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In this modern days quality control is an important factor that been considered as a major aspect of project success. One of the sections in quality control is controlling the quality of concrete structure that been constructed. This is an important factors that we should gives extra attention to ensure value of money of building can be supply in long term which includes quality the product and safety of the product to users.
As in Malaysia construction industry, there are some cases of building that been constructed and building that fully operated have been collapse. This scenario may cause by lack of quality control during the construction of its structure, lack of quality control during construction may cause defect or failure to the structure of the building its self, which the required minimum strength or quality of the structure is not been archive causing the structure cannot carry the load that it's have been design to retain, initially carry to collapse of the structure.
The study on quality control of concrete structure will gives us the knowledge on the ways to control the quality of workmanship during design and construction to minimize the possibility of defect and increased the efficiency of life cycle costing for the building.
Like most other aspect of construction management, quality control must been planned. Usually it is been planned during the beginning of the project and then continues along the project. It is very important for us to plan the ways to control the quality at the beginning of the project to minimise the problem that may arise. Well plan project may gives best project outcome but we also must supervised that we have planned that been done on site to ensure the things that we have planned been implement on site.
There are many factors that will influence the quality of concrete structure, such as environment, design and specification.
The key words in the title must be defined in order to obtain a clear view on the study and they are quality, control, concrete structure.
Quality Control refers to quality related activities associated with the creation of project deliverables. Quality control is used to verify that deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they are complete and correct. Examples of quality control activities include deliverable peer reviews and the testing process.( www.builderau.com.au, 25 July 2010)
Concrete structure is any type of structure that made of concrete with or without reinforcement includes low rise and high rise buildings.
In the past, for many years the industry and related professional in the construction industry have been relatively uninterested in quality control, they confuse the quality control with acceptance of testing.[Ken W.Day, 1996]
Quality is one of the critical factors in the success of construction project. Quality of construction project, as well as project success, can be regarded as the fulfilment of expectations of the project participants, the attainment of a quality level is difficult both to specify and to monitor. [Ahmad Hassan Khan, 2001]
Quality control is critically important to a successful construction project and should be adhered to throughout a project from conception and design to construction and installation, Inspection during construction will prevent costly repairs after the project is completed. The inspector, engineer contractor, permit agency and system personnel must work together to inspect, document, and correct deficiencies. [ Zane Satterfield, 2001]
The purpose of the basic control process is to ensure that actual conform to planned activities. [Stoner and Freeman, 1992]
The building structure failure rate in Malaysia is alarming and the government should look into it seriously, says the Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM). The failure rate is much higher than the assumed failure probability of the Malaysian structure design code, the IEM's Civil and Structural Engineering Technical Division chairman, Tu Yong Eng.[ The sun, retrieved on 11th August 2010]
Control or quality control is one of four components of the generic management process, the fact that quality control is the fourth management process after planning, organizing, and leading does not mean it is last in importance.
[Nauceur Jabnoun ,2007].
In Malaysia, Public Work Department of Malaysia specification 2005 widely been used as the bench mark to allow us to planned and control on construction quality. Quality control is all about how we try to manage to control the design, and construction of the building to ensure the quality of the product is equal on what we want it to be.
Weak quality control leads to defect of failures in constructed facilities, thus result in very large costs. Even with minor defect, reconstruction may required and facility impaired. Increased costs and delay in result. In the worst case, failures may cause personal injuries or fatalities. Accidents during construction process can similarly result in personal injuries and large costs.[ http://civilengineerblog.com. Retrieved on 12th August 2010}
In ACI survey of concrete structure Errors, Two hundred and seventy-five cases of errors in concrete structures were reported in a survey of consulting engineers and government agencies in North America conducted by ACI Committee 348. The survey indicated that about three-quarters of the errors were actually detected by the structure, with 39 cases of collapse and 172 cases of distress, cracking, spelling, leakage, settlement, deflection, or rotation reported. About one-half the errors originated in the design and the other half occurred during construction, with each phase responsible for about the same number of collapses. Of the errors due to faulty construction, nearly three-quarters were detected during construction and over one-half resulted in failure or distress. Most design errors, however, were detected during occupancy and most resulted in serviceability problems. The survey only reported 11 errors detected prior to construction, with about 60 percent detected during construction and the remaining 40 percent detected during occupancy.(John Fraczek,2000)
There are two aspects to controlling concrete quality. One of these is the avoidance of failures and the other the attainment of low viability. Obviously low variability will be of assistance in avoiding failures and there will be no failures if there is an adequate margin between the average quality and specified minimum.[Ken W. Day,1996,].
Aim of study
The aim of the study underpinning this paper was to identify those primary factors that influence the quality of concrete structure.
Objectives of study
To establish the quality consideration of the building
To identified the factors that affect quality of concrete structure
To determine the problem encountered.
Scope of study
The scope of this dissertation will focus on the ways to control the quality of concrete structure during construction and the factors to be considered to avoiding the problem. The scope of study of quality control will focus on quality control on suspended slab, concrete wall, beams and column construction. In consideration of controlling the quality of the concrete structure this study will focus on the Jabatan Kerjaraya 2005 specification, as a guideline. It will also study normal practices that been used in Malaysia
regarding the subject matter and the sample will be collated at area of Kuching, Sarawak.
In obtaining the aim and objective, the following method of data collection have been applied in order to gain reliable information for this study.
The interview are retrieved from direct interviews and this will be done to get further information from professional involved related to this topic especially the engineers who have the knowledge about it. Semi structured interview have been apply in this studies, whereby it is more flexible that allow the responded to give and provide reliable, comparable qualitative data.
The observation will be a part of method of data collection to gather information about this topic. The observation will be done on site, to search and collect data about the required topic.
The case study will be selected at construction site within area of Kuching, Sarawak. Two case studies will be selected to ensure comparable data can be gained.
Data was collect through this method, whereas based on the details found from articles and journals that related to the study such as newspapers, books, internet, report and others previous thesis that related to this topic.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMONDATION
Figure - 1.1 Methodology Flow chart
Basically this chapter is all about introduction of this topic, 'Quality control on concrete structure'. This chapter includes the introduction to Quality control on concrete structure, the problem statement, aim, objective, the scope of study and the research methodology regarding of this topic.
For this second chapter, it will focus on the literature reviews on the related topic. It will give us a clear view of the quality control on concrete structure literature review. This chapter also include the introduction and definition of Quality control of concrete structure. The objective of quality control and situation that demand quality control will also been done in this chapter. The effect of low quality control will be review also in this chapter.
In this third chapter, the planning or manual guide on site for quality control of concrete structure. This chapter will also study the subject that will effect the quality in concrete structure which been divide into three category, concrete material and formwork. Testing, control of material and workmanship will also be one of scope of study in this chapter. In this chapter, the study will also focus on the method of quality control that been used in the common construction practice.
In this chapter, there are consist of research method and data analysis, the source of primary and secondary data will be use to get the data collection on quality control on concrete structure. This chapter will also focus on two project as case study on the quality control that been done on the site. This case study will be a reference to collect data on the required subject matter.
In this chapter the recommendation and conclusion of subject matter will been given to reach the proposed study aims and objectives. The recommendation and conclusion will be based on the analysis that been made in chapter 4, which the recommendation may be used for further research in the future.