Looking At The Topics Of Construction Design Management Construction Essay

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Literature reviews of research based studies reveal significant information, data and statistics to the professionals of relevant field (Ackoff 1999). Literature review studies are not less important than action research. Quantitative literature review reveals unexplained facts in already researched studies (Dawson et al 2002). Literature review studies are conducted by using various methods (Glaser et al 1979). These methods can be classified under two main approaches; qualitative and quantitative (Kline 1995). In current study, a qualitative literature review study on the topic of 'Construction Design Management (CDM) Regulations in UK "has been proposed at Msc Civil Engineering Level. The dissertation will create an understanding of health and safety issues in construction industry and CDM regulations in UK. The current study will investigate historical changes, amendments, reviews and revisions of CDM in UK.

Many research studies have been conducted on the topic of CDM regulations in UK (Tony et al 2000). Most of these studies are quantitative and do not take a deep view of relevant issues. A deep literature review analysis is only possible through qualitative research (Forrest 2001). Therefore, the current study has been proposed as a qualitative literature review study. Qualitative analysis of data is a challenging job and need clever approach. A special qualitative analysis technique known as thematic analysis has been suggested for the current study. Either manual or computer assisted technique is used in thematic analysis of a literature review. Selection of manual or computer assisted method of qualitative data analysis depends upon sample size and duration of a study (Mile et al 1994). Many Computer Assisted Qualitative DATA Analysis Software (CAQDAS) are available to use in qualitative analysis of data in various fields (Fick et al 2004). A manual approach will be used in current study due to small sample size and limited time.

Scope of a study varies depending upon area of study, geographical limitations, methodology, inclusion /exclusion criteria, empirical status and on many different standards (Casewell 2002). A wide to narrow approach is used in literature review of studies with diffuse area (Casewell 1997). The current study is also a wide topic and diffuses area study. Therefore, a wide to narrow approach will be used in the current study.

Principle question in a research study indicate the main objective of the study (Ian 2001). The question can be an open question or it may be restricted to a specific issue. The principle question of the current study will be kept open to investigate all relevant issues of CDM regulations in UK. An approach of relevance signals is adopted to collect data in a study of open principle question (Oliver 2004). The same approach of data search will be used in the current study.

Data base search is the first step in a literature review study. Various types of data base includes library books, online data base, academic and media articles, parliamentary discussion, statues, case laws and expert opinions. The approach of data base search depends upon the empirical, academic and technical nature of the study. Various types of data base search methods are available including computer based techniques as well. A wise and intelligent approach is required in data base search for a study of widely distributed areas. Current study also consists on wide and diffused area. Terminology based data base search technique will be used in current study.

Two terminologies; primary terminology and secondary terminology will be used in one data base search. Example of primary terminology in current study may be "CDM regulations" and secondary term may be "amendment and changes". Various combinations of terminologies will be used in data base search. Many relevant information sources including research Journal, articles, discussion papers, expert opinions and reviews may be achieved as a result of data base search. Exclusion/ inclusion criteria are fixed in thematic analysis to filter out high quality and relevant literature out of data base (Kothari 1985). An exclusion / inclusion criteria of empirical literature searched out between 2001 to 2011 was fixed in current study. Several papers will be excluded from primary data base selection on the basis of exclusion criteria.

The CDM regulations have central position in UK construction industry due to its significance in health and safety concerns at construction sites (Tony et al 2000). The outcome of database search may be large number of research journals, books, articles and discussion papers. Therefore, an intelligent data extraction approach is required in current study to drain relevant data from searched data source. Again, terminology based data extraction approach is proposed in current study. At this step, a set of two or three terminology will be used. For example a set of three terminologies like CDM, history and changes may result in data relevant to CDM changes and amendments over the time.

