National Institute Of Occupational Safety And Health Construction Essay

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Construction industry is one of the most dangerous industries. It can happen in any time and easily take off people live. As a result, many of construction workers have being a victim in the construction industry. Thus, the rate of accident and number of fatalities increase every year.

According to Statics from Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), the construction industry show the highest rate of fatality in the accident compare to other industries. Department of Occupational Safety and Health has done some investigation in year 2012 that accident causes of fatality are mostly failing from high building. It is hardly to prevent all the hazardous activities in construction site.

Last but not least, the problem still requires concern from each and every relevant party to coordinate to solve it. One of the crucial factors is the welfare that used to be provided by the employer. Sometimes welfare could possibly increase the awareness and decrease the numbers of accidents happen since the working environment could be slightly better and workers' productivity and output could be totally different significantly. Thus welfare is one of the key that cannot be abandoned when looking thru and deep into the matter to solve the barriers in implementing OSHA.

1.2 Project Title

Implementing of Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in Malaysian construction Industry

1.3 Problem Statement

Construction industry is mostly happen accident and cause fatalities in the world. This is due to fact that the party involve in the construction work do not obey their responsible to the safety and health of the worker and resulting accident happen and cause death incidentally. Thus, the government has implemented Occupational Safety and health Act in construction industry for every site during construction work. Even though, the government has enforced the Occupational Safety and Health Act in construction industry, there are still have a lot of problem fail to occur due to some barrier facing at the site.

1.4 Aim

To identify the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation safety and health Act on site in construction industry

1.5 Objectives

To determine the barriers of implementation of safety and health for Site in construction industry

To identify the reasons for implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

To determine the types and Preventive and Precaution measure of various hazard at construction site

1.6 Research Question

What are the Occupational Safety and Health Act?

What are the requirements for Occupational Safety and Health Act?

Why there is a need of implementing Occupational Safety and Health in construction industry?

What are the hazards most common happen at construction site?

How to prevent and precaution the hazard at construction site?

Are the Occupational Safety and Health work effectively in construction industry?

1.7 Background

Safety and health is a vital important in construction industry. The purpose of safety and health to protect worker's life from accident happen. Therefore, government has implemented Occupational Safety and Health Act in construction industry. The Occupational Safety and Health was established on years 1994 which is enforced by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), a government department under the Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. The objective of Occupational Safety and Health Act as follows:

To ensure that the safety, health and welfare when the persons which are at work against the risks to safety or health are arising out the activities of persons at work

To protect the person at the working place other than persons at work against the risks to safety or health which are arising out in the activities of the persons at work

To given intention to promote an occupational environment for those persons at work which is adapted to their psychological and physiological needs

To provide the means of the associated occupational safety and health legislation which may be progressively to replaced by a system of the regulations and approved industry codes of practice to operating in combination with the provisions of this Act designed to maintain and improve the standards of safety and health.

(Department of Health and Safety Malaysia,2009)

Although the government has restricted the Occupational Safety and Health Act that every parties who involve in construction work must have Safety system, but they still ignore the important of safety issue. They only have mindset thinking to save and earn more money by cutting down the cost of safety system such as less using signage at construction site, lack of practical and training system and so on. For example, contractor would use self- made signage to replace the standard signage during construction site. They also not awareness the important of safety issue to their worker and let them do whatever they like. Thus, accident happens because of their negligence and hazard available.

However, every party either contractor or construction company should take their responsible to ensure their worker's safety in construction work. They should practice safety and health during pre- construction and post construction to their worker so that possibility of accident happen can be reduced. In Malaysia, such scope of concern is still fresh and unwell develop hence a lot of research and monitor need to be carry out by referring to countries like Japan, USA and UK that take this safety and health issue with concern to make sure that the influence can be spread out among our industry.

1.8 Scope of study

Safety and health is crucial issues happen in construction industry. Accident is unavoidable in construction industry but it can be prevent by complete responsibilities of each party involved by referring to the Occupational Safety and Health Act which is enforcing by Department of Safety and Health. Therefore, this research will be specific into determine the barriers of implementing Occupational Safety and health Act for site in construction industry, types and Preventive and Precaution measure of various hazard at construction site and identify the reason of implementing Occupational Safety and health Act. Methodology method that will be carried out for this research is questionnaires and interview.

