Managing Safety At Construction Place Construction Essay

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It is obviously there are many foreign workers in Malaysia working at construction site. But the amount of foreign workers oversea to Malaysia for work, the rate of accident also will increase. In order to the accident rate, good safety plan such as having a lesson or provision of PPE to foreign worker is important. Always, lack off safety equipment for foreign worker is one of the main causes of accident. Safety are compulsory in every construction project and it need to be implemented strictly. Without the rules, death or accident can be happen easily. However did the safety rules really reliable or should we enforcement CIDB has make it a compulsory safety training (6 hours) to improve the awareness of safety rules and self-protection in construction. However, the question is "is this programme is effective to minimize accident rate in construction site"? if the answer is no, what other measures can be use? Thus, the focus of this research is to identify the safety management from the perspective of foreign workers.

Aims and Objectives

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The aim is to study the reasons of failure to comply with safety policy and to improve safety management construction site.

To determine the effectiveness of safety policy keep foreign worker while working on site.

To identify the reason why foreign worker did not follow the safety rules while working on site.

To review the possible solutions to manage foreign worker for improvement of safety management at construction site.

1.4 Background

Economic force in Malaysia is one of the leading construction industries. It is also one of the most hazardous industries. Due to the major workforce in construction site and the majority in construction accident foreign worker, thus it is important to fix the focus on them to find out a strategy to reduce accident from happening. Report in 2009, there is no apparent decrease in SOCSO report since 2006. Hence, the aim of the research is to investigate on why foreign worker fail to protect themselves from accident.

One of the ideas is having training course for the foreign worker. In Malaysia, they have a programme of training where an individual who is or will be working on any construction site is required to take this programme. This programme has 2 parts, one is CIDB Green Cards and other is The Safety & Healthy Introduction Course. The function of CIDN Green Card is an identification card for personal that who are working on construction site. Only the personnel have the Green Card can enter the sites. To obtain this CIDB Green Cards, a person need to attend a course (a day course) conducted by an accredited CIDB instructor for 6-hours period long.

After having the CIDB Green Cards, an expertise also needed to protect those foreign workers for informing them to keep away and prevent accident. Having training course and expertise to look out, will this minimize the amount of accident report in construction industry? In the researcher opinion, a safety should always prepare for emergencies happen. The information on relevant first aid for specific incidents and the detail for evacuation should all be posted throughout the workplace.

1.5 Scope of study

The scope of study of this research is to study the reasons of failure to comply with safety policy. Besides that this research is going to focus on foreign worker on large construction site in Kuala Lumpur and small construction site in Pahang area about the knowledge of failure and the reason of failure. The reason Kuala Lumpur and Pahang will be selected because of Kuala Lumpur is a developed country and there are many expertise in prevention hazard and Pahang is a developing country, lack of expertise. These two countries will be comparing the safety method of foreign worker. Data will be collected through interview.

Research Methods

Literature review

Primary Sources

The basic concern throughout the review stage is to gather information related to the research topic. In order to achieve the entire objective, a systematic literature review will be conducted reference books in library, institutional and statutory publication, periodicals and trade/academic journals, questioner and interview. The places to conduct the research are at Tunku Abdul Rahman College (TARC) library. Through the internet searching also can find out relevant information to further understanding of the dissertation. The entire information search from Internet will informed of the future and presence data. This will hopefully achieve the goal and objectives regarding to the research topic in literature review.

Secondary Source

1.6.2.1 Case Study

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A case study will be reviewed to achieve the first objective. Case study is using samples and following a rigid protocol to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event: a case. It provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. In this case, choosing a construction site and interview some foreign worker is the first priority to help to know what the foreign workers are thinking about the safety policy.

1.6.2.2 Interview

Interview is a commonly used method for the purpose to collecting information from target person . Any person-to-person interaction between two or more individual with a specific purpose in mind is called an interview (Ranjit, 2005). In this research, the interview will be arranged with some foreign worker or site supervisor for the purpose to get more information why foreign worker cannot protect themselves and how they manage the safety method. In this case the second objective also can be partially complete.

