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The purpose of this document is to provide details of OHS monitoring, measurement and registration including workplace inspection programs in accordance with the requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act (2004), ( specifications with guidance for use and OHSAS 18001:2007Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems ) requirements.
When a manager undertakes a risk assessment they are taking an important step in protecting the health and safety of people who enter their work places. The risk assessment process helps managers to focus on those risks in the workplace that have the potential to cause injury or illness to staff and students. Some risks are visible; others are only evident and able to be understood when a work task being performed is observed.
When thinking about risk assessments remember:
Hazard - Condition or situation which has the potential to cause injury or illness (physical or psychological) or damage to property and the environment.
Risk - How severely someone can be harmed by the hazard, and how likely it is that a person will be harmed by the hazard.
Control -A thing, work process or system of work that eliminates an OHS hazard or risk or, if this is not reasonably practicable, reduces the risk so far as is reasonably practicable.
Once the hazard profile of an organisation has been determined, an assessment of how well the prevention and control strategies applied match the hazard profile of the organisation may be evaluated, together with the effectiveness of the various approaches that manage them. The three main approaches that have emerged for dealing with the corresponding hazards are referred to here as: safe place, safe person and safe systems (see Fig. 1). A broad outline of some of the options available within each strategy has been given for illustrative purposes, and a general critique of the relative merits and limitations of each strategy provided. This exercise highlights one of the key attributes of an OHS MS - the ability to manage a multitude of complex hazards.
Safe place strategies:
Safe place strategies are underpinned by the risk assessment process and the application of the hierarchy of controls up to the point where alterations are made to the existing physical environment. Safe place strategies also include arrangements for abnormal emergency situations, as well as monitoring and evaluation to assess the efficacy of solutions applied and peer review of modifications. These techniques are most effective when the hazards are predictable and there is an abundance of information available about the potential problems. The flexibility and adaptability of this approach represent some of its greatest merits; however it is not without its limitations. 
Perception of risk is a highly contentious issue as it will vary from individual to individual and can lead to inconsistency in the risk analysis stage. The perception of risk may be influenced by the following factors:
What is known about the risk, including future implications;
The actual level of control over the situation;
Situational awareness and understanding of outside influences;
The depth of task knowledge;
whether the potential consequences relate to everyday experiences, require specialist knowledge or are the subject of speculation;
experience and the frequency of previous task performance;
the potential to imagine vivid, gruesome or frightening outcomes;
Personality-dependent risk taking attributes.
The 5 Steps of an OHSMS
There are five steps to an effective OHSMS, and these steps form a continual cycle of improvement as shown in the image. Consultation is a key element of each step.
1. Top management commitment and policy
The policy is a general plan of intent which guides or influences future decisions. It is the basis upon which measurable objectives and targets and the OHSMS is developed.
Plan how to deliver the OHS policy, objectives and targets to ensure hazards arising from work activities are identified so that risks can be assessed and then controlled.
Implement the plan by developing the capabilities and support mechanisms necessary to achieve the OHS policy, objectives and targets.
4. Measurement and evaluation
Measure, monitor and evaluate OHS performance, to determine the effectiveness of risk management, and if necessary take preventative and corrective action.
5. Review and improvement
Review and continually improve the OHSMS, with the objective of improving OHS performance.
OHS professionals can help you develop an OHSMS.
REQUIREMENTS FOR MONITORING, MEASUREMENT & REGISTRATION
The monitoring, measurement and registration requirements are determined regularly via REVIEW OF OHS LEGISLATIVE COMPLIANCE
Monitoring and review of OHS legislative compliance occurs via:
quarterly review of the OHS risk and legal compliance register, followed by twice yearly submission of compliance reports to the Audit & Risk Management office;
regular review of regulatory websites by OH&S staff
Quarterly meetings of the OHSPC are held to monitor and review of the OHS management system, including:
OHS performance indicators;
OHS policy documentation;
OH&S planning documentation
OHS risk and legal compliance register;
WorkSafe Victoria interventions;
Results of audits;
INTERNAL & EXTERNAL REVIEWS
Internal & external reviews of the OHS management system are conducted regularly, including:
Twice yearly compliance reports to the Audit & Risk Management office Quality reviews
Fortnightly OH&S staff meetings
OH&S planning meetings
OHS MONITORING, MEASUREMENT & REGISTRATION:
Promoting positive leadership and management systems for occupational safety and health can be particularly challenging in all types of organisations; and particularly for small and medium enterprises. There are several tools currently freely available to organisations to help them address the issues of leadership and OSH. The aim of this E-fact is to highlight a number of freely available tools, toolkits, and resources aimed at organisations and managers. 