1.9 Research Methodology

The resource will be collected categorized into two ways which is primary resources and second resources. The primary resources will be conducted by questionnaires method where as second resources will be carried out through the sources of literature review.

Primary Resources

1.9.1 Questionnaires

Questionnaires will be carried out in this research proposal. The question will be prepared based on the objective of this research proposal and will be sent either by hand or by postal to the two selected company that either construction company or contractor company to do survey. The estimating time to return back the questionnaire from the construction company will be 1 month. After get back the information, the data collect will be keyed in to the computer by using descriptive statistics method to do data analysis. In this questionnaire, the question will be asked about the issue of Safety and Health that based on the objective in this research proposal

1.9.2 Interview

Interview is another method that used in this research proposal. The purpose for using this method is get more detail information to achieve the objective that we proposal to this study. The interview will be prepared in written form and give some line and space to write their opinion. The question that prepare for this interview is open- ended question. Interviewee that involved in this interview will be a person who is experience in Safety and Health at Construction Industry or Safety and Health officer.

Secondary Resources

1.9.3 Literature Review

Literature review is a reviewing and evaluating what has been done by previous researchers on the topic. It can help to enhance a better understanding the sources of information. According to Kumar (2005), reviewing literature can be time-consuming, daunting and frustrating, but it is also rewarding. Those references can be collected from the article, journals, magazines or newspaper, references books and sources from internet and web pages which related to the field. The information can be found from library and world wild web as there is a lot of relevant information can be found. For example, we can access to Emerald and Ebrary that provide by the TARC website to find out and download the full text of article and journal that related to the research. Data collections include the barrier, reason and the extent which to contractors faces during implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act in construction industry. As a result, literature review can be fully done and the researcher can get better knowledge and latest information about the research topic.

1.10 Anticipated of findings and contributions

Through this research, it is enhance for the researcher to understand the important of Occupational Safety and Health Act in Construction Industry, which is enforced by Department of Safety and Health (DOSH) due to protect worker's life against to safety or health which are connection with the activities for those persons at work.

Therefore, this research can help to determine the barriers, reasons, benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Act and also the extent which to contractors faces during implementing the OSHA in construction industry. (Department of Health and Safety Malaysia, 2009) With this Act, we can define that life is precious to everyone. So, every parties involved in construction work must take their responsibility seriously due to their worker safety and health. Some of the Activities such as practice, training and welfare can be carried out in this stage.

Through this research, implementing safety and health Act can be properly ensure safety and reduce accident in construction industry due to their awareness.

1.11 Overall Structure and Planned Organisation of Dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter is about an introduction to Safety and Health Act in construction industry. In this chapter, it will consist preface, the background of the research topic, establish the aims, objectives and research questions, scope of study, problem statement, anticipated findings and contribution of study and research methodology to survey this research.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter will explain the fourth objectives of the research. The relevant information will be collected from some resources such as book, internet, article that are related to the research topic and will be recorded down in this chapter. The supplementary information help the theoretical understand in this research topic. This chapter will include:

The barriers of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act

The reasons of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act

The types and Preventive and Precaution measure of various hazard at construction site

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

In this chapter, questionnaire will be carried out to acquire the primary data. The question will be prepared based on the fourth objective of this research topic and it will separate into 4 sections. After question has been set and approved by the supervisor, it will be sent out to the respondents either postal or face to face in order to know their preference on safety and health during construction work. On the other hand, the interview will be conducted to further investigate to achieve the objective of this research topic and at the same time to prove the feasibility of theories that stated in the literature review. The interviewer will be interviewed who is an experience safety and health officer or construction firm. (The questions will be designed to achieve the fourth objective)

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

After collect all the required data from questionnaire, the data collected will be analyzed in the descriptive statistic method. The questionnaire will be presented in more detail by prepare in table or chart to find out the frequency and percentage. Thus, the data analyzed and the result presented will help the findings process in a more concise way.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter is to make a conclusion of overall dissertation. The aims, objectives and problem statement which established in the chapter 1 will be identified and some recommendation will be introduced in this chapter to make an improvement to this research topic.