Data Analysis

In order to fully fulfill the three objectives as mentioned above, the questionnaire done by foreign worker will be collected for analyze. All the data will be analyze and evaluate before compile the dissertation. The data analysis is based on the secondary source from case study and interview.

1.3.6 Report findings

After the data analysis have been carried out, all the data will be gathered and compiled in to the dissertation and finalization will be done in order to amend mistakes that contained in the dissertation. Conclusion and report will be carried out. Therefore my three objectives can be fully complete at this stage.

Chapter Outline

Chapter 1- Introduction to the Research

The Chapter 1 for the project and dissertation is introduction to the research. Under this chapter, the researcher needs to explain to the reader that the reason that choosing the dissertation title and briefly introduce the research title. The research goals for this research also one of the important parts to be included in this chapter. The aim, objectives and hypothesis to be tested for the research title should be clear before start. A research content is a basic requirement to be prepared before proceed to the next stage. This is to brief the whole process of dissertation to the reader before read the content.

Chapter 2- Literature Review

Literature review is to introduce the type safety method that can protect and prevent foreign worker from accident; example using PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and having a lesson to overcome the problem or mistake from foreign workers. In this chapter, literature review will done by carried out studies on Articles from the internet, online sources, books and journals regarding to the prevention hazard in construction site, the method of safety can be used for foreign workers and recommend some solution to overcome the problem why foreign workers cannot follow the safety rules.

Chapter 3- Interview Design

In this chapter will explain and elaborate the interview. This chapter consists of the scope of this chapter, the statement of the research aim, In the first stage, what kind of safety method using to prevent hazard. Then second stage will be question why the foreign worker cannot protect themselves. Next will be introducing some safety method and will it can overcome the problem of foreign workers. In order to achieve effective and efficient feedback from the respondent, all the design question prepare for interview should met with all the research objectives.

Chapter 4- Analysis of the Result

In this chapter will analyse the result from the interview that collected from the relevant respondents. The purpose of this chapter will analyse the data collected and to analyse the information that comparison table from the respondents regarding of that particular title.

Chapter 5- Conclusion and Recommendation

In this chapter will sum up the conclusion and recommendation regarding of the project and dissertation on this research topic. Base on the result that obtained, the researcher should write down the conclusion and recommendation on this research topic. This will conclude all the information obtained and summarise the major conclusion to briefly explain what this research topic is all about.

Work Programme

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To describe the table below

Table : Expect Work Programme

Tasks to be completed

Semester 1 (week)

Semester Break

Semester 2 (week)

1-2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9-10

11-12

13-14

1-2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9-10

11-12

13-14

Chapter 1:

Introduction

Preparation for exam

1.1 Project Tittle

√

1.2 Research Problem

√

1.3 Aim and objectives

√

1.4 Background

√

1.5 Scope of Study

√

1.6 Research Method

√

1.7 Chapter Outline

√

Chapter 2:

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

√

2.2 Find Models 1

√

2.3 Find Models 2

√

2.4 Find Models 3

√

2.6 Research Gaps

√

2.7 Summary

√

Chapter 3:

Research Methodologies

3.1 Introduction

√

3.2 Research Strategy

√

3.3 Data Collection Approaches

√

3.4 Research Sample

√

3.5 Rationale of the Research Questions

√

3.6 Executing the Research

√

3.7 Method of Analysis

√

3.8 Ethical Consideration

√

3.9 Summary

√

Chapter 4:

Discussion and Result Analysis

√

4.1 Introduction

√

4.2 Results of finding

√

4.3 Discussion

√

4.4 Summary

√

Chapter 5:

Conclusions and Recommendations

√

5.1 Achievement of Research Objectives

√

5.2 Recommendations to the Industry

√

5.3 Limitations of the research

√

5.4 Further Research

√

5.5 Concluding Remarks

√

Table : Actual Work Programme

Tasks to be completed

Semester 1 (week)

Semester Break

Semester 2 (week)

1-2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9-10

11-12

13-14

1-2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9-10

11-12

13-14

Chapter 1:

Introduction

Preparation for exam

1.1 Project Tittle

√

1.2 Research Problem

√

1.3 Aim and objectives

√

1.4 Background

√

1.5 Scope of Study

1.6 Research Method

√

1.7 Chapter Outline

√

Chapter 2:

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

√

2.2 Find Models 1

√

2.3 Find Models 2

√

2.4 Find Models 3

√

2.5 Research Gaps

√

2.6 Summary

√

Chapter 3:

Research Methodologies

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Strategy

3.3 Data Collection Approaches

3.4 Research Sample

3.5 Rationale of the Research Questions

3.6 Executing the Research

3.7 Method of Analysis

3.8 Ethical Consideration

3.9 Summary

Chapter 4:

Discussion and Result Analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Results of finding

4.3 Discussion

4.4 Summary

Chapter 5:

Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Achievement of Research Objectives

5.2 Recommendations to the Industry

5.3 Limitations of the research

5.4 Further Research

5.5 Concluding Remarks

According to researcher work programme, at the beginning the actual work programme goes faster than the expect plan. It because the beginning is less assignment so the researcher had the time to do the dissertation. On the week 5,6,7,8, the researcher did not do anything according to actual work programme because there are many assignment need to rush. But on the week 9 and 10, researcher are overtake the schedule. Then on the week 11 and 12, researcher need to finish other subject assignment before the submission. In the end, the researcher had done the dissertation in time on week 13 and 14.

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

It is obviously construction industry is one of the regular customers of accidents. It is a very dangerous field in Malaysia. Nowadays, Malaysia is trying to development into a developed country which is project Wawasan 2020. That is why the construction site in Malaysia increasing and the foreign workers came to Malaysia looking for job in construction site also increasing. Nowadays site safety is an important issue because accident happening on site more and more serious. To achieve this goal is not done by alone. It is everyone responsibility and everyone needs to start thinking about safety before they think about work. That should be the main duty and responsibility of everyone in a workplace, employer and employee. We know that workplace safety programs are always much more effective when the effort is collaborative.

A strong and safety company will not let accident happen in their project site construction, because they know it will make the company goes bad. If company projects always accident happen in the site, the company needs to use their own money to cover the losses. Not just the profit may affect the company; the worker of the company will doubt the safety provision or soberness of this company. Foreign worker will trepidation on their own safety, in the end those workers may run away because lack off safeness. None of the company will do an unprofitable business.

To reduce accidents, each individual should know their responsibility and do their part to conform them. On the contractor part, a safety manager should be appointed to responsible in safety on site. There are some method safety manager should comply, examples CIDB Green Card, hired a professional to keep on eyes to the foreign worker and provide PPE.

Chapter 2.2 CIDB Green Card

CIDB Green Card Program is a safety program that requires all construction personnel to undergo a one-day "Safety and Health Induction Course for Construction Workers." After attending the course, construction personnel must register with CIDB before they are issued with the Green Card.

This is a 6 hours/1 day training to help company employees learn more about the OSH legislations and regulations. In this training, there will have a speaker teach company employees about the hazardous in construction site that may happen and introduce some (Personal Protective Equipment) PPE to inform them always wear it while working on site it may prevent the hazard in construction site. All these are to help and improve the knowledge of employees interact with their workplace with a more awareness and try to minimize accident, which could result in damage and/or loss in life and/or property.

This CIDB Green Card just like a permission card or a passport, which will only allow the employee to enter into the construction sites. Without the CIDB Green Card, employee cannot enter the construction site for working.

CIDB Green Card also provided a package of Insurance Under "Skim Takaful" This program will automatically activate when a person has the green card. The coverage of this insurance will be 24 hours and anywhere in the world. Apart of this, this green card also have covers limited hospitalization cost. So it is very convenient to be worker working on site.

Construction personnel are the backbone in helping the country's development. Therefore, it is important to take care of the construction personnel's safety and welfare to enable them to produce productive and quality outputs which meet client's requirements. This responsibility is rests on CIDB's shoulders.