CDM regulations have under gone evolutionary changes to absorb issues of construction design safety. A new form of CDM regulations emerged on 7th Feb, 2007 (CDM 2007). The CDM 2007 was developed with an aim to ensure safe construction project and safety of construction worker (Shoji et al 2007). The comparison between CDM 2007 and CDM 1994 indicates that CDM 1994 was more focused on paper work. CDM 1994 had the same ambition as CDM 2007 but it needed review and revision to adopt current changes in safety issues of construction industry. Health and Safety welfare regulations 1996 also contribute to safety at construction site during construction and has became a part of CDM 2007 (Edwin et al 1999). The qualitative research on safety at construction site in UK explains that CDM regulations started from the minimum level of safety to become a developed stage of CDM 2007 with comprehensive provision of heath and safety ensurance at work.

The significance of safely at construction site, planning, designing and managing construction project safely, time by time changes in CDM regulations in UK, need for CDM 2007, absorption of CDM 1994 into CDM 2007, absorption of regulations 1996 as part 4 of CDM 2007 and wide range of issues covered under CDM 2007 are enough reasons to believe that a qualitative literature review analysis is required to investigate CDM 2007's evolutionary phases. Modernising construction industry and ever changing technologies may provide an urgent need to revise the existing construction design management regulations (Wright 2003). Construction Design Management Regulations are applied on wide range of construction projects (Glendon et al 2001). Therefore, more research and empirical studies are required to assess need of review for current CDM regulations.

The generation of "Theme" is the principle step in theme analysis of a literature review, once valuable data has been extracted. Each piece of extracted data is carefully read to extract high quality relevant data (Denzin et al 2000). Codes are generated as a major step in thematic analysis procedure. The codes are generated carefully to encircle every single issue present in extracted data. Generation of codes is a clever process to consider information falling within the scope of a study. Software is available to generate thematic analysis codes but we have decided to generate these codes manually due to limitation of time and size of sample.

Examples of codes in generation of individual themes in current study may include Code A; CDM regulations in UK, Code B; Changes and amendments, Code C; Significance and need, Code D; Implementation. Several codes will be designed to get valuable individual themes from extracted data.

Principles, codes, regulations and laws are developed to implement essential limits. The process of further improvement of regulations is carried out changes and amendments (Maohua et al 2003). Similarity CDM regulations in UK passed though various stages including CDM 1994 and regulation of 1996 to ultimately current status of 2007.

Theme generation is significant step followed by data extraction. In this step of thematic analysis, a valuable theme known as individual finding is generated. It is also called primary theme. Codes are used in various combinations to generate a primary theme. An example of codes combination; "CDM, UK, Need" may outcome with individual theme like "CDM 2007 was an urgent need in UK" or "CDM 2007 has followed by changes in construction industry.

Primary themes or individual findings provide raw material for generation of final themes. The process of themes generation is complex and need practice and professional approach. Individual themes are bridged together to get valuable final theme. A final theme is ultimate set of information on one significant issue of the relevant study. For example, if there are two individual themes; "CDM 2007 was urgently required" and " CDM 2007 is more comprehensive and provide more explanation of safety at construction issues" then the final theme may be " CDM 2007 regulations was developed to explain construction design regulations in more detail". Many final themes may come out as a result of bridging process depending upon the enrichment of individual themes on relevant topic. At the final stage of thematic analysis, final themes are further scrutinised to evaluate either themes indicate towards a specific and significant issue or theme is very general and without valuable meaning. Similar and less valuable themes are discarded to ovoid repetition and poor quality themes. A set of highly oriented themes may add value and quality to the research study.

CDM regulations are wide ranged and each regulation is concerned with safety at construction site and allocation of responsibility. Construction worker are one of those, much concerned about safety at construction site (Shoji et al 2006). Only qualitative analysis may reveal the critical issues of construction project, concerned with construction design, management and safety and need of improvement. The construction industry is the most dangerous industry of the World and has killed many workers in last decade (Fraser 2007). The significance of qualitative study for CDM regulation in UK may be well understood by the earlier mentioned fact.

