculated, there is a vital need to ensure the use of balanced gangs and to reduce to a minimum the time when plant is standing die.
By setting out the complete plan it is easier to assess its soundness and so prevent unrealistic or superficial planning.
Schedule may be based on consideration of costs so as to complete projects in a given time at minimum expenses.
Other programming techniques include elemental trend analysis, precedence network diagrams and partly linked bar chart, but these are too sophisticated for most maintenance and repair project.
2.6 In-House or Outsourced Staff
The choice between employing consultants or trades people directly or engaging an independent for those purpose, should be decided according to which offers the greater advantage in terms of cost, quality and convenience. However in practice this choice may be heavily influenced by outside forces such as political directions or overall company policy. Potentially, in-house staffs are more economic than outsources staff by at least the profit margin including by the contractor tender. (Wordsworth, 2001)
Besides that, clerk of work also important in organising maintenance work. This is included in supervision of maintenance work because most of maintenance works are building craft operatives and preferably have served as trades and general foremen. They must have an extensive practical knowledge of building materials, principles of construction and the execution of techniques in all trades. There are the three main categories of clerks of works:
Maintenance clerks of works who usually hold permanent posts and are concerned with cathedrals, hospitals, local authority and government buildings.
Estate clerk of works who are responsible for the upkeep of building, fences, roads, water services, drainage and other related facilities on large country estates.
Clerks or works who are primarily concerned with new building work and who are likely to move from one project to another as each is completed.
2.7 Computerised Maintenance
Following technical inspections and completion of standard inspection reports, the appropriate data can be fed into the computer which can produce detailed orders based on standard specification items, and these can be incorporated in contract documents is required. The maintenance manager must keep the detailed records of maintenance expenditure and must know what unit costs to maintain.
However, accurate information and effective channels of communication can result in the formulation of sound policies and good performance. The following example helps to illustrate the practical benefits to be gained from the used of a computer. On receipt of the relevant information the computer can be use to perform the following operations relating to the production of works orders with speed and efficiency:
Immediately display of all work outstanding, in progress or complete, to avoid duplication.
Provision of details of cyclical maintenance such as repainting and rewiring that may affect the response.
Provision of information from past records to identify trends in maintenance/repair works and patterns of failures.
Identification and arrangements for tasks requiring pre-inspection and appointments, to validate accuracy of original work description.
Production of works orders with full description of requirements from basic codes as predetermined and access the schedule of rates.
Automatic up-date of records of committed expenditure to assist with budgeting and cost control.
Minicomputers or even microcomputers are likely to have the capacity necessary for a maintenance/repairs system, but investigation of available software should precede any consideration of hardware. Once the software is agreed then computer suppliers can be invited to submit quotations.
As a conclusion, planning, budgeting and controlling the cost of maintenance work are essential operations if buildings are to be maintained effectively within available funds. This leads automatically to regular inspections and the implementation of programmes of planned maintenance.
The organising maintenance is an important part of terotechnology approach which has been defined as a combination of management, financial or budget the cost of maintenance, engineering for electricity and other practices applied to the building in pursuit of economic life cycles costs. It requires all departments in an organisation to co-operate in ensuring that the assets of the organisation are planned, provided, maintained, operated and disposed of at the lowest total cost to the organisation.
Besides that, organizing maintenance works should be planned as soon as possible to avoid damage to the building. Maintenance is a matter of organising the work to be carried out coupled with close supervision, follow-up and control. It will involve the preparation of the duties and responsibilities of the maintenance management team and standard checklist for the daily, weekly and monthly inspection reports. Maintenance will also entail recording requisition from the tenants, preparing specifications for repairs, appraising quotation, issuing work orders, supervision of work and approving payments.
Scarrett, D. (1983). Property Management. New York: London New York E. & F. N. Spon.
Seeley, I. H. (1987). Building Maintenance Second Edition. New York: Palgrave.
Singh, G. (1996). Property Management in Malaysia. Federal Pub.
Wordsworth, P. (1987). Lee's Building Maintenance Management Fourth Edition. Blackwell Science.