Due to this, CIDB introducing the CIDB Green Card program into the construction industry. This is because CIDB believed that with greater consciousness and alertness towards safety, incidents at construction sites might be reduced significantly. CIDB will call upon all parties whom are involved in this construction industry will to be committed in implementing this CIDB Green Card program for the purpose of achievement goals. 'Let us together ensure the Green Card program meet its objectives', (Dato' Hj. Abdul Rahman Abdullah, 2000).

This CIDB Green Card was launched to instill safety and health awareness among the contractors and construction workers too, in hope that the contractors will introduce safety and health system in the work site that will eliminate or greatly reduce any occupational related accidents or incidents.

In order to obtain the CIDB Green Card, the construction personnel have to attend the 'One Day Safety and Health Induction Course for Construction Workers'. The construction personnel will be then registered with CIDB and a green card will be issued. The colour green means ' a go situation' (traffic light) which indicates that the construction personnel have undergone the said course and he/she is allowed into the site.

Possessing a green card will not be complete without the contractors practicing site safety and health management system and all construction personnel wearing the personal protective equipment.

Before go to 1 day training, an UPP1 application form need to apply. The UPP1 form will show in Chart 1.0 at bottom. Applicant must fill-up the "UPP1" form and attach with the supporting documents with necessary payment. The UPP1 form can be collect from Admin Office. Before submit the form, make sure the Identify Card (IC), Certified photocopy of passport and the cost for payment to Lembaga Pembangunan Industri Pembinaan Malaysia (LPPIM) had been prepared. Then, submit the form to the nearest CIDB's offices. The CIDB staff will schedule for the Safety Induction and Health for Site Personnel Course for one day for each applicant. The Green Card will be given after the applicant attends the course.

The course offered by CIDB is FREE but the green card registration fees is RM50.00 which is valid for two years for locals and RM25.00 for work permit holders which is valid for one year or when their visa expires whichever is shorter.

Chart 1.0 UPP1 form

C:\Documents and Settings\user\My Documents\Downloads\borang-permohonan-akreditasi-cidb.jpg

Chapter 2.3 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE is equipment or a device that protects workers body from hazards and any harmful conditions exist that may result in injury, illness, or possible death in construction site. All PPE should on safe design and construction, and should clean, reliable and comfort to the workers.(Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2003) PPE is an item that may be only can protect the body of construction workers, such as gloves, or a helmet, such as a protective shield or barrier. Anyway, PPE is the least effective way to protect workers because it does not eliminate or reduce the hazard; it only places a barrier between the worker and the hazard. But without PPE the percentage of death if accidents happen will higher. Plus according to the construction rules, all workers in construction site must wear safety equipment while doing works. Without safety equipment, the construction manager has the power to deduct their salary or fund them for some amount because breaking construction rules. That rule provided because if the PPE fails or is not used, then the worker is not protected from the hazard although the PPE cannot fully protect the workers from injury. Therefore, this research will try to consider more effective methods to control the hazard before resorting to PPE.

2.2.2 Level of Personal Protective Equipment

There are four categories based on the degree of protection afforded in PPE. Each level consists of a combination of the protective respiratory equipment and clothing, which protects against varying degrees of inhalational, eye, or skin exposure.

When the highest level of respiratory, skin, eye and mucous membrane needed to protect, Level A will be prepared to against it. Example of highest level risk is exposure risk in toxic or corrosive substance. Level A is the most effectiveness to the safety of worker. It calls for a chemical-resistant, fully encapsulated suit and a pressure-demand SCBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) worn inside the suit. A typical Level A ensemble includes:

(http://safetybydesignllc.com/Meeting%20Handouts/PPE.PDF)

Fully encapsulating chemical protective suit.

Gloves, inner, chemical resistant.

Gloves, outer, chemical resistant.

Boots, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank; (depending on suit boot construction, worn over or under suit boot.)

Level B protection should be selected when the highest level of respiratory protection is needed, but a lesser level of skin and eye protection is needed. Level B protection is the minimum level recommended on initial site entries until the hazards have been further identified and defined by monitoring, sampling, and other reliable methods of analysis, and equipment corresponding with those findings utilized. A typical Level B ensemble includes:

Positive-pressure (pressure-demand), self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved), or positive-pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA.