1.12 The Process of Research

Title

Implementing of Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in Malaysian construction Industry

Aim

To identify the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation safety and health Act (OSHA) on site in construction industry

To identify the reasons of implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)

To determine the types and Preventive and Precaution measure of various hazard at construction site

To determine the barriers of implementation of Safety and Health for site in construction industry

Objectives

Methodology

Secondary data

Literature review sources to be collected from

Article

Journals

Magazines or newspaper

Reference books

Sources from internet

Primary Data

Conduct questionnaire and interview with the respondents either construction firm or safety and health officer

Data analysis or Data collection

Presented in descriptive Statistic Method or chart

Conclusion and recommendation

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Health and safety is an important issue that every construction industry should take it seriously to site. The accident will happen in any time in the construction project which we cannot predict it. According to Khalid (1996), construction industry is a very complex process and it should encourage on a good management strategy to resolve in reducing the rate of accident in construction industry. Thus, every party should take responsible on it to ensure that every employee is in safety and health condition. In conclusion the laws and the regulations were enacted to minimize the hazards of safety and health risk.

Firstly, this chapter will explain the objective that written in the chapter 1. There are the barriers, and reasons implementing Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) on site, and also types and preventive and precaution measure of various hazard at construction site. Before study in depth on the objectives, it is essential to get a basic knowledge on the legislature framework of Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) that enforced by Department of Occupational Safety and Health in every construction industry require to enforced this Act during construction period. Thus, the definition of Occupational Safety and Health Act will be studied in previous chapter in order to know and have a better understanding on this act that every construction industry either small firm or big firm must have this act.

However, the next part of this chapter will explain the first objective of this research, which are the barriers of implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act in construction industry. In this part, the studies will include human behavior, Lack of Enforcement by Authority, Poor Safety management, Safety Campaign, Sizes of Firm, Lack of Multimedia system, poor quality equipment and poor quality control.

In additional, this part will be described the reason why construction industry must implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act during carried out the construction work. According to Rafiq M. Choudhry; Dongping Fang; Helen Lingard (2009), the construction has the higher rate of accident among all industries. This is because the employer's fault in keep an eye out on issue Safety and Health to their worker before carrying on going work. As a result, the government has enforced OSHA Act to every construction industry and questionnaires are conducted in this research to evaluate it is applicable for construction industry and at the same time it is also to prove the theoretical that state in literature review. Therefore, it is important for them to protect themselves. The studies of reason implementing Occupational Safety and Health will include effectively safety culture, cost of Accidents, reduces contractor's risk, reputation of company and safety performance

Last part of the chapter is about the types and Preventive and Precaution measure of various hazards at construction site. This is because, different type of hazard at construction can lead to accident and injuries happen. For example, Construction hazards that such as electricity, excavation, scaffolding and such on are the main causes of fatalities or accident happen. In order to prevent the accident and injuries happen on the construction site, it is necessary to identify and evaluate the way of preventive and precaution for hazard at construction site. Therefore, the accident and injuries of workers can be prevented and also reduce the risk of hazard happen.

2.2 Occupational Safety And health Act in Construction Industry

2.2.1 Definition

The Occupational Safety and health Act is an act which are providing the legislative framework to ensure that the safety, health and welfare among all Malaysian workforces and to protect others party against risks to safety or health which in connection with the activities of the persons at works. (Naw Zi, 2011).This Act was gazette on 24th February 1994 and it is known as the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.

The regulation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 are based on the self-regulation scheme. It was the primary responsibility in order to ensure that the safety and health of work lies with those who are create the risks and those who work with the risks. Through self-regulating scheme that was designed to suit for the particular industry or organization, this Act which are also aims to establish the effective safety and health organization and performance. This concept of the self-regulation encourages consultation, cooperation and participation of employees and management are put more efforts in order to upgrade the standards of safety and health at the workplace and also the environment .The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 is enforced by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), a government department under the Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia.

Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) will ensure through the enforcement and promotional works such that the employers, self-employed persons, designers, importers, suppliers, manufacturers, and employees they always practice safe and health work culture, and there are always to comply with existing legislation, guidelines and codes of practice. (Lawyerment.2001)

Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) will also formulate and review the legislation, policies, guidelines and codes of practice pertaining in the occupational safety, health and welfare as the basis to ensuring the safety and health at work. This department is also the secretariat to National Council for Occupational Safety and Health (NCOSH), a council established under section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. The National Council for Occupational Safety and Health shall have the power to do all things expedient or reasonably necessary for those incidentals to the carrying out of the objects of this Act. (Lawyerment.2001)

2.3 Barriers of implementation of safety and health for Site in construction industry

Safety is critical issue which can make trouble in business when accident happens. Health and safety in work is an issue which will affect to all the businesses to worldwide. Therefore, implementing Occupational safety and health (OSH) of the management system its present a legal requirement in many countries. Although, the implementation of safety act is enforced at construction site, but there still have barrier found in construction site. All the parties involved must take their seriously attention toward the barriers in order to prevent the failure for those safety implementation plans at construction site. .

2.3.1 Human Behavior

2.3.1.1 Attitude of site Management Team

Site management team is most important characteristic in secure workers safety and life in construction site because of their negative attitude that they did not take care about safety aspects in construction site by providing unsafe place, old personal safety protection equipments (PPE) to their workers result in barriers of implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act in construction site. They also consider that investing in safety aspects is a waste money and increases construction project cost. (Rosli.2008)

2.3.1.2 Worker Attitude

According to Teo and Phang (2005), the study found that the attitude of workers is an important role in adopting safe work practices at workplace. The attitudes of the construction workers is also one of barrier that cause employer implementing Occupational Safety and Health in construction site and result in an accident happen. There are two categories of worker found in construction industry which are foreign and local workers. But majority is foreign workers which they come from Indonesia, Vietnam, Myanmar Philippines and Thailand. Their attitude is influenced by their own home country culture. For example, they have bad habit or attitude toward doing work such as drink alcohols, smoking, and take drug during working time. As a result, accident happens in the moment due to their bad behavior, lack of experience and knowledge about Safety and Health in carrying out the construction works during construction period.

2.3.2 Lack of Enforcement by Authority

Authority is an important characteristic in implementing safety Act in construction site. They need to take their responsibilities in check and ensure the entire safety aspects are fulfilling the requirement of OSHA Act 1994. Therefore, Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) was enforced to ensure all the workers are having a safety working environment workplace. However, this party has lack of the serious commitment, insufficient of the workforce and the budget allocations caused by lack of monitoring, safety audit and enforcement then result in unsuccessful of implementing Safety Act in construction industry. (Rosli.2008) Besides that, Authority do not take serious legal action under Malaysia law and cause the rate of accident increase. They should take legal action in penalty to the employer who does not comply the OSHA Act that enforced by government. So that, they will not be done the same mistake again however accident rate can reduce it.

According to (Koehn .1996),Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) specifically required that employers such as contractor are responsible for providing workers a place of employment free from recognized hazards. This may be interpreted as a safe place at which to work.

2.3.3 Poor Safety management

Poor safety management in the construction site is one of serious issue that cause barrier to implementation OSHA. Site safety management must proper manage their safety management by sending their workers to the safety training program that organize by NIOSH and CIDB. This safety training program will regarding about the effective safety aspects to workers which need to be careful during work at construction site. Thus, they are more aware and better understand about important of safety at construction site. After complete attend the safety training program they will be qualify and issued with a safety card are called Green Card issued by the CIDB as which allow and certified them to enter for work at construction site. The safety card holder will also entitle with insurance coverage according to coverage term and condition. (Rosli.2008)

2.3.4 Safety Campaign

Ineffective Safety campaign is a barrier of implementation safety in construction site. Without an effectively safety campaign, accident and injury can happen every second. Safety awareness and safety aspects cannot be successfully inculcated and effectively to carry out if all related parties involved not cooperate with the authority to create and take serious in promoting safety campaign. Safety authorizes should be work closely and effectively with the company safety management in order to providing effective safety campaigns to all the workers at all levels through the year to ensure that safety is given in first priority and the concern at workplace. (Rosli.2008) For example, visual awareness, safety committees, company- sponsored wellness program and employee and management participation.

