Marks And Spencers Waste And Recycling Project Construction Essay

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In this assignment, there is a fine analysis of a Marks & Spencer's waste and recycling project. As I was required to choose a company's project to clear the vision of leadership and team building in that particular project so I decided to go for Marks & Spencer's waste and recycling project as this is a proper example of leadership skills and interconnected relation of team building. Within the large organization to successfully achieve the task and gets the best possible results from start till the process completion of recycling unit.

Firstly there is an introduction of the project then I tried to describe the project manager, leadership and team building process that how these steps influence the whole project of an organization.

Secondly, I described the project that how it is going through its life cycle and how it influence our daily routine lives. Thirdly, I defined the project management role in the project. I showed how Marks & Spencer collect the rubbish and do recycling. There are different steps I have shown that how this project is being tackle.

After analyzing the whole project I make some recommendations to the company and write the conclusion as I think is good for the project to go on.


According to the task given, I have to study and choose such type of organization, which consists of leadership skills force and have very strong team building approach. A project leader should clear in his mind in all aspect of the project before starting of the project till to its successful completion.

Without an effective team building none of the project can be run, implemented and not even create. It is the duty of the leader to analyze the subject, implement the guidelines and create a bond within the organization or outside organization for successful project completion.

I choose Marks & Spencer's waste and recycling project as it is a very big organization and one of the leading multinational companies. In this project I found very strong management in accordance to the leadership within the relationship of very strong team building.

In this project I can find and learn many more things like how to organize a team to manage different tasks of a project so a project go to its success point.

Project Manager

Project Manager is a professional in project management field who owns the major responsibilities such as initiation, planning, executing and closedown of any particular project. Approximately in every organisation project they have project manager who manage the whole project with every possible way.

Marks & Spencer is a project manager of waste and recycling project in UK. M & S had tried its best to improve the recycling procedures in all over the UK.


A project leader is the person who leads the project team; he/she is the person who negotiates with the members and also with the management. Project leader has the role of a documenter, communicator, and negotiator. A project leader finds the breakdowns and barriers, he/she has to manage the expectations of the management along with the team members, and he/she cannot surprise the management and has to handle the situations on his/her own. Not only the project leader has responsibilities towards his/ her team, but the team members also has to give respect to the project leader, listen to him/her. He/she is a very visible part of the team who has to be followed (Moulton 2006).

A project leader plays a very important role in the achievement of a project. People have the perception that when it comes to the project or project leader or manager, comes the budgets and other tools such as schedules and cost. But the success comes because of the people i.e. project leaders and the team members and not only other tools. Team members are very important for a project leader. If there are no good members in a team, there is no use of other good tools and procedures for the project. The leaders, who are successful in leading, understand that team members need to be leaded; they are very different from other tools (Petersen 2009).

Team Building

The success of a project depends on having the right centre team. The development of team circles around five stages. These stages include forming of a project team, storming, norming of a project team, and performing.

It helps a great deal to have some basic sense for the life of a team. Teams go through several major phases including the following:


In the initial stage of forming of a team, the members do not know about what they have to do, they do not know each other, they do not know the functions of other member or the project leader. The completion of the stage of forming is done when the team member accept and see each others as one group or team (Salas 2007).


In the second stage of storming, the team members sort out their places as members of the team, they are relaxed and comfortable enough to participate when the opinions are being given. They even can challenge the authority and recommendations of the project leader at this stage. At this stage conflicts start to rise in most of the cases because of the dissatisfaction of some of the members who may challenge the style and role of the project leader. These conflicts are called the intra group conflicts (Salas 2007).


The third stage is the stage of norming of the team. At this stage, the team members start to apply their experiences of past for the solutions of the problems in teams and for the project, this also helps them to maintain the cohesiveness of the team. The member at this stage are able to handle different conflicts, they can take better decisions, and they can understand the vision and are able to circulate among the methods of effective accomplishment of the project (Salas 2007).


