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A new Primary School need to be construct by Lenang Permata Sdn. Bhd. at Puncak Alam, Selangor to replace the old school that does not have enough space for more student. Also the school is far from home and have structure problems since it is been built for many years ago. The school location that we need to construct should be near to the residential and cover a lot of space. The area for the construction is 400sq.meter. We need to investigate the suitable location and prepare the site before the any construction can be started. The activities during site preparation are site clearing, earthwork, staking, fencing, dewatering, and build temporary infrastructure for worker and heavy vehicle. Law of Selangor state should be followed during the construction.
OBJECTIVE OF SITE INVESTIGATION (SI)
The purposes of carrying a site investigation are to study the general suitability of the site for a construction method and to enable a safe, practical and economical design to be prepared. Also to determine the suitability and possible difficulties they may be encountered by a specific construction method and material.
THE SITE INVESTIGATION
The site investigation is divided into two parts there are surface exploration and subsurface exploration. The main purpose is to identify the state of soil at the site and in order to do that we need to test the soil either in lab or at the site. After that we also must find out the place that we should do piling. We need to investigate the exact location of bedrock to know how deep we should pile. There are specific techniques that we use at some places to ensure it safe and reasonable. The works begin with site clearing means that we need to clear it from the existing plants and buildings. Then all side of construction area need to be fenced to avoid it from outsider. After that all construction works such as excavation, reduction and stabilization of slopes will be started.
PROBLEM OCCUR BEFORE CONSTRUCTION
There are some problems that occur before the construction begins:
1. There are hard rock that cover some of the construction area and difficult to excavate.
2. Some places in the construction area consist of unstable soil such as clay soil and have high groundwater table.
3. The bedrock is not strong enough due to grade which is more than 3 that have lower strength.
4. The local are not satisfied with the demolition of the existent especially the elders.
To solve this problems we need to:
1. We should use a specific technique to unearth this hard rock instead of using blasting technique because too much noise will happen during it.
2. We need to replace the soil with other soil that suitable such as sand and drain the water out through vertical drain to decrease the groundwater table.
3. The building plan should be change if there is a building need to be constructed under the low strength of bedrock.
4. We discuss smoothly with the local to make them know what we will be doing and respect their trust not to destroy something that important to them.
PROBLEM MAYBE OCCUR DURING CONSTRUCTION
There are some problems that possibly happen:
1. The road taken by heavy vehicle construction will be damage and it will be the problem to the residents.
2. Noise and air pollution will happen during construction and cause bad circumstances to the locals. They might get sick or cannot do their daily activities because of the bad air.
3. The transportation of the raw materials is far from the residential area.
4. Raining will cause problem to the surrounding. The dirt may come out from construction site by the excess water during raining.
5. Strong noise and vibration will occur during piling that will disturb the resident nearby.
6. The safety of the resident that live near to the construction site.
7. There no enough space for putting the raw material inside the construction site.
8. The access electricity and water supply to the construction site.
9. The raining season can cause delay to construction works.
Generally the outcome can be avoid if we planning the construction works wisely and prepare the good site layout before the construction start.
THE SITE LAYOUT
The site layout needs to be plan by an in charge person to obtain the good layout. A bad site layout will cause a lot of problems at the construction site and will increase the cost of the construction. All the works need to be done according to the plan to avoid accident and problems that can delay our construction. The site layout is as below:
1. The site must be fence height enough to keep out unauthorized persons and to protect from site hazards.
2. Warning notice should be placed outside to alert the public and worker at the site.
3. Briefing should be given to the supervisors and worker before any works started.
4. The training also need be conducted to the workers for their understanding to avoid any mistaken that can increase the construction cost.
5. Generator could be use to generate electricity for temporary lighting, and etc.
6. The construction machinery must be placing specifically controls their operation.
7. All raw material and waste need to have exact locations for the work to done according to the plan. Materials need to be stored close to the appropriate workstation.
8. Alternative routes should be prepared to vehicle for transportation of the material and waste from outside and inside the construction site.
9. Temporary building such as office, toilet and place to stay need to be constructed as soon as possible.
BAD SITE LAYOUT
As we know bad site layout will cause so much problems to the construction. Above is the one of the bad site layouts of the school construction. We can see that the layout is incomplete and it is not suitable. It shows only main and some other buildings in the construction site and also the perimeter of the construction. It didn t show the detail of the construction such as other building that will be constructed, the access road for vehicle, place of the material and construction machines.
The access road to vehicle for transportation is important during construction. The routes must be not too far for vehicle or it might increase the cost of fuel. It should be one way to be easier and to avoid overcrowded on site.
The place for raw material should be prepared for the work to done in time. The material should be close to working place. It must be inside or rent some place outside the construction site.
Finally, the whole structure of the buildings should be drawn on the layout to let all people know where the buildings and other things in the construction site. It will prevent misunderstanding around people.