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Construction waste has a major impact on the environment in both develop and developing countries and have a negative effect on the national economy. Tremendous amounts of construction waste have been generated from ongoing new construction works, as well as renovation and demolition works. With the demands in implementing major infrastructure projects together with many commercial building and housing development programmes, a large amount of construction waste is being produced by the construction sector. In this situation, not only a large amount of money is paid to handle construction waste, but also valuable land is consumed for waste disposal. Construction waste has been costing to government for disposal and taking up valuable landfill space. Keeping with the large amount for disposal, our landfills will run out around 2015. The construction industry is responsible for producing a whole variety of waste, the amount and type of which depends on factors, such as the stage of construction, type of construction work and practices on site. Thus, waste minimisation is an important area of concern in the implement in the construction industry. Extra construction materials are usually planned due to waste reduction during the planning and design stage to minimise the generation of waste. The excessive wastage of raw materials, improper waste management and low awareness of the need for waste reduction are common in the local construction site. (Koskele 1992) defined waste as any inefficiency that results in the use of equipment, materials, labour or capital in larger quantities than those considered as necessary in the production of a building. (Formoso et al. 1999) also defined waste as any losses produced by activities that generate direct or indirect costs but do not add any value to the product form the point of view of the client. For instance, the national waste minimisation and recycling strategy estimates that 14 million tonnes of solid waste is disposed of in Australian (1998) landfill each year and of the total waste stream approximately 15 per cent has been generated due to construction waste. Similarly in Canada, construction waste is estimated as 30 per cent of solid waste. In the USA, it accounts for 20 per cent while it contributes more than 50 per cent of overall landfill volumes in the UK (2001). In Hong Kong, mixed construction and demolition waste has been estimated at more than 40 per cent of the total waste stream in 2001. At 1996 in The Netherlands estimated that, of the construction materials purchased about 1-10 per cent by weight are left as waste at the site of residential projects. For the different types of wastage in the construction site, there can be cement, sand, aggregate and plain water where the concrete are mixed on site. For some of the project are used of in-situ concrete mixed, it might causes of timber for formwork waste and reinforcement steel bars on the site, these only the small scope of type for materials wastage. The factors of materials waste contribute to construction industry due to overloading or excess, over production, wrong handling, and wrong storage, manufacturing defects, theft or vandalism and so on. New concepts of waste control are being applied in many countries nowadays. Site Waste Management Plan is in great concern. These are all done to ensure the waste is being controlled as well as the environmental condition is being protected. The purpose of Site Waste Management Plan is to avoid waste, minimise waste and recycle.
1.2 Research goal
A study on Site Waste Management Plans in Construction Industry.
To identify the different types of site waste in construction industry.
To identify the factors contribution to construction waste.
To find out the benefits of applying Site Waste Management Plans on site.
1.2.3 Key Question
What are the different types of materials waste in construction industry?
What are the factors contribute to construction industry?
How the benefits of applying SWMPs on site?
A Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) is a framework which details the amount and type of waste that will be produced on a construction site and how this waste will be reduced, re-used, recycled and disposed of. It requires the documentation of financial gain through best practice Waste Management techniques.
The SWMP template created facilitates the identification and implementation of waste management practices through material reduction and waste minimisation at the design stage and re-use and recycling opportunities during on site operations, reducing the quantities of construction waste sent to landfill.
The adopted Site Waste Management Plans Regulations 2008, SI 314 which came into force on the 6th of April 2008 determined that a Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) must be implemented for all projects valued at greater than Â£300,000.
SWMPs provide a good opportunity to streamline site activities and realise a number of business benefits including cost savings and income realisation through reduced requirements for materials, storage & handling and better management for recovery or disposal. Other than that, this plan also demonstration of good environmental performance, supporting the requirements of environmental management systems. Furthermore, ensuring compliance with regulation and contractual requirements of public and private sector clients in risk of management. Besides that, improved the company performance allowing differentiation from competitors.
Site Waste Management Plans helps individuals, businesses and local authorities to reduce waste and recycle more, making better use of resources and helping to tackle climate change.
1.4 Scope of Study
For my studies, I would like to define the construction waste in the construction industry. Also discuss the different types of materials waste on site during the construction period of time. To discuss what are the factors are contribute to the construction industry. In order to come out the factors, I would access to the internet to search some related information and go to the library to borrow some references book and find the related articles form journal. Furthermore, I would like to discuss the Site Waste Management Plan and it benefits applying on the construction industry. Moreover, I would like to talk about what are the role and responsibilities of the parties in the construction site of SWMP.
1.5.1 Stage 1: Literature review
In my first stage for the methodology, I would like to do some literature review. In order to achieve the objective, the first step I would be chosen to access through the internet to search for the related information about my research title. Second, I would go to the library to find some references books and text books which are related to my research title. Next, I would find the academic journal, institutional and statutory publications, newspapers and magazines. After information have been found, I would manage my time and read through the sources and also improved my knowledge when reading the sources and will be undertaken in order to develop and understanding of construction wastes, the different types of construction waste, the factors contribute in construction, and the definition and the benefits of applying the Site Waste Management Plans in construction industry.
1.5.2 Stage 2: Pilot study
In this stage of pilot study, I would go for interview with the contractors which for my pervious training company and project site supervisor to gain their previous experiences and some information to process my questionnaire. After finish prepared my first questionnaire, I would submit to them for answering and wait the feedback for them. From the feedback, I would improved my questionnaire and accept the acceptance comment from the contractor.
1.5.3 Stage 3: Main survey questionnaire
In my questionnaire, I would be designed and limited to about 15 to 20 questions to obtain a high level of response. The questions will centre on the areas mentioned in the above objectives. To improve and finalizing the questionnaire form the feedback. After done the 1 set of paper of questionnaire, I would make some copy and send to the Construction Company and Renovation Works Company to get the helps from them for answer the questionnaire.
1.5.4 Stage 4: Analysing the postal questionnaire
After get the feedback from the respondents, I would analysis the questionnaire by separate into two parts. First part is to determine the level of agreement and disagreement by the respondents to each of the question. Second part is to correlate each question from the first part results obtained, after that, I would try to interpret the results by using the bar chart and give some comment and make a conclusion for each of the questions.
1.5.5 Stage 5: Writing the research report
In the last stage of my methodology, I would be understand and have enough of information to let me process for writing up the content of the dissertation and should cover the chapters proposed.
1.6 Proposed Structure of The Dissertation
Chapter 1 : Introduction
Chapter 2 : Literature Review
The types of materials waste on site
The factors of site waste in construction industry
The benefits of SWMPs applying in construction Industry
Guide to formulating a Site Waste Management Plans
Chapter 3 : Research design and methodology
Chapter 4 : Analysis of the results and discussion
Chapter 5 : Conclusion and further studies