The purpose of the visual awareness is the post signs as the reminded to entire worker in the site. Other than that, the visual awareness is also the post which is indentifying the confined spaces. In the construction site, the visual awareness are also can one of the signal to remind the worker to wear the personal protective equipment in other to protect their own safety.

The safety committees are taking important part to organizing the program in order to attract all the public workmanship either in large construction project or small project to introduce the safety requirement. Besides that, safety committees which can provide more events in order to create the public intention, to let as much as possible people know the important of the OSHA.

Besides that, the campaign shall supported by the all the government department together to proceed the campaign. In the campaign have to give all the parties have involve in the construction site give one of mind refresh to all focus the important of OSHA.

2.3.5 Sizes of Firm

According to Abdul Aziz Hussin (2011), larger contractors will perform better in safety implementation compared smaller companies which they have greater resources to do so. Larger firms are associated with large projects that have more risks and are typically required to implement Occupational Safety and Health procedures. However, small contractors prefer not to include the safety and health costs in their tenders, reducing their ability to deal with potential problems. In their research also shown that small firms do not seems to have the ability or motivation to achieve high levels of Occupational Safety and Health when benchmarked against larger firms. As a result, small construction firms may not manage Occupational Health and Safety risks as effectively as larger firms.

According to Abdul Aziz Hussin (2011), conducted a study found that, in order to achieve safe site operations, construction practitioners need effective monitoring and controlling of safety during post construction and set safety plans as one of the criteria to select contractor. Contractors also need to management system in order to monitor their site operation and measure their implementation in order to eliminate unsafe acts and practices.

2.3.6 Lack of Multimedia system

According to Abdul Aziz Hussin (2011), the requirements for development for a multimedia system have been illustrated and the important factors considered for successful implementation. The system shall suitable for construction site use and also the design process and must enable to integration of text, graphics, sound and also animation of practical situations to demonstrate best method and safe practice. This system should be easily accessible to designers and site management tem providing the opportunity for effective communication of safety and health issues. Through the multimedia system in order to let as many as possible to know the purpose and function of the OSHA. The multimedia system will provide the high probability to communicate with many people and to introduce the OSHA to all of us.

Once of the multimedia usage in order to upgrade the knowledge to all the people know. The multimedia are can be used in the graphic way which are using the sign board to remind the worker while their work on the construction site. The following figure 1.0 sign board which are used in the construction site:

http://www.safetysign.com/images/catlog/product/large/G2403.png

Figure 1.0: The sample of the Safety signboard to alert the worker.

(Source from: <http://www.eglobegroup.com/news/safety-signs-29.html>)

2.3.7 Poor Quality Equipment

Poor Quality Equipment can be one of barrier in implementing OSHA in construction industry and affect accident happen. This is because the equipment or machinery that delivers to site is not proper checking before carry out the work thus cause accident or injuries of workers happen. When worker is order to do some amendment work for the building, they must ensure and properly check that amendment work it is safe to carry out by wearing protective equipment to protect them to get any injuries. Besides that, lack of quality equipment that qualify by SIRIM will also result in accident happens. For example, employer must ensure the machinery or equipment produce by the manufacturer qualified by SIRIM with a qualification certificate that is proper check, examine and safe to use before deliver to the construction site. The objective of SIRIM is to promote standardization and quality and provide technical services for industry and the public. For example, there are some of the materials such as light bulb, distribution board, light switches and etc.

2.3.8 Poor Quality Control

Poor quality control will also affect in implementing OSHA and cause the accident happen. This is due to the inspection of the facilities, lack of quality inspection can result accident or fatalities happen. Site management team should ensure and protect worker safety in every minute every second at the construction site. For example, employer must ensure that nobody is nearby or under the truck before carrying excavation work. Employer must also restrict their worker to use proper protective equipment to do inspection work at the site.