At the stage of performing, the team is now synchronised, they have cleared about the project tasks and now they are ready to show the results. In fact, they have already started to produce the results at this stage. They have learned to work together and to manage intra group conflicts and to give their contribution for the purpose and objective if the project and the team (Salas 2007).

Company's Brief History

With more than 120 years of heritage, Marks & Spencer is one of the well recognized British retailers. The M & S has more than 500 stores within the UK and has more than 75,000 employers across the UK. M & S also operates in the International Market, where it has a developing business in some places as far as Hong Kong.

In recent years, the UK's retailing industry has been characterized by forceful competition. Consumers are more conscious of where and how they feel like to shop. They also know what kind of shopping understanding they require. This has made it much more complicated for retailers to carry on.

M & S also recognized for their green identification as a result of their five-year eco plan, Plan A, which will see M & S, with other things, become carbon neutral and also sending no waste to landfill by 2012.

Introduction of Project

Marks & Spencer store launched a project which is known as a Plan A. Its main purpose was too significantly increase the environmental sustainability of a business in about 5 Years of time period and cost was expected of this project was £200 million.

This plan includes hundreds of commitments over the 5 years time line to deal with the environmental and key social challenges which are being faced by M & S today and in the near future with the tag that because there is no Plan B.

Bonds cover five themes: climate change, waste, renewable raw materials, "equal partnership and health, with the goal that by 2012, it:

Carbon neutral

No waste will be send to landfill

Expansion of sustainable sources

Helping to improve people lives in supply chain

Helping employees and customers to live a better healthier life

The Construction industry as a whole uses over 400 million tonnes of material per annum, with over 60 million tonnes sent to landfill. In 2007 Marks and Spencer (M&S) created approximately 39,000 tons of waste. With your help we want to significantly reduce this by improved material and design efficiency, and aim to set waste reduction targets from 2009. We also want to significantly improve our recycling rate of the materials we do dispose of, culminating in zero waste to landfill and recycling 100%. We intend to achieve this through our Plan A agenda.

Five years. Five commitments. 100 things to change.

Because we've only got one world.

And time is running out.

M&S is committed to delivering Plan A objectives. Waste management has been set as a specific deliverable under Plan A. Targets for diversion of (non-hazardous) material to

Landfills are:-

We want to ensure that the waste generated from our construction activity is managed effectively and that waste data is recorded in a robust manner. Effective waste management will help us meet our commitment to carbon neutrality within 5 years. The overall aim of zero waste to landfill by 2012 is a stretching target and will require collaborative efforts from all parts of the construction team and supply chain.

Project Objectives

There were some main objectives of this project on which M & S store managers work together as a team members. Some of objectives are listed below:

To divert all the operational and food wastage from landfill by start of 2012.

Diverting customer mind to reuses their shopping bags.

Emphasis and time has been located on increasing interaction with suppliers to make it enable that M & S recycle its own waste throughout its procurement processes.

Shortlisted project in Waste and recycling

Recycling stood at 41% in 2009 and reached 88% in March 2010.

Waste management costs for M&S reduced by 20%.

Around 15,000 tons of packaging waste will be diverted back into food packaging and reused by M&S, while another 45,000 tones will be sold to other packaging producers.

This strategy document sits as two main components: strategy and policy. The strategy document details our commitment to waste management and minimisation. The policy document evolves year on year, addressing particular areas of site waste management and materials resource efficiency for all phases of construction including, pre-design, design, procurement, and pre-construction.

Both the strategy and policy document are laid out as follows:

Strategy: This detail:

The drivers for waste management

The drivers for material resource efficiency

The five year delivery strategy

Reduce, Reuse, Recover, Recycle

Who are the key players?

