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According to Hughes and Ferret (2003) workplace health and safety (H&S) is having the physical as well as psychological interests of on individual at work (cited in Edwards and Holt, 2008) in addition Rawlins and Farrell (2010) added that the necessary need to uphold the health, safety and welfare of work-force should not be disregarded. This has been a pressing issue in major construction sites. Trethewy (2005) added that a number of construction industries documentation remarkably eminent injury rates than greater part of other industries, the reason being that industrial accident arise on a daily basis, arising from be short of health and safety management taking place construction site along with insufficient training of site workers.
These accidents emanate from various hazards which formally had not been identified, or have been, but were not properly evaluated and the right control measures not put in place for continuous improvement to take place. HSE, 2006a; CITB, (2006a) stated that hazards are frequently classified into area under discussion, some examples of which include: physical management, asbestos, fire, restricted spaces, falls from height, noise, vibration and anxiety (cited in Edwards and Holts, 2008).
Workplace health and safety (H&S) is about the bodily and psychological welfare of employees at work (Hughes and Ferret, 2003). In realistic terms, it embraces practical management - identification, mitigation, removal - of workplace hazards, as a way of striving to sustain that welfare.
This paper aims to critically review the extent of health and safety in construction site. It emphasizes the implementation of various precautions that would help to prevent, avoid, remove as well as reduce the level of hazards that would surface at the sites. Furthermore it evaluates the importance of making use of PPE (Personal protective equipment) and other safety equipment on construction sites.
Aims and objectives
The aim of this research proposal is to examine the practice of health and safety in construction sites.
The following listed below are the objectives-:
To identify the need for health and safety in construction sites.
To examine health and safety policies as regards construction sites.
To determine the benefits of including health and safety on construction sites.
To analyze the extent to which health and safety is being implemented on construction sites.
The area under discussion of safety has continuously been a significant hold up as well as anxiety in the construction Industry (Ai Lin Teo, 2005). The health of construction workers is also a major concern in construction organizations. There is an unremitting call in support of sustaining a preferred health and safety level or in the direction of building upon the contemporary safety level as a result as to safeguard workers health, property, investments and the environment (Omogoroye and Oke, 2005).
Construction workers are frequently and constantly falling victims to hazardous accidents, majority of which are fatal, causing death in some instances. Furthermore, the problem arises solely from the lack of knowledge of health and safety on the part of the workers, which on the other hand is solely d fault of the construction organization, the contractors involved and the management as a whole. There has to be specified safety culture which should determine the behavior of the workers on site. Dester & Blockley (1995) use a description of safety background as the set of principles, ethnicity, approaches, meaning as well as social and systematic practices which are apprehensive with diminishing the contact of individual, internal and external organization, to situation measured hazardous or damaging (cited in Langford, 2000).
Hare et al., (2006) stated that there is diminutive opportunity of a risky incidence, due in the direction of risk awareness resulting from the methodical training. Firmly, risks are actions, the likelihood of the occurrences of which is statistically predictable; uncertainties are unpredictable. Thus, whilst risk may be allocated to the parties who have the best chances to control the risks and so act as encouragement for enhanced performance, due to cost deliberation, it is probably to be most efficient for uncertainties to dwell with the client. As construction projects advance, health and safety risk factors change- the risks and uncertainties are still there but the latent effects of unfavorable factors vary. Furthermore, the power and influence of the various parties concerned with a project in a construction site, to formulate and to execute decisions differ with the project stages. Naturally, organizations which function in diverse locations and circumstances are subject to different risks and uncertainties. According to Horner and Duff (2001), efficiency of regular on a daily basis work can increase from further methodical training (cited in Hare, 2006).
Numerous studies have anticipated procedures and training to expand the small facts of the construction industry, past what can be bring about through the fundamentals position up by policy (Saurin et al., 2005). Wickens et al., (1998) added that there have been a number of endeavors to categorize the type of mistakes that people make during task performance (cited in Saurin, 2005).
Risk That Leads to Health and Safety Accidents
Industrial accident is avoidable, and the accident occurs for the reason that workers place and dispose objects in a careless way (Ai Lin Teo, 2005). Jones (2006) added that companies started work on a key safety awareness campaign proposed to strengthen along with authenticate a culture of safety which, in part, support all workers on site to have accountability for their own and additional safety. Davies and Tomasin (1999) suggest that constructive and useful training in the construction industry is a way by which safety can be enhanced and company management must be active so as to decrease the number of injuries and fatalities (Lin and Mills 2005). In the experiential studies, immediately before the beginning of a new activity workers were usually trained by a safety specialist (Saurin et al., 2005). As much as this was carried out, some contractors tend to see this as a waste of time prior to the start of a new activity, blaming their actions on the reason of wanting to start up work on a scheduled time frame so as to finish up in good time. Many contractors working with some organizations do not have safety specialist or Health and safety executives in their management, some not due to ignorance but as a case of irresponsibility on their own part. There are many concerns raised by assessment of safety training programmers: these include: establishing what constitute safety culture, safety approach, approach to and awareness of risk, whether the training is making an effort to alter conducts or attitudes or both, the links between attitudes and conduct in a safety perspective, the training techniques, assessment methods and measures (Harvey et al., 2001). More so,
Does the organization have a well structured Health and safety policy?