All the inspections are important in order to ensure all the materials are fixing to the building is under the well processing and safe for use. The purpose of quality control is to ensure the quality of the product. Sometimes the accident happen causes by the quality of product will cause the worker injury, the quality control is make sure that the all the flexibility which are install in the building are under the good condition.

2.4 Reason of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health

The reason for implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act is to prevent injuries and occupational diseases and to deal effectively with any accidents or incidents that occur.

2.4.1 Effectively safety culture

Safety culture is one of the reasons of implementing OSHA in construction site. According to numerous researches, with implementation an OSHA Act 1994 in construction site can cultivate a good safety culture, with a good safety culture an accident or injuries can be prevented.

According to B.Fernandez-Muniz et al (2007), safety culture is a set value, attitudes, perceptions and pattern of behavior with regarding the safety shared by members of the organisation.Safety culture emphasizes the contribution from everyone at every level of the organization. It can entity has an impact on all members of the workforce and their behavior at work. A position safety culture is indicative of an organization's willingness to develop, change and learn from errors, incidents, and accidents. It gives appropriate priority to safety and realizes that occupational safety and health has to be managed like other area. A positive safety culture is doing the right thing at the right time in response to normal or emergency operation. The quality and effectiveness of training will play an important role in determining the attitudes and performance toward safe performance.

According to Ahmad et al (1999), construction safety management can received greater attention by establish a better of legislation and commitment from employers and employees. As a result, the improvement of the safety and health management which in the construction is taken the important key for all construction stakeholders due to enhance a better safety workplace that can improve productivity, reduce construction costs, better time management and deliverables and increase profit.

2.4.2 Cost of Accidents

Accident can be occurred in workplace anytime and anyway. When an accident happens toward a construction worker in construction industry, it will lead to the cost of personal injuries and may also incur far greater costs from damage to property or equipment and lost production. For example, the overall cost of accidents in the United States is approximately $150 billion. This huge amount of money could have been invested for modernization of works, research and development, facility upgrade. (David.2005) Therefore, implementing OSHA Act 1994 in construction industries during construction site can help in minimized the cost of accident. This can be done by management team need to establish OSHA Act in the construction site by organize a training program to every construction worker so that they are more awareness in safety and prevent accident happen

According to Bakri et al (2006), accident not only can cause in delay in operations and project deliverables but also cause to direct and indirectly incur cost. Thus, Occupational safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) has required all the construction companies to enforce a safety and conductive the working environment for those their workers and subcontractors at the construction and fabrication sites.

2.4.3 Reduce contractor's risk

Contractor will face a lot of risk during accident happen. Risk such as time, cost, and life will lead to person injuries or death, it will then bring a lot of trouble to contractor in carries ongoing construction work. For example, contractor will lost money in paid everything related to worker in accident. However, it also occurs in loss of time in continues the following work as a result it lead to construction delay because of accident happen. In order to overcome the problem, it is necessary to implementing Occupational Safety and health Act in construction industries and it is also a reason of implementing OSHA in construction site. By reducing the contractor risk, Contractor should create a Safety and Health Awareness in construction industry by comply OSHA requirement which enforced by local authority in order to protect workers safety and health. On the other hand, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be providing during construction period. Thus, accident and contractor's risk can be reduced.

2.4.4 Reputation of company

Reputation of company is one of the reasons Implementing OSHA Act. A good reputation of construction firm can made by having a good safety practices in construction industries .Safety practices such as organize a safety training and education for workers, communication tool between site management team and worker, establish a Safety- First Corporate Culture and visual awareness. (David L.2010) With this safety practices, rate of accident will lower. As a result, the image of company will reputable in industries. However, safety policy of company is a requirement of OSHA Act that enforced by government.

According to OSHA Act, the legislation requires that all the employers with have more than five employees, to formulate a written Safety and Health Policy of their workplaces. It also makes compulsory for employers with more than 40 workers to establish a Safety and Health Committee at their workplace. The safety policy must be clear that safe work practices are expected of all employees at all levels at all times. So that, employee will perform their duties with safety foremost in their minds. With this safe policy, workers will have mindset in protect their safety and live and rate of accident will decrease. Thus, safety policy is the reason of implementing OSHA Act.