How M&S will meet their waste management targets

'Yearly Policy': The yearly policy document gives a review of progress of the preceding year and will be issued in the last quarter of each Plan A year. A timetable of release and content is displayed in Table 1. It will detail:

The next steps we are undertaking to facilitate waste minimisation

Highlight any amendments or reviews of waste management techniques

Feature best practice examples, and share these with the whole programme

Share M&S waste data, e.g. recycling rates achieved across the programme, and total waste created.


Date of issue


Policy &Review of Yr 1

March 2008

Review of waste data for 2007/08, detailing next steps.

Report progress on waste stream matrix, identifying action

points for Waste Minimisation team

Policy &Review of Yr 2

March 2009

Commission work on True cost of M&S waste

Review of waste data for 2008/09, detailing next steps.

Charting progress of Waste Minimisation team against waste stream matrix.

Reviewing development and measurement of KPIs

Review of WMC framework

Policy &Review of Yr 3

March 2010

Review of waste data for 2009/10

Review waste reduction targets

Policy &Review of Yr 4

March 2011

Review of waste data for 2010/11

Review waste reduction targets

Policy &Review of Yr 5

March 2012

Review of waste data for 2011/12

Review waste reduction targets

Final Plan A Waste Report

April 2012

Report progress against targets

Project Planning

Project planning is very essential part of a project management, there are different steps in this planning that we have to make Gantt charts to plan and also subsequently reports progress within the project environment.

At first stage, project scope should be described and also the appropriate methods for the completion of project should be defined completely.

After this stage, are recorded at different times of the tasks necessary to complete the work and assembled in the work breakdown structure. At this stage it may be optimal for the project plan to achieve an appropriate balance between resource utilization and project duration to meet the project objectives. Once established and accepted, and the plan becomes what is called the baseline. And progress will be measured throughout the project.

The five year delivery strategy

M&S recognise the challenge in sending zero waste to landfill. For this reason, the approach will be to continually improve the waste performance on an annual basis. Continuous improvement will promote M&S as a UK leader in waste minimisation and an exemplar retailer in successfully reducing waste and their carbon footprint.

M&S will utilise the BRE's SMART Waste data application to collate fortnightly waste data collection, generate reports, reconcile waste data in Site Waste Management Plans and assist in formulating KPIs.

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle & Recover

M&S are committed to incorporating the waste hierarchy as a waste management and minimisation strategy. Applying the 4 R's is part of the functionality of the SWMP, offering designers and contractors real opportunities to challenge material selection, design and layout, and incorporate Life Cycle Analysis into material selection. It also gives onsite operations the practical know-how to store and segregate waste to achieve overall best practice waste management.

Some examples include:


Eliminating waste through design

Eliminating waste from the supply chain


Reusing materials on site, rather than disposing and buying new


Site segregation of waste for recycling or use of transfer station


Recovering the energy from waste materials by sending materials to energy recovery plants

Project Management

Projects have some characteristics i.e. they have an objective, have time limit, and the objectives are clear. Projects can be defined as doing one time attempt with specific resources and requirements such as, cost, time and performance (Project Management 2000).

Traditionally, management of the project includes a number of elements: the process of groups 4-5 and control system. Whatever method or terminology used, it uses the same basic processes to manage projects.

The main groups generally include:


Planning or development

Production or execution

Monitoring and controlling



The beginning processes reveal the scope and nature of project. If this step does not work properly, it is not likely that the whole project will do well to meet all needs of a businessman. Draft basic controls needed here is to understand the business environment and make sure that you are integrating all the necessary controls in the project. And report any shortcomings, and should make a recommendation to respond.

First stage or phase of a project plan encompasses the areas such as:

Analysis of business needs/requirements of measurable objectives

Review of current operations

Financial analysis of costs and benefits, including a budget

Analysis of stakeholders, including users, supporting staff members for the successful project

Planning & Designing

After the first phase, the project is planned at a level of detail. The main objective is to schedule the time and costs and resources adequate to assess the necessary work and effectively manage risks during the implementation of the project.

