Looking At The Changes Made To Projects Construction Essay

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The changes made to this section involve; increasing the scope of the project by adding an area that covers porous materials based on the deformation and the absorption energy, reducing areas with no physical means of testing and widening the scope of the testable materials (Sports equipments, Wind mill turbines and medical devices) as can be seen in the proposal on page 10.The sections removed or left to consider are the Air craft wing sections and the Automobile sections.

2. Context of the Proposed Research, Including Preliminary Literature Review

With a slight change in the objectives to the project, the review of literature has moved to cover sections which are incorporated in the objectives. The broadened section includes; hybrids consisting of porous cellular materials and sandwich structures. A detail review of literature is seen in section 3.5, 3.5.1, 3.5.2 and section 3.7. The added literature is colored in red.

3. Appropriateness of Proposed Research Methodology

Modifications made to this section can be seen in section four of the proposal below. This widens the scope of the project, with considerations made on not just composites as earlier proposed but on hybrids in general.

The methodology will include designing composite to suite particular applications listed in the objectives, testing of foams and comparing results obtained experimentally to that generated using the CES hybrid synthesizer for applications such as crash helmets where energy absorption is a key factor and finally the design of sandwich structures to be utilized in applications such as the wind mill where strength and weight are important factors to be considered.

4. Project Planning, Risk Assessment and Proposed Risk Management

The Gantt chart for the project is as seen below, with slight changes proposed to it to fit experiments on porous materials and foams, sandwich structures and not forgetting the back bone and foundation of the project which are composites.

Taking out experiments on aircraft wing sections, it will be possible to incorporate experiments that deal with foams and cellular structures and also experiments that deal with the application of sandwich panels in wind mill blades.

The location of the experiments will be in the in the South East Applied Material Research Centre Laboratories of the cork road campus of wit.

At the moment, the project is running according to plan but for the fact that materials that include foams for testing and the testing machine are still not delivered meaning that the project cannot continue in that direction till the materials is delivered. For the main time research on other possible applications are ongoing.

5. Explicit Statement of Expected Projects Deliverables

At the end of this project, I will be proficient in the used of the hybrid synthesizer to design and optimize the performance of hybrid materials. I will be able to distinguish the different type of hybrids and understand their performance in various engineering applications.

For composites, I will be able to come out with composites materials that are made up of environmentally friendly materials and are themselves environmentally friendly and do not pollute the atmosphere when they reach their end of life. Possible applications or where these materials will be used include; wind miles, sports equipment, aircraft wing sections and many others. To add to this, at the end of this project I will be able to create new materials which even if they are not physically available, their composition by volume and mass exist in a database and can be applied, and developed for applications that need their functions mechanically and chemically.

In Foams, texts will be performed on industrially made foams, to test the suitability against designed forms synthesized by the use of the hybrid synthesizer. The end product of this application will be towards selecting the most suitable materials that can be used in motorbike helmets sports helmets and even for protection of goods in transit.

Finally in the sandwich structure, considerations on applications such as the wind mill is the target, where blades of wind miles will be designed using sandwich panels that will help in reducing the weight of the finished product, but keeping strength and stiffness at the top in line with the materials that are now used.

6. Updated / Revised Strategy for the Realisation of Project Deliverables

With the major set back to the project being the machine and test material I would have love to say I have a strategy set aside to achieve them in time, but there is none at the moment, I just have to sit and wait till I have the arrive.

The rest of the project is just requires a proper management of the available to achieve the deliverables listed in 5 above.

Research Proposal

Submitted: by Yisaak A. Rabbin

Student ID: 20021737

Date: 28/02/2011



With the modernization of industries and the application of more complex means of coming out with materials that are suitable for particular applications, the question of how such material will be gotten rid of when they reach their end of life still stands. Eco, composites by the name, presents a chance for the future. Suitability of material selection processes and the use of bio degradable composites in application such as sports equipments, wind turbines, aircraft wings, automotive panels and medical devices, present a great chance of a solution to an unthinkable problem. The CES hybrid synthesizer tool is a tool that helps in the combination of two or more materials with attributes that cannot be assigned to one material on its own; to come out with a new material that is more eco friendly. Utilization of this tool allows for eco friendly materials to be used and hence a reduction in the worries there after.

