Possible Changes During Construction Construction Essay

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When these considerations are being examined it is important to decide which of all are the most important, and which type of contract will bring the project in on time and on budget.

The three main categories that we will consider are Management contracting, Construction management, and design and build. All three have their advantages and disadvantages.

Management contracting includes a management contractor that is solely responsible for the on site works. He employs a works contractor who will undertake all aspects of construction. The management contractor will be left with the task of co-ordination, time, costs, and quality control.

This form of contract produces a flow amongst on site workers as there is one person overseeing and responsible for works. This also has a side effect which we will see arise in construction management as well. The fact that the design engineers are not in direct contact with the onsite management contractor, allows for massive delays. If the need presents itself, in the event of changes or misunderstanding of the drawings, the contractor has to go back and communicate with the engineers, who may or may not respond in a timely fashion.

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When you look at the structure of construction management, same issue returns but in a much more prominent way. In this case, the design team, the works contractor and the construction managers are separate entities. All three are employed by the client, which results in a lot of horizontal movement rather than a chain of command. This on the other hand provides the client with most of the control. In the situation that the client is not extremely experienced and knowledgeable, the project can be set up for disaster.

The third and final procurement method is Design and Build. This method, as you can see in the figure below, puts the client at the top of the food chain while keeping the vertical chain of command.

Every one has someone above him and below him. This minimizes problems by keeping everyone on one payroll. When there is a question, the appropriate person has the same at stake as the person looking for the solution. This method also allows for on the fly changes to the design.

This being said, a DBFO or design, build, finance, operate contract would be the best solution as it keeps risk on both parties while minimizing the lateral movement in search of information. If some sort of partnering could be introduced that would further enhance the contract as you will have many parties bringing their vast knowledge together.

3.1 Sustainability and Buildability

Sustainability covers 4 main topics:

Energy the structure uses

Materials used

Waste produced

Pollution produced

By reducing these four items, you are essential producing a more sustainable construction. There are many ways to achieve this. To understand how this can be done, firstly we must understand how we consume energy as an industry. Consider the energy that we consume, from extraction of the raw material, to the transport it to site. The transport of our workforce and maintenance after construction is complete, and finally the demolition of the structure.

In the sustainable world that we live in, steps must be taken to remedy such problems.

For this design we are recommending the following measures:

Locally sourced material for any aggregate , as well as recycled aggregate where available. The use of recycled local aggregate will reduce both transportation as well as the extraction process. It is very possible to substitute this recycled aggregate in the build up of the roads sub base and base. If this is not available, concrete from a demolition can be a replacement for the sub base.

A local workforce when available will reduce the time spent on the road by workers, and will also give them the opportunity to car pool. Incentives can be given to people who carpool, such as limited parking for cars with 3 or more passengers.

Cycle racks will be provided to allow people to bike to site. As well as a shuttle bus to and from the local rail station

Transort of materials and waste using the Thames will both reduce emissions and allow for more products to be brought on site in a short period of time.

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Solar powered signage will be used for road signs, road lights, bridge lighting and traffic cameras. This will be used on an as available basis. This will cut down on the overall consumption of power by these electronic devices.

Buildability is the process of creating a design for the ease of construction. The bridge has a simple yet elegant design. The beauty of the cable stay harp design, does not translate to complicated construction. This allows us to have a quick seamless construction, with a quality product in the end.

The incorporation of the engineer from conception to construction also gives the ability to solve buildability issues that arise once on site.

3.2 Detailed Method Statement

3.2.1 Description of Road works:

The road work to be performed is as follows. The road improvement works to take place in the following two locations, North and South of the Thames, simultaneously.

Works will begin at the junction of A13 - A1089 in the North.

The road works will include the widening of A1089 between A13 and Thurrock Parkway. This stretch of 4.1 kilometers will be widened from two lanes in each direction, to three lanes in each direction.

Improvement works will have to be done on the roundabout at the intersection of A1089 and Thurrock Parkway. The roundabout will be designed to improve traffic flow to St. Andrews road.

St. Andrews road, which becomes ferry road, will also need to be widened as well as an inclusion of a bridge approach towards the end of the 2.5 kilometer road in Tilbury.

The bridge will land on Bath Street south of the Thames in Gravesend. A new A-road will need to be built in place of Bath Street to take traffic over the 2.04 kilometers to A227. A227 will need widening over a total length of 1.35 kilometers.

Method:

All workers will at all times wear all necessary safety/protective clothing.

Move In and Set out

Ensure that the site is clear

Level site to depth of sub base

Use a sand and gravel mixture to form the sub base

Apply a level of gravel to form the base

Pour asphalt/tar to create the smoothe surface

Light bitumen seal coat

Build new Asphalt curbs

Apply any finishes

Clean and clear away

All road works will be done during the following hours:

Mon, Tues, Wed, Thurs - 10:00 pm - 05:30 am

Friday - 11:00 pm - 07:00 am

Saturday - 12:00 pm - 07:00 am

Sunday - 10:30 am - 06:00 am

There will be two shifts, each working 35 hours a week.

3.2.2 Description of Bridge works:

The bridge will be built as two parts. The first part will be the beam construction from both shores. The beam construction will be piers with decks in four sections. This means never having a cantilever of over 25 meters. The middle of the bridge will comprise of a cable stayed bridge spanning 400 meters, 200 meters on either side of the tower. The piers will 1.5 â€" 2.0 meter caissons driven into the river bed until a solid rock is found. The decks will be pre-cast on shore all on shore work will take place at the staging area north of the Thames in Tilbury as you can see on the map below.

This area provides a large 150,000square meter area to create a construction zone for any pre-cast members such as the bridge decks as well as the bridge tower.

Method:

All workers will at all times wear all necessary safety/protective clothing.

Move In and Set out

Drive caisson tubes into river bed

Remove soil from caisson by pumping river water at high pressure into the bottom of the caisson

Drop reinforcement into caisson

Pour slurry (sand and concrete mix) into caisson (will settle at the bottom)

Begin pumping concrete into the bottom of the caisson. This will begin to push slurry and water out of the caisson

Allow to set

Build form work for cap with connection for deck

Precast deck on shore

Ferry pra-cast decks to location and use crane to put into place

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Build form work for main tower in sections

Begin adding tower to central pier in sections

Start adding the deck from main pier out

Connect cables to deck and tower

Pave deck

Apply finishes to the bridge deck

In the figure below you can see the steps in detail:

3.3 Programme of Works

See APPENDIX A

3.4 Minimization of construction waste, embodied energy and carbon emissions.

The reduction of waste produced will be achieved by increasing the efficiency of production. Steps like just in time ordering can be implemented to avoid over ordering and a heap of unused materials.

Another step is recycling the wood from form work, as well as protecting for use on following projects. Coating the timber with a polyethylene lining can give the form work the extension needed.

Furthermore locally sourced material will be used for aggregate, as well as recycled aggregate where available. The use of recycled local aggregate will reduce both transportation as well as the extraction process. It is very possible to substitute this recycled aggregate in the build up of the roads sub base and base. If this is not available, concrete from a demolition can be a replacement for the sub base.

A local workforce when available will reduce the time spent on the road by workers, and will also give them the opportunity to car pool. Incentives can be given to people who carpool, such as limited parking for cars with 3 or more passengers.

Cycle racks will be provided to allow people to bike to site. As well as a shuttle bus to and from the local rail station

Transport of materials and waste using the Thames will both reduce emissions and allow for more products to be brought on site in a short period of time. Selection of certain suppliers can be made with the restriction that the need to be close to bodies of water. This way we are reducing the time spent on the road by lorries.