List of tools:
Line Manager Competency Indicator Tool
It is essential that line managers are equipped with the correct skills and behaviours to be able to manage staff behaviour and stress-related problems The British Health and Safety Executive, in association with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development and Investors in People, has designed a tool to allow managers to assess whether they currently have the behaviours identified as effective for preventing and reducing stress at work; its aim is to help managers reflect on their behaviour and management style.
Type: Indicator tool
Country: United Kingdom
Line Managers' Resource: a practical guide to managing and supporting people with mental health problems in the workplace.
This practical guide was developed by Shift in partnership with the British Department of Health, Department for Work and Pensions, Health and Safety Executive and Health Work Wellbeing. It is aimed at supporting employers to promote good mental health and reduce discrimination. The resource is an update of the Mind Out for Mental Health Line Managers' Resource.
Type: practical guide
Country: United Kingdom
Workplace Strategies for Mental Health: Leadership and Management
Workplace Strategies for Mental Health is a unique website dedicated to helping all Canadian employers who wish to address mental health issues in the workplace.
Type: Resource website
The Great-West Life Centre for Mental Health in the Workplace launched Managing Emotions, which can help managers test and, in turn, improve their emotional intelligence. Managers and supervisors at all levels who use Managing Emotions may improve their ability to be effective in understanding and managing other people's negative emotions in the workplace.
Managing Emotions is an online training tool that includes video scenarios, interactive learning opportunities, evidence-based assessment for work-related emotional intelligence, and practical exercises and activities to improve results. This tool can be used to help assess managers' emotional intelligence skills
This tool includes an assessment, which takes about 15 minutes to complete.
Results of the assessment are returned to the user immediately. For those managers or supervisors that wish to improve their results, key strategies, exercises and video-based training options are provided.
Type: Online training tool that includes video scenarios, interactive learning opportunities and an evidence-based assessment
Safety and Health Leadership Quiz
The Safety and Health Leadership Quiz aims to provide an overview of the degree to which health and safety fits into the workplace. The quiz was developed by the United Sates Department of Labour and is part of Safety and Management Systems e-Tool.
Type: Internet Quiz
Country: United States of America
British Health and Safety Executive - Leadership and Worker Engagement Toolkit
The Health and Safety Executive have developed the Leadership and Worker Engagement Toolkit. This toolkit has been developed by the construction industry's Leadership and Worker Engagement Forum to help contractors and managers learn how to make health and safety improvements in their businesses.
Country: United Kingdom
Workplace Health and Safety Queensland: Safety Toolkit
This toolkit is aimed at managers and employers of small businesses. This toolkit offers an introductory information document on safety leadership, a template to develop an occupational health and safety policy, and an induction checklist aimed at managers.
British Health and Safety Executive - Absence Management Toolkit
The Health and Safety Executive and the Chartered Institute of Personnel Development put together a toolkit to manage absence in the workplace.
The toolkit is aimed at line managers working in small and medium sized enterprises, but is also relevant to larger organisations.
This toolkit provides a wealth of information on absence management practices and procedures that line managers can pick and choose information from. It is split into four parts to help managers:
â€¢ Identify an absence problem
â€¢ Develop an absence strategy
Country: United Kingdom
The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)
The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is part of the written assessment of health and safety conditions in the workplace in Denmark. One of the measures of this questionnaire assesses the quality of leadership and possibilities of development. This questionnaire is available in Danish, English, Norwegian, Swedish, Flemish, German, Spanish, and Portuguese.
While monitoring and evaluation of results allow for short-term results and fine-tuning of the implemented control measures, the action of reviewing allows for more calculated results over a longer period of time.
Review periods need to be set when establishing the implementation plan. Review periods can be set at either quarterly, bi-annually or annual instalments. Alternatively, review changes can be made in incremented steps or via continuous improvement. Results from the review are calculated from the information gathered during the monitoring/evaluation phase. This may involve reviewing collected data as well as feedback from stakeholders. All changes made and their reasons for being made need to be documented as this information may be useful for future hazard control measures or the development of the new implementation plan.