Chemical resistant clothing (overalls and long-sleeved jacket, coveralls, hooded two-piece chemical splash suit, disposable chemical resistant coveralls.)

Gloves, outer, chemical resistant.

Gloves, inner, chemical resistant.

Boots, outer, chemical resistant, steel toe and shank

Level C protection should be selected when the type of airborne substance is known, concentration measured, criteria for using air-purifying respirators met, and skin and eye exposure is unlikely. Periodic monitoring of the air must be performed. A typical Level C ensemble includes:

Full-face or half-mask, air-purifying respirator (NIOSH approved).

Chemical resistant clothing (one piece coverall, hooded two piece chemical splash suit, chemical resistant hood and apron, disposable chemical resistant coveralls.)

Gloves, outer, chemical resistant.

Gloves, inner, chemical resistant.

Boots, steel toe and shank, chemical resistant.

Level D protection is primarily a work uniform and is used for nuisance contamination only. It requires only coveralls and safety shoes/boots. Other PPE is based upon the situation (types of gloves, etc.). It should not be worn on any site where respiratory or skin hazards exist.

2.2.3 Types of Protection

There are many types of protective equipment, each have own with specific applications and requirement.

Head Protection

Safety Helmet

The usage of safety helmet is to protect the user head from falling object. This will minimize the illness of the users head. This is the most basic equipment should apply for construction worker. Normally, safety helmet can use for 4-5 years, in frequent is 2 years. So safety helmet should keep it in a clean and dry storage or put into polybag to keep the helmet functional. Before use the helmet, workers should inspect the headwear, shelf, chinbone, for any crack or damages. If the helmet has some cracking on surface, the helmet should renew because the crack will minimize the hardness of the helmet and the protection will decrease. That inspection will keep the worker in safety condition; all safety helmets should keep in a good and clean condition. Keep the helmet away from chemical or do not use the helmet with some condition, example, and hole on helmet surface. After use the safety helmet, clean the helmet with water before store it onto storage room.

Ears Protection

Ear plug and ear muff

The usage of ear plug and ear muff is to minimize the high noise (85db (A) and above). This will protect the eardrum of workers. This safety equipment should provide to whom worker work for piling; knocking or some action can provide huge sound. The life period for ear plug and ear muff is very long as long as the equipment did not spoil. Before use the ear plug or ear muff, make sure there are no cracks and damage on headband, cup and plug. If any cracks found, renew the equipment because those cracking will cause the equipment unable to protect the workers who use it. Ear plug and ear muff should store in a clean and dry places or using a plastic bag to store the ear plug and using a locker to store the ear muff. To maintain the ear plug and ear muff, all ear protectors should keep it in a good condition to prevent damage to this equipment.

Eye protection

Goggles

The usage of goggles is to protect the worker eyes from against the small flying object flew into the user eyes. Example the wood shred. This may cause injured to the eyes or maybe will blind the user eyes. This also one of the main equipment should comply in construction site. Before use the goggles, inspect the condition of the eyewear, frame and lens/shield is there any cracks or damage on it. It is important that workers need the see clearly while doing the works and if the goggles unable to protect, hazard will appear. Those goggles should storage in a clean and dry condition; make sure the goggles are keeping away from chemical with using a plastic bag or case. The lenses of the eye protector is the critical part of the goggles, make sure the lenses are clean both side by using warm water then dry the lenses and remove the grit by using brush.

Hand Protection

Gloves

The usage of gloves is to protect the worker hands from against organic chemical and sharp items. Example, the wood cutting drill and rusted steel. This may cause the worker to injure or tetanus if careless. Before use the gloves, make sure the glove are completely functional. If the gloves become ripped or have hole on the surfaces, dispose the gloves and get a new pair. To maintain the glove is in function able condition, make sure the glove is store in a clean and dry place. Hand gloves must be in good condition and checked regularly after used make sure there are no spoil. Use water to wash the glove for cleaning after finish use.