Project planning includes:

Determine how the plan;

expand the scope of the declaration;

Select Planning Group;

Estimate resource requirements of activities;

Estimate the time and cost of activities;


Develop the budget;

risk planning;

Obtain formal approval to start work etc.


Execution process consists of the different processes which used to work done as defined in project management planning to achieve the project's requirements. Executing processes involves synchronizing people and resources, and also integrating and performing the different activities of a particular project according to the project plan.

Monitoring & Controlling

This phase of a project involves all of those procedures which should be performed to examine project execution so that possible problems can be recognized in a time period and proper action can be taken, whenever required, to manage the effecting of a particular project. The key advantage is that performance of project is measured and observed on regular basis to find out variances from the project plan.

Waste and Recycling is a project of multi phases, monitoring and controlling process also provides advice in between the different phases of a project, in order to execute preventive and corrective actions to carry the whole project into observance with the project plan.

Project Monitoring is an in progress process which includes:

Supporting of end users

Rectification of different errors

Updating of the software in time

Monitoring & Controlling cycle


This is the last phase of a project. This includes the formal acceptance of every project and ending thereof. Managerial activities based of documenting module learned and archiving of the files.

Definition of M&S construction waste

Zero construction waste to landfill is logged as number 33 of the M&S 100 point plan. For the purposes of this strategy construction waste includes all materials that enter a site for a construction purpose, either as a specified material, e.g plasterboard and flooring or a composite material that acts as a bind. It also includes all materials that leave a site, either as old material being replaced e.g. old flooring, partition walls, or waste material generated through packaging, damaged goods or over ordering. The definition can be simplified as:

Materials in + Materials out = Construction Waste

It also includes any waste arising from demolition works, and should be included on estimates in SWMP. The types and amounts of demolition waste can be estimated by carrying out a pre demolition audit. The following table illustrates a number of waste streams from our stores and responsibility for removal. Further development of the waste stream sits as a separate piece of work to this document and will be detailed in the Year one Policy and Review document.

Who are the key players?

M&S recognise that the MC is the main executor of the SWMP (Site Waste Management Plan), and expect other key players to support in their own individual role. Collaboration and engagement between the key players in the Project Team is critical to ensure our targets are met and a process of continuous improvement is embedded within the SWMP. Activities are divided between key players and construction phases, with process flows and lines of communication highlighted.

Internal key players

The Plan A agenda works across all M&S' internal functions, including:

1. Construction Delivery Team

2. Retail Design Team

3. Procurement Team

4. Programme Office

External key players

SWMP covers all M&S' construction activity. Therefore all contractors and subcontractors involved must adhere to any instructions, reporting requests and data collection requirements

External Project Managers, Architects, Quantity Surveyors M&E Consultants, and all other members of the Project Team

The role of the Waste Management Contractor

M&S recognise the role of the WMC as an integral part to achieving Plan A success. Consequently, a WMC framework has been set up to facilitate forging of partnerships between the MC and the WMC. The Store Allocation team will allocate a WMC to a particular store activity. Plan A waste reporting centres on recycling rates, the WMC's performance will be measured on this and will be a primary focus of their annual review.

The benefits of the framework include:

Rationalisation of the number of WMC on the M&S programme

Improved collaboration between the MC and the WMC ensuring greater levels of segregation on site, and consequently improve M&S' overall recycling rates

Facilitate striking a balance between less waste miles over improved recycling

Early identification of best practice waste management routes in MC's SWMPs

Aligning data reporting to data collection on the BRE SMART Waste application

Improvements in skip planning and logistics on site

Collaboration breeding innovation. Creating partnerships between MCs and WMCs to improve the profile of waste within the construction industry

How will M&S meet their waste management targets?

Site Waste management Plan (SWMP)

What is it?