All studies either, qualitative or quantitative have some limitations. The limitations may be based on sample size, time duration, methodologies, geographical limitation and nature of study. The current study is geographically limited as it only evaluates CDM regulations in UK. Other limitation includes small sample size due to less available tome for the study. Sample of study may impact the quality and outcome of a study. Quantitative studies of large sample size may fail to investigate the qualitative data in a study (Arnold 2009). On the other hand, a small sample size qualitative study may ignore large statistical data. In current study, a small sample size of about twenty-five papers has been suggested. A qualitative study is not much focused on sample size as compared to a quantitative study. Construction Design Management regulations are present in various geographical areas under various shapes (Hasssanein et al 2007). The current study would be more comprehensive if it investigates CDM regulation in large geographical area like Europe, Asia, and Australia or even in whole world.

The literature on CDM regulations in UK has wide range of information like Client's responsibilities and duties, designer's duties and responsibilities, contractor's duties and responsibilities, employer's duties and responsibilities, co-coordinators duties and responsibilities and even staff' responsibilities(CDM 2007). It also includes information of fines and penalties on mistakes and negligence, definition of principle contractor and sub-contractor, notifiable and non-notifiable tasks, status of property developer, appointment of CDM co-coordinator and principle contractor, record, information and access to health and safety file, safe delivery of project, arrangement for worker's safety, limitations, responsibilities and requirement of various roles and many more issues with comprehensive detail (CDM 2007). The wide informative range of CDM regulations in UK, its importance, evolution through various stages and significance in construction process is enough to understand the need of a qualitative analysis. Therefore, a thematic analysis approach was decided in current study instead of a simple literature review that would otherwise take the superficial review of the CDM regulations in UK.

An initial investigation in UK CDM regulations revealed that CDM 1994 was complex, based on extensive paperwork and involve many procedures (CDM 1994). The implicit issues in CDM 1994 were made explicit in CDM 2007. Any system of regulations, codes, procedures and legislation may be successful if it is reviewed, revised and altered according to feedback received about the system. Similarly, the current literature review study will provide essential information to civil engineers and project managers to make recommendations for review, revision and improvement of Current CDM regulations. The current study may be more beneficial if it may have large sample size and it could involve studies from wide geographical area.

CDM regulations have continuously changed to absorb new legislations, modern technologies, and complex responsibilities and to remove existing ambiguities (Oi.ling et al 2004). Therefore, further qualitative and empirical research would be beneficial in exploring CDM regulations in UK.

REFERENCES

Ackoff.R.L.1979. The future of operational research is past. The Journal of operational research society. (30)93-104.

Edwin. S., Shamil. N., Daniel.F.1999. Factors affecting safety performance on construction site. Int Journal of project Management. (17).5.309-315.

Fraser. L., 2007. Significant development in occupational health and safety in Australia's construction industry. Int. J. Occupational Environmental Health.13 (1).12-20.

Glendon. A. I., D.K.Litherland.2001. Safety climate factors, group difference and safety behavior in road construction. Safety Science. 39(3).157-188.

Hasssanein. A., Hanna. A., 2007. Safety programmes in the Egyptian construction industry. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 14(4).251-257.

Ian.B.2001. Qualitative data analysis. Common phases. Strategic differences. Qualitative Social Research. (2).

Maohua. Z., Xingkai. Z., Tiemin. L., Xing. W., Wiecheng.F.2003. Safety evaluation of engineering and construction projects in China. Journal of Loss prevention in the process Industries. 16(3).201-207.

Oi.ling. S., David. R., Phillips, Tat-Wing. L., 2004. Accident analysis and prevention. 36(3).359-366.

Oliver.A.2004. CDM. Getting the message. New Civil Engineer.

Shoji.T. Egawa.Y.2006. Structure of safety climates and its effects on workers. JUOEH (University of occupational and environmental health).1.28(1).29-43.

Tony. B., Owain. Jones.2000. Construction design and Management Safety regulations in practice progress on implementation. Int Journal of Project Management. (18)1, 33-40.

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