Monitoring strategies and tools provide data to inform process improvement. These may include:
Employee self monitoring
Checklists, recording documentation
Checklists, documentation - daily report, observation
Reports - work area report
Performance review forms or checklists
Client, contractor, supplier surveys
Review strategies and tools may include:
Quarterly statistical reviews
Accidents, near misses, no of inductions completed
Comparisons of statistical reviews
Accidents, near misses, no of inductions completed
Monthly management meetings
Reports, discussions, observations
Tool box talk topics, participation
External reviews and audits by professional OHS consultants
External audit tool
Review of manufacturers' and suppliers' safety documentation
Operations manuals, material safety data sheets
Review of internal documentation against legislative or industry standards
OHS legislation, codes of practice, standards
Consultation with contractors, subcontractors, manufacturers and suppliers regarding any changes to operations of plant, equipment or product used
Operations manuals, Material safety data sheets
Monitoring and reviewing ensures that the optimum level of workplace occupational health and safety is maintained within the event environment and carried out in accordance with the OHS policy, objectives and targets. More specifically it will:
â€¢ Aid in continued planning of hazard identification and control processes
â€¢ determine areas of success
â€¢ identify areas for corrective action and improvement
â€¢ ascertain the viability of specific processes
â€¢ Highlight areas of integration with other occupational health and safety programs.
The monitoring and review process must be carried out in consultation between employer and employees. This can be done in a committee, working party or via informal discussion. However, it should be done on a regular basis.
Monitoring (quality control):
The job safety analysis document and observation is to be used as part of the monitoring process. These two strategies combined will determine whether all employees are following the safe work procedures outlined in the job safety statement (JSA) and if the JSA content is relevant and current.
If it is identified that safety procedures are not being followed then reasons why they are not being followed need to be explored through consultation. The reasons could be that:
â€¢ Elements within the safety procedure are not appropriate (eg incorrect or ill-fitting personal protective equipment).
â€¢ A new hazard has been identified that needs to be controlled.
â€¢ Staffs have not been fully informed of the correct procedure.
These issues need to be addressed and corrected, and modifications made to the safety document where needed. If new hazards are identified then the hazard must be assessed according to the risk management process. If it is a matter of just changing the type of personal protective equipment then the safety document can just be amended.
Leaders play a key role in influencing the management of safety and health in a number of different ways. These can include: establishing effective governance for OSH management; setting out a strategy, policy and targets and monitoring progress; providing examples of good practice through their own behaviour; establishing a positive safety and health culture and the engagement of all staff in safety and health matters; ensuring that safety and health remains a priority during the day-to-day operations; empowering individual employees to take preventive actions, as well as behaving in a healthy and safe way; providing employees with the necessary safety training, tools and equipment; and involving employees in safety and health decisions (Ernst & Young, 2001). Occupational safety and health leadership is about securing the health, safety and welfare of workers by reducing risks, and protecting them and others from harm or illness arising out of work activities (Mullen & Kelloway, 2011). Leadership has been argued to be one of the key determinants of employee well-being (Kelloway & Day, 2011), and is fundamental to promoting and sustaining a safe and healthy workplace.
Monitoring and reviewing example
It is important to analyse any data provided regarding identified risks and the control measures put into place. This information can then be used to assess the success of the control measures.
So how do we know that control measures employed are successful? Let's continue to work through 'slip on uneven ground' as example. Look at the information supplied in the following 'Hazard identification and risk assessment register' regarding the 'slip on uneven ground' hazard.
Date to be rectified
Date hazard rectified
Slip on uneven surfaces
Ensure cords, leads and wiring is taped down and covered by ramp or hump structures.
Set-up day prior to event
equipment required is included on the equipment and materials list
'Set up checklist' includes this duty
Slip on uneven surfaces
Check existing pathways and public areas for breaks or potholes. If identified, ensure they are fixed or filled.
Prior to event
Added to contract requirements
In this example two control measures were identified and put into place to reduce the risks from high to low.
Promoting positive leadership and management systems for occupational safety and health can be particularly challenging in all types of organisations; and particularly for small and medium sized enterprises. There are several tools currently freely available to organisations to help them address the issues of leadership and OSH. Many of the listed toolkits aim to either: develop leadership in occupational health and safety in organisations, or are tools/toolkits that company leaders can use to promote a safe and healthy working environment and culture.