A site waste management plan is a tool to regulate the efficient management of waste on site. This requires the contractor to forecast waste streams arising from the project, and identify waste management routes for each waste stream. By evaluating these options prior to starting on site, there are real opportunities to both reduce the overall quantity of waste, and increase the percentage of materials recovered. For these reasons, SWMPs are mandatory on all M&S construction projects.

The SWMP should also function as an education tool used by site personnel. It will help advice site operatives of:

The waste streams to be generated

The particular period of the construction process the waste will arise

Waste management routes should be followed, hence how it should be segregated

The SWMP should feature as a living document on site, subject to review at the half-way point and conclusion of the project.

Who is responsible for it?

The MC is responsible for the creation and implementation of the SWMP. The MC is best placed to identify opportunities to reduce waste given their position as the interface between the design and construction phases. It is critical that the project team is committed to supporting the MC in executing the SWMP.

Good practice waste management would advise that the MC appoint a 'waste champion12' who is responsible for daily waste management on site, ensuring compliance with Duty of Care regulations, reporting, and training and efficient movement of materials on-site and waste off site.

Creating a SWMP and SMART Waste Plan

M&S require all contractors to create a SWMP for each of their projects on the BRE's SMARTWaste Plan. The SMARTWaste Plan is an online application, sitting within the BRE's suite of SMARTWaste tools. 'Data capture.' SMARTWaste Plan follows the stages to writing, implementing, and reviewing a SWMP.

MCs should upload forecasted waste data onto the SMARTWaste Plan tool, and utilise the tool as a live document on site to ensure that the waste management routes specified for each material waste stream are followed. The final review stage will focus on reconciliation between forecasted waste and actual waste.

Benefits of a SWMP

By using a SWMP effectively, the project will benefit from:

Increased re-use of on-site materials (i.e. refurbishment rather than replacement)

Increased levels of recycling, resulting in a drop in materials going to landfill

Less waste generated overall, leading to reduced transportation of waste

Increased profile of waste which will result in a tidier site and subsequently less accidents on site

Introducing 'Quick wins' on-site, highlights the physical gains of recycling, embedding a culture of waste consciousness

And cost savings by reducing the amount of waste overall, in light of recent and future increases in Landfill tax

Standard, Good and Best

The three concepts of standard, good and best are accepted construction industry guidelines. The benefits of good practice can afford cost savings, more efficient operations and lower environmental impact. Our long-term aim is to meet best practice to maximise the benefits offered by good practice waste management and minimisation.

Standard Practice

Good Practice

Best practice

Baseline performance, based on achieving minimum standards and legal requirements.

Going beyond standard practice to realize 'Quick Win' - benefits that are easy to achieve on majority of projects without a fundamental change in working practice and are at least cost neutral.

Reflects the leading approach currently undertaken in the industry, but may bear a cost or require a change in working practice.

Legal compliance with Duty of Care

The MC is charged with executing a duty of care to dispose of waste responsibly.

They should undertake the following:-

Ensure waste is correctly classified & stored i.e. inert, hazardous, EWC codes etc

Ensure a copy of the waste carriers licence is obtained for the waste contractor being used

Ensure copies of waste licences for disposal locations are obtained

Ensure suppliers are archiving all waste transfer notes to be stored on site and kept for 2 years or consignment notes to be kept for 3 years

Ensure ALL transfer or consignment notes have ALL sections completed - if not this is seen as a breach of duty of care

Ensure that where applicable Hazardous Waste Producer registration is complete

Hazardous Waste

Hazardous waste has not been included within the zero waste to landfill commitment due to the difficulty and sensitivity of disposing of it. The following guidelines should be followed as per legislative requirements.

Comply with current legislation

Retain consignment notes, on site, for audit trail

Comply with site audit requirements

Refer to 2008 Modernisation and Development Asbestos Specification


The life cycle of the project, the logical continuation of the activities of this project is meant to achieve goals or objectives. Whatever scope or complexity, any project during his life through a series of steps is. Early stage or first date there, which explains results and key success factors, the planning process, job and phase of the project implementation failure are the property where the project planning process , and finally close or layoff, which marks the completion of the project.