Foot Protection

Safety shoes and safety boots

The usage of safety shoes is to protect the workers feet and toes from getting hurt, example nails. This is the most many times injured happen in construction site, so this equipment must be comply and keep it in good quality. Before use the safety boots and safety shoes, make use there are no crack and damage. If the quality becomes weaker, the nails or sharp item can go through the shoes easily. After used, store the safety boots and shoes in a clean and dry place. The maintenance of safety shoes are keep it in a good condition and check before use. If any damage, renew the shoes. Spray the upper layer with a silicone or apply another layer of protection wax to extra the protection of safety boots or shoes against the wet condition.

Fall Protection

Full body safety harness

The usage of full body safety harness is to prevent failing for worker who are working high level workplace like high rise construction site. This is the most critical safety equipment that can cause death if without it. Before use, inspection must do to check each use, the tide of the rope and the strength of this equipment. Make sure all the harness is in perfect working, if not death could happen. This safety equipment should store in a clean, dry area and avoid corrosive atmosphere and excessive hot and cold to prevent the strength goes weak. After use, clean the strap and buckles in water and household soup. Then dry the harness in vertical place and must be far from the source of heat.

(http://www.polyu.edu.hk/~hso/pubdoc/safety_PS/ppe%20training%20notes%20-%20english.pd)

Chapter 2.4 Hired Expertise Look Over the Employees

In every construction company, there are compulsory have some expertise professional or expertise in safety policy to direct the employees. A lesson on safety policy and having protection wear will not help the employee escape from hazard because human error are not 100 percent can predicted and control. So, employees need a led by someone who is expertise on safety management. Construction moreover has so much that could go wrong at the site. If something as such happens it has the tendency to go rogue which is the main reason why safety director or the safety manager of the place has to be thorough with the safety measures and are bound to take all the possible safety precautions that could be taken for the place before letting anyone out in such accident-prone areas where accidents if not taken care of might range from mild to seriously life-threatening.

Working in an construction site where the employer will feel worried all the times about the safeness of the employees, it is advantageous to hiring a safety manager and safety director is for rescue purposes in order to ensure that the company's employees are not involve in injury risk anytime while working on site. The main task of a safety supervisor giving construction safety services is to make sure that accident will not happens and none of the employee get injury rather is to make sure that whatever happens or if some accident takes place, lives of the employees get saved. The main goal of a safety manager is to avoid accidents no matter how maximum the accident risk, but some emergency takes place the safety supervisor of construction safety services team makes sure that lives of victims are not lost and minimize the damage is done to some employee if working in the area.

Any organization it is involved in some work that mean the percentages of accident happen to the workers in working program will appeared and it is required to take license from OSHA for such work program and are also required to either permanently or temporarily hire some construction safety services to make sure damage can be avoid if some mistaken happens. Safety directors or safety managers need to know the rules and regulations involved in construction safety services so as if some mishap happens the safety supervisors on the site of the accident are informed and they get to work immediately allowing minimal damage to the area and human lives. Hire some construction safety services officials and organizations working in such dangerous or hazardous situations are following the rules of OSHA to save the lives that might be danger if steps as such are not taken.

Fail to protect company's worker not just will cost a huge amount to cover the losses; the company reputation also will affected. An expert safety manager can assist the companies with a proper guide line, tips and some professional training to the construction business and make sure that every individual will obey the rules and guidelines on the construction site jobs which in turn will help in keeping the workforce as protected as possible.

In other hands, an expert industrial safety manager can take care of the companies in involve to manufacturing, chemical, oil, and gas industries. Safety manager will ensure that the process applied to provide goods and services are safe and secure. Safety directors from an expertise can offer the business with adequate training. In addition, an expert safety manager will teach the entire worker forward to the right thing in order to get the work done correctly with no injury or serious harm. It is safety manager duty to ensure everything what it takes to confirm things run as smoothly and securely as possible.