According to Ahmad et al (2000), contractors has questioned that the importance of spending money on safety aspects during construction can give benefit to them with the effective safety management system were will much more than the cost spent. However, it can also avoid in delay project, machines and equipments breakdown and litigation. The safety system are also facilitates the management in conducting for those any accident investigation at workplace

According to Hinze and Harrison (1981), big construction company can help in reduce the injury rate at construction site. The success of the big company in tackling safety wills aspects in order due to the fact that there are safety competency certificate holders exist the among its workers their not withstanding any working level.

2.4.5 Safety performance

Safety performance can be produce by implementing Occupational Safety and Act in construction industries. First of all, a good safety performance can be create by having a qualification site management in well managing and supervising all the construction workers. So that, the worker's safety and life can be fully protect and guaranteed. For example, employer need to provide the personal protective equipment(PPE) such as safety helmet, safety boots, safety gloves and clothing to employee to preventing risks of accident happen at the same time protect their safety and health too. Besides that, corporate between employee and employer is also important in protect safety and health. It can promote an effectiveness safety performance and increase the work productivity. This can be achieved through the responsibility of the each party involvement.

The below is the obligation and responsibility of party who is liable to Safety and Health Act: WorkSafeBc (2011)

1. Employer

General

Ensure that the health and safety of the employer's workers and other workers are present at the workplace.

Establish occupational health and safety policies and an OHS program.

Responsibilities and roles in providing a safe and healthy workplace.

Provide specific direction and delegate authority to those responsible for health and safety.

Provide workers with the information, instruction, training, and supervision necessary to protect their health and safety.

Provide and maintain protective equipment, devices, and clothing, and

Make a true copy of the Workers Compensation Act and the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation readily available for review by workers.

Hazard control

Identify potential hazards through regular inspections and either eliminate or control the hazards without delay.

Remedy any workplace conditions that are hazardous to worker health or safety.

Develop written safe work procedures.

Encourage workers to express concerns and suggest improvements on health and safety issues, for example, through safety talks, meetings, or consultation with worker representatives.

2. Supervisor

According to Occupational Health and Safety Regulation, a supervisor is a person who instructs, directs and controls workers in the performance of their duties any worker who work at site are responsibilities and under control to supervisor. Supervisors should give same priority for health and safety as productivity or quality control. They must know and comply with occupational health and safety requirements.

General

Ensure the health and safety of all workers under their direct supervision.

Know the WorkSafeBC requirements that apply to the work being supervised and ensure that they are followed.

Ensure that workers under their supervision are made aware of all known or reasonably foreseeable health and safety hazards where they work.

Consult and cooperate with joint committee members or worker health and safety representatives, and cooperate with others carrying out occupational health and safety duties.

Ensure that the appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing are provided, properly worn when required, and properly inspected and maintained.

Investigate unsafe conditions reported to them and ensure that corrective action is taken without delay.

3. Worker

Workers have general responsibilities for their own health and safety and that of other workers. In addition, they have the responsibility to refuse unsafe work; discriminatory action cannot be taken against them for refusing to do unsafe work.

General

Cooperate with the joint committee or worker health and safety representative, WorkSafeBC prevention officers, and any other person carrying out occupational health and safety duties.

Learn and follow safe work procedures.

Be alert to hazards, and report hazards or problems to the supervisor or employer.

Use the protective clothing, devices, and equipment provided.

Perform work in a safe manner. Do not engage in horseplay or work while impaired by alcohol, drugs, or other causes.

Responsibility to refuse unsafe work

Refuse to do work that they have reasonable cause to believe would create an undue hazard to the health and safety of any person.

Immediately report an unsafe situation to their supervisor or employer.