Plan A reports percentage of waste recycled, this will continue to be monitored and measured over each Plan A year. The recycling percentage is more a measurement of the WMC's proficiency than how well the MC manages and minimises waste on site.

All projects must adhere to the following guidelines relating to site segregation of wastes on site. Segregating waste on-site, before it is removed to a waste transfer station, qualifies the requirement for pre-treatment of non-hazardous waste that came into force on the 1st November 2007.

Where there are particular problems with segregation the MC should consult with the M&S Programme Manager to determine the balance to be achieved on site. There must not be a unilateral decision by the MC to send waste to directly landfill.

Waste Disposal

All waste generated on M&S construction sites should be removed from site in accordance with the aforementioned route cited in the SWMP. Sub-contractors are responsible for controlling and segregating the waste they create, under the management of the MC, and follow the MC's on-site segregation policy.

Under no circumstances can any waste material be removed from site unless it passes through the waste management route dictated in the SWMP

Only waste associated with construction activity should be contained in the MC's skips. Store waste should be dealt with by the Store teams, and the MC should make the point at the pre-start meeting that no waste from the Store can be deposited in construction waste skips.

Food waste from the site office canteen should not be disposed in the construction skip as this contaminates the skip and reduces opportunity for recycling. The MC should implement a close out process which takes account of new waste streams arising at the end of construction works, such as canteen disassembly.


Vision and direction are two of the most important aspects for a project leadership and for the project team. Projects die when there is no vision and no direction, it is necessary for the alignment of a project to build a vision and the direction. It is basically the purpose of the existence of the team and helps clearing the goals and objectives of the project towards the outcomes of the project. The creation of a vision is an important skill of a project leader. There may be three steps of instituting a vision which are; the project leader must enable the team members to help him/her creating the vision, then there should be the achievement of team buy in and the last but not least is, the project leader should provide motivation to the team members to keep their focus on the vision that was created earlier (Salas 2007).

In addition to the reconciliation M&S will conduct spot-check audits to inspect:-

that waste management routes dictated in the SWMP are being exercised

segregation, on whatever scale appropriate for the size of the site, is carried out

Duty of care is adhered to

Waste data is accurate and timely

The audits will comprise of a site visit, photos of the segregation process, and viewing a sample of waste transfer slips. The aim behind spot checks is to identify good practice and share that within the construction delivery programme. The audits also form part of a larger M&S Plan A audit that scrutinises the data at the heart of public Plan A reporting.


Marks & Spencer is a big an organization which has a lot of leadership skills and strong team building. They prove this with their quality and services. As M & S started waste and recycling project, M & S management was alone in this field but they bring later on they attract the other whole sealers in the market and spread the waste recycling knowledge among their competitors and customers.

Marks & Spencer is doing very well in this project as they won an award of The Winner of Waste & Recycling Project because of their team hardworking and very good project planning. In my point of view there are some more steps which M & S organization should take to continue this achievement, I described some as below:

Prove that 'rewards for recycling' works from an economic, social and environmental stand point.

Establish baseline for total waste

Company should increase recyclable material collected amongst participants by 25%.

Set % waste reduction targets

MC will have to forecast waste at the start of a project; this will be tracked against actual monthly

Focus on the business innovation of bringing together and environmental and sustainability issue, with a reward programmed.

To note progress made nationally with regard to supermarket waste reduction and OWP's continued role and involvement where appropriate, including highlighting packaging issues within existing promotional and education campaigns.

MCs to explain in their SWMP how they intend to reduced waste by either elimination or reuse of material

Company should introduce reward system between employees so they can put their full effort into the success of project.

Marks & Spencer should start recycling and waste education programme to spread awareness of recycling project.

Company should make a strong team for this project so they handle this project to outside the organization.