2.4.1 Benefit of Hired an Expertise

The following are the benefits that hiring safety director or safety manager along with the construction safety supervisors is going to provide the companies:

Sense of protection:

The first main point to have a safety manager in construction site is the sense of protection. Safety manager must always stay awareness while the workers doing their site job and make sure there no mistake happens. Safety manager will protect among the crew who are involved in construction site. Having an expertise construction safety manager all the time will give a sense of protection to safety workers. Any mistake situation, safety manager will be in charge to correct the mistake. Safety manager will always be ready and try their best to avoid some situation happen turned into fatal. That works as a morale booster for those working in such areas and thus tasks are performed perfectly well.

Training:

The safety managers or safety directors do not have their main task to avoid happening that is unseen. Work sites with confined spaces are bound to turn fatal, and so the main task for safety manager or safety director is have to make sure that the workers are perfectly trained and are equipped with the safety equipment and always be ready for such some situation to take place for reducing the probable damage to minimum or even zero. They have to make sure that lives are not endangered if such a situation takes place by any chances.

Professional help:

The safety supervisors like the safety director and the safety managers who are professionals in all tasks and thus they are bound to provide the most professional help to the companies thus helping them have the most appreciated help available all the time. Hiring some good construction safety manager could always provide the best helps for the simple reason that they can handled many cases and so they are perfect for the job with the experience that they possess. Not just can be helpful in construction site, the reputation of the companies will become more famous because of none accident happens due to good safety management. This will help the companies without using any extra cost to cover any losses. (Cisamarjeet Singh 2012)

2.4.2 What are the qualified of an expertise safety manager?

Minimum of five years' experience of heavy industrial health and safety responsibility

A Bachelor's degree in a related field is required and an industry certification is preferred

Process Safety Management experience is a MUST HAVE

Industry certification in safety in a manufacturing industrial environment is a plus.

Training knowledge

Systems knowledge - please include the system's experience in your resume or in your email

Maintain plant statistic in a chemical environment - where a continuous reaction manufacturing process is occurring.

Prior experience with plants where a chemical reaction takes place

Chemical plant, ethonal plant, oil & gas plant experience a plus

Responsibilities

Audits

Program Development

SOP's

Training

Metrics

Program

Single Plant Responsibility

(Safety Manager/Process Safety Management Expert/Sa July 15)

2.5 Research Gaps

In this chapter 2, researcher had shown the type of safety policy. Each safety policy had described clearly what are the function and the benefit. CIDB Green Card, Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) and hire an expertise safety manager; all have mention and explain above about why the rate of the hazard in construction site will decrease and what are the advantages for workers (foreign workers). Based on the theory, the effectiveness of safety policy is reliable. But this is just a theory calculation and did not have an actual analysis about the effectiveness. So researcher will do the analysis on all the safety policy that mention above with using interview the foreign worker is it all safety policy mention above have been comply. If yes, why there are still have accident happen; if no, why there di nit comply.

2.6 Summary

According to definition in chapter 2, the type of safety policy had been defined. Researcher had made a conclusion on the effectiveness of safety policy that defines in Chapter 2. All the safety policy had mention on previous chapter, usually can prevent the employee from getting injured, harm while working on site. CIDB can let the foreign labour knew more about the risk that happen in site and the method of prevent hazard. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) can protect foreign labour from getting injured. An expertise can guide the foreign labour to the correct way to avoid the hazard and dangerous.

Generally, the safety of foreign labour had been protected according to the safety policy that mentioned by researcher. But researcher find out there are missing one point that can cause the foreign labour direct to hazard, it is personal attitude. Attitude is the biggest and hardest problem to settle although the foreign worker had completely follows the safety policy. What if the foreign worker did not follow the construction rules, did not wear safety equipment while working on site, the rate of accident happen in site will increase. This situation can affect the company reputation if the foreign labour keep ignore the construction rules.

What if, the foreign labour had completely followed the safety policy; careless is the main killer that causes accident happen. A careless worker not matter how fully safety prevention, in the end the careless will guide the worker to the hazard or death Human error is the most hardest and unsolvable attitude. In conclusion, the researcher had decided always stay awareness is the most effective to prevent hazard while working in site.