Are the workers taking the use of personal protective equipment on site seriously?
Is the organization consistent on provision of adequate personal protective equipment for the workers?
Are the workers onsite trained on the health and safety parameters during construction?
Does the organization know the implications of health and safety policies if not adhered to by the organization?
How will they view the importance of health and safety with the kind of work they do?
Are the workers onsite aware of health and safety regulations as regards workplace?
Is health and safety involved in the organization they work with?
What are the problems faced onsite which tends towards health issue?
Dose health and safety contribute to the health management strategy in the construction site?
Dose the health and safety parameters contribute to safety when construction is undertaken?
Does the management undertake continuous maintenance of construction facilities and equipments in accordance to the health and safety regulations?
Have the workers been trained on proper and effective use of personal protective equipment?
Research can be defined as an investigation directed to the discovery of some fact of careful study of a subject. It is a course of critical inquiry. It is systematic and methodical and increases knowledge. What is discovered in a research depends on the pattern and techniques of searching, location and subject material investigation, analyses undertaken as well as knowledge and abilities of researchers.
This involves the principles of procedures of the logical thought processes which are applied to scientific investigation.
Types of Research
There are two types of research methods namely Qualitative and Quantitative Research.
This involves figures and information (data) that can be simply quantified, it concerns counting. Furthermore, it is an inquest into a research problem composed of variables, measured with numbers and analyzed with statistical procedures. It is a consistent and technical research which contains an objective analysis. Hence, quantitative research places stresses on methodology, process and statistical procedures of validity. Quantitative research methods also rely on measurement and examination if statistical data, to realize relationship between one data to another. The measurement of these variables may generate quantifiable conclusions (Eldabi et al., 2002). The tool involved in quantitative research is survey questionnaire given to individuals as a discrete item of enquiry. The responses are then totaled, even though the respondents often do not know each other. This concept is known as individualism, where the research instrument focuses on the individual.
Benefits of Quantitative Research
Results are easy to summarize and examine
Comparisons between groups, locations and period can be measured for different samples.
Researching a small group will be capable of giving a dependable indication of the views of a superior populace.
The results are statistically dependable. It can ascertain if an idea, concept, product, package, etc is better than the alternatives.
The results are projectable to the populace, that is to say, the percentage of respondents, answering a certain way are similar to the percentage of the total populace that would have answered same, if they all had been asked.
Issues are only measured if they are known prior to the beginning of the survey and therefore have been incorporated into the questionnaire.
It is not a method to develop innovative initiative or as an original learning phase.
It is not generative.
It often includes larger numbers of respondents; quantity, as the name implies, and for this reason tend to be significantly costly.
There is lack of concern over the influence of resource constraints.
Descriptive statistics is not provided if the right question is not asked in the right way by the survey instrument.
There is relative weakness when used with the objective of discovery and during data collection. This is because once the research is underway there is little an investigator can do upon realizing that a crucial item has been omitted from the questionnaire, or discovering that a question is ambiguous, or is being misinterpreted.
It serves as a methodology of verification rather than discovery.
According to Holliday, (2007), this is concerned with individuals' own accounts of their approach, drive and conduct. It presents richly descriptive information of individuals' point of view, approach, principles, views and emotions, the denotation and explanation given to events and things, as well as their behavior. It demonstrates how these are put together, more or less articulately and deliberately, into frameworks that make sense of their experiences, and it clarifies the incentives that attach attitudes and behavior. It is especially popular in Feminist research ( Reinharz, 1992). In as much as qualitative is about people as the central unit of account, it is not about particular persons per se; reports center relatively on the different model or groups, of attitudes and connected behavior that surface from the interviews. The tools used in qualitative research are depth interviews and focus groups. The depth interview is unstructured in the sense that there is an interview guide but no questionnaire, recorded and later transcribed. While the focus group consists of a group discussion or group interview involving four to twelve people converse a topic of concern for about two hours with the supervision of a moderator. This is also tape recorded.
Used in the development of theory and for theoretical research
Used for exploratory work before a large-scale or more complex study is mounted.
Used most heavily in disciplines where the emphasis is on description and explanatory (psychology, sociology and social anthropology)
Offers more direct window on the lives of constituents or client groups
Results are more accessible and attractive to special interest groups, pressure groups, the media and the public at large.
It is associated with "face-to-face" contact with people in the research setting, together with verbal data and observations.
The data collected is rich, full, and holistic and real whose validity is unimpeachable.
Can assist arguments for further quantitative studies.
Can be harder to sell to policy makers because it is a less well known type of study than large -scale quantitative research.
The collection and analysis of data are time-consuming because many types of data are collected.
Large variety of data may inhibit data analysis.
It is not easy.
There is the inability of the researcher to interpret events from the subject's point of view is questioned without biases.
The relationship between theory and research can be weak, as qualitative research approaches are criticized for not instilling theoretical elements.
The extent, to which qualitative research can be generalized beyond the confines of a particular case, is questioned, i.e. limited external validity.
Unstructured research is endangered of becoming meaningless.
It often involves a single event being observed by a single researcher resulting in potentially poor reliability.