(WorkSafe BC,2011)

2.5 Types and Preventive and Precaution measure of various hazards at construction site

Hazards can be harm and cause of injuries to anyone during working environment. The more the hazards present in construction site, the greater the chance that there will be accident. According to M. Hunter Christopher (2011), construction site are the most potentially hazardous and accident- prone parts of any working environment. Hazard that caused by accident happens due to human error and improper managing in safety management during construction site. Instead of reduce and prevent accident and injurious happen in construction site, it is necessary to take action toward hazard in preventing it happen. There are many type of hazard found it construction site such as electrical, noise, excavation, demolition and so on. The top six construction site hazard that found by OSHA are electrical, excavation and trenching, fall, stairway and ladder, scaffolding and heavy construction equipment.

2.5.1 Electrical

Electricity is widely used and common hazards face by people in the construction site. This hazard mostly happens to workers who are work continuously with electricity in daily basis such as power line workers, electricians and electrical engineers. The common hazards associated with electricity such as electric shock, electric burns, electrical fires and explosions and electric arcing are the causes lead to accident or fatalities. Therefore, the management needs to take consideration toward this electrical hazard by follow the electricity at work regulation that enforced by health and safety Executive to prevent the accident happen. In order to prevent or reduce accident occur on the construction site, the management should put the first-aid procedure for treating electric shock and such poster position must be positioned nearer to the electrical junction boxes or isolation switches. However, electrocution by high-voltage electricity is the hazard cause death. To prevent this accident happen at the construction site, the best way prevention for power line workers to be a safe working distance away from the power lines. Other precautionary measures which are include the guarding and insulating of the vehicle from which they might work. This would help to prevent the electrical accident hazards from injuring them while during working.

2.5.2 Excavation and trenching

OSHA has recognized that excavation and trenching is the mostly hazardous in construction site operation. United States Bureau of Labor and Statistics (USBLS) has recorded down 271 worker has cause by fatalities in the trenching and cave-ins from 2000 until 2006 year. These hazards are preventable yet injuries was related to those hazards are still happening on site. Therefore, both employer and employee have the opportunity to follow safety standards and use protective equipment to minimize hazards while trenching and excavating.

2.5.3 Fall

Falling from the scaffolding over the six feet or a fixed ladder over twenty feet is the most dangerous and which are common construction site hazard. Falling from high places such as a ladder, scaffolding and roofs account are more than around fifty percent of the accidents that happen at the workplace. The usual cause of this incident is slipping, tripping and using unstable ladders. There are many of reasons for fall hazards and to eliminate such risks, employers they must have a fall protection program as part of any overall workplace safety and health program. The workers shall be trained to identify and evaluate the fall hazards and be fully aware of how to control exposure to such risks as well as know how to use fall protection equipment properly.

2.5.4 Stairway and ladder

According to OSHA's construction safety and health standards, stairways and ladders there are major sources of injuries and fatalities among the construction workers. These are recorded to the injuries are serious enough to put a worker out on sick leave. OSHA registered approximately 24,882 injuries and 36 fatalities yearly that are related to the falling from stairways and ladders while used at the construction site. To prevent such accidents and injuries, the employers and employee must comply with OSHA's general rule for the safe use of ladders and stairways.

2.5.5 Scaffolding

Every year, there are approximately 60 workers are die by falling from scaffolding; one out of five construction site falls are fatal. The most potential risk of scaffolding is due to moving scaffold components, scaffold failure related to damage to its components, loss of the load, being struck by suspended materials, electrical shock and improper set-up. Construction workers who are assemble and dismantle scaffolding and work platforms at construction sites face the risk of serious injuries due to falls. The scaffolding hazard is addressed by the stated OSHA standards. They give specific requirements for the maximum load, when to use scaffolding, bracing and the use of guardrails.

2.5.6 Heavy Construction Equipment

Approximately 100 construction site workers die on each year due to the heavy construction equipment. The main causes of such accidents includes: the ground workers struck when a vehicle is reverse or changing direction; the equipment rollovers that injure the operator; mechanics run over when brakes are not properly set; and ground workers crushed by falling equipment from backhoes, buckets, and other moving construction vehicles. To prevent all kind of the risk, workers should follow all construction safety guidelines in order to eliminate the exposure to such injuries and accidents.

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