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Practical information on the main project management activities during the stages composing the planning and implementing the first NPP project in a country.
The main project management activities in the period starting with the decision to consider nuclear energy as a potential source for producing electricity within the national energy system, up to start of commercial operation of the first NPP
This is the period starting with the decision to consider nuclear energy as a potential source for producing electricity within the national energy system and ends with the launch of a pre-investment (feasibility) study for the first NPP.
The initiation and formulation of a NPP project as well as subsequent implementation need efficient organizational structures for the management of required activities at the government as well as utility, industries, research and development (R&D), and educational institutions involved.
Project management system
The overall responsibility for ensuring the fulfillment of the NPP project requirements is placed on the owner. To meet the whole requirements, it is necessary, during the pre-project stage, to establish, implement, assess and continue improve the management system , which integrates all the requirements of safety, health, the environment, security, quality and economics and ensures that safety is properly taken into account in all the
National energy supply planning
Planning for and assessing energy sector development is becoming increasingly complex with the recognition that social, economic and environmental aspects of energy are intrinsically linked
The NPP project planning and implementation is made up of several long duration activities which can be characterized as:
Conceptual and preparatory activities that embrace all investigations on technical-economic, safety and regulatory aspects needed for the justifications of a NPP project;
Preparatory activities to create the national infrastructure necessary to support the launching of the NPP project and the decision to go forward with the project;
Project oriented activities leading to the successful design, construction,commissioning, start-up, warranty tests and acceptance of the first NPP and potentially to subsequent ones;
Performance oriented activities leading to the safe and reliable operation and life management of the NPP
Post operation activities leading to decommissioning of the NPP.
These activities can be regrouped in five distinct stages which makes the NPP project. These stages are:
Stage 1: Pre-Project
Defined as the period starting with the decision to consider nuclear energy as a potential source for producing electricity within the national energy system and ends with the launch of a pre-investment (feasibility) study for the first NPP project.
This initial stage can be described as relating to conceptual preparatory activities embracing all technical-economic-regulatory investigations needed for the justifications of a NPP project.
It is to be recognized that the introduction of nuclear power and nuclear technology in a country creates specific new requirements on the countryââ‚¬â„¢s infrastructure and requires a national commitment on a long-term basis involving substantial efforts.
The activities performed during the Pre-project stage are mainly related to:
National energy supply planning;
Electric power system planning;
Nuclear power programme planning;
International conventions and agreements;
National infrastructure survey;
National participation plan;
Long term nuclear power programme policy and commitment
Science and technology
Human resources development
Reactor technology survey;
Selection of a consultant or consultants.
Stage 2: Project Decision-Making
This stage is defined as the period starting with the initiation of a pre-investment study which looks at the introduction of nuclear energy as a reliable and economical source of energy to meet the demand of the national energy system and ends with the closure of a contract for the purchase of a NPP.
This stage can be described as preparatory activities to create a national infrastructure to support the launching of the project and lead to the decision-making to go forward with it.
For the successful introduction of nuclear power in any country, an essential element is a clear understanding at the decision-making level of the specific aspects of nuclear power, and a thorough knowledge of the tasks and activities to be performed as well as requirements, responsibilities, commitments, problems and constraints involved.
The activities performed during the project decision-making stage are mainly related to:
Completion of a pre-investment study;
Site evaluation and qualification;
Evaluation of the nuclear power supply market;
Establishment of a management system;
Completion of implementation of the conformity plan related to legal framework;
Implementation of all international conventions and agreements;
Selection of a contractual approach;
Preparation of bid invitation specifications
Negotiation and closure of a contract or contracts;
Technology transfer and training requirements;
Ownerââ‚¬â„¢s management organization.
Stage 3: Plant Construction
This stage is defined as the period immediately following the closure of a contract for the purchase of a NPP and ends with the completion of the commissioning stage of the plant and its acceptance which allows the utility starting commercial operation.
This stage can be described as project-oriented activities leading to the successful construction, commissioning and acceptance of the first NPP.
The activities performed during the plant construction stage are mainly related to:
Safety concepts and implementation of safety objectives
Safety analysis report and licensing application;
Plant conceptual design
Basic and detailed design engineering
Preparation and review of equipment and plant specifications;
Procurement and expediting of equipment and materials;
Manufacturing of equipment and components;
Plant construction, erection and installation
Site preparation and infrastructure
Erection of plant buildings and structures
Plant equipment, components and systems installation;
Plant commissioning and acceptance;
Turnover to operation;
Safeguards and physical protection;
The overall manpower needs for this stage are higher than for any other stage. Within this stage, manufacturing and construction are the activities that have by far the largest manpower requirements, of the order of 6000 people during its peak period.
Stage 4: Plant Operation
Defined as the period at which the plant starts commercial operation and ends at the time when the decision to decommission the plant is made.
This stage can be described as performance oriented activities leading to the safe and reliable operation and life management of the plant.
The primary concern of any NPP operator resides in the safe and reliable operation of its unit.
Taking into account the actual expectation of the plant life (40 to 60 or more years), this represents the most extensive endeavour in the NPP project.
The activities performed during the plant operation and life management stage are mainly related to:
Plant life management;
Fuel cycle management;
Training and re-training;
Emergency plan rehearsals;
Radiological protection and environmental surveillance;
Licensing and regulatory surveillance;
Public information and public relations.
The overall manpower requirements for that stage are not so much directed by the plant output capacity but mainly by the policies regarding the uses of external contractors for such activities as preventive maintenance and planned shutdown.
Stage 5: Plant Decommissioning.
This stage is defined as the period starting with the decision to decommission the plant is made and ends with the return of the area, used originally by the plant, to its original conditions or to a state allowing this area to meet the intent of its future use.
This stage can be described as post operation activities leading to decommissioning of the plant and management of the waste within the frame of the countryââ‚¬â„¢s long term waste management programme.
There are three recognized decommissioning strategies:
Immediate dismantling is the strategy in which the equipment, structures and parts of a nuclear facility containing radioactive contaminants are removed or decontaminated to a level that permits the facility to be released for unrestricted use, or with restrictions
imposed by the regulatory body.
Deferred dismantling (sometimes called safe storage, safe store or safe enclosure) is the strategy in which parts of a nuclear facility containing radioactive contaminants are either processed or placed in such a condition that they can be safely stored and
maintained until they can subsequently be decontaminated and/or dismantled to levels that permit the facility to be released for other uses.
Entombment is the strategy in which radioactive contaminants are encased in a structurally long-lived material until radioactivity decays to a level permitting unrestricted release of the nuclear facility, or
release with restrictions imposed by the regulatory body.