Table of Contents

Table of figures

Chapter 1 Introduction

Engineering and Materials Sciences are becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. The contributions that these can make to most industries are of particular interest at present, for a number of reasons. One is the emergence of new experimental techniques for visualizing the structure and measuring the properties of natural materials. Another is the realization that the modeling and simulation methods of the physical sciences can contribute also to engineering. Yet another is the belief that, even now, nature can suggest ways to make new and useful materials.

With the modernization of industry and the application of more complex means of coming out with material that are suitable for particular applications, the question of how such material will be gotten rid of when they reach their end of life still stands. Eco composites by the name, presents a chance for the future. Suitability of material selection processes and the use of bio degradable composites in application such as sports equipments, wind turbines, aircraft wings, automotive panels and medical devices, present a great chance of a solution to an unthinkable problem.

The CES hybrid synthesizer tool is a tool that helps in the combination of two or more materials with attributes that cannot be assigned to one material on its own; to come out with a new material that is more eco friendly. Utilization of this tool allows for eco friendly materials to be used and hence a reduction in the worries there after.

This project will try to find a solution to a problem that is not thought of, as many materials that are used today are materials that are either recycled as in most car panels that are made out of steel.

Utilization of the CES hybrid synthesizer tool will through innovation enhance the process of novel material selection for applications that require the need for weight reduction as in aircrafts and the blade of wind turbines, the need for less fuel consumption as in cars and aircraft, the need for speed as in racing cars and many more application.

Chapter 2 Project objectives

The main objective of the project is to utilise the hybrid synthesizer tool which is a tool of the CES software, to explore the potentials of hybrid materials in terms of their microstructure and identify the selection of matrix and reinforcement. The project will focus initially on the utilisation of the hybrid synthesizer for the prediction of mechanical properties of conventional composites for a number of components in a diverse range of industrial sections including;

Sports equipment: this will involve testing the various types of foams with aims of utilising them in crash helmets such as that used in motor cycle and bicycle helmets, ice hockey helmets, hauling helmets and comparing them to data obtained from the CES hybrid Synthesizer in relation to impact and other mechanical properties available.

Wind turbines: this will involve designing hybrid wind turbine using the Hybrid synthesizer, made of an inner layer of foam and an external layer of composite with the goal of obtaining the same performance of existing wind turbine blade but using materials that are friendly to the environment.

Medical devices: this will involve bio-composites that are bio compatible for orthopaedic devices that are porous and allow for bone tissue to grow in to them. This section also involves designing polymer scaffold for bone and bone fillers that incorporate sterilising materials that are absorbable by the body. Application of Porous materials to cover orthopaedic devices that will allow the growth of bone tissue in to such materials.

Air craft wing sections.

Automobile sections

The hybrid synthesizer will also be used to predict the properties of eco composite materials, with a view to the substitution of conventional composites for application in the above mentioned sections. A key component in this activity will be the selection of materials matrix and reinforcement to meet this goal.

Chapter 3 Literature review

3.1 Material selection in mechanical design

Material selection is the process of choosing the best material for a particular design. In mechanical design, material selection enters at every stage of the design process and is interrelated as important as design and manufacture. According to (Maniya and Bhatt 2010) the material selection should not be solely based on cost but should also depend on different properties of material including; availability, recycling, production method, disposal method, design life, and many other reasons. (Thakker, Jarvis et al. 2008) considers the Cambridge Engineering System (CES) in selecting materials. The system uses material selection charts, which is a way of displaying material property and data through the use of optimized procedures. (Thakker, Jarvis et al. 2008) uses the flow in the duct, the nature of the load expected and the magnitude of the forces acting on the blade of an oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy harnessing method in selecting the best material suitable for the turbine blade to generate electricity from wave energy. (Thakker, Jarvis et al. 2008) came out with results that are consistent for such an application and concluded that the optimum material for manufacturing an impulse turbine blade would be GFRP, with titanium alloys in second place.

(Maniya and Bhatt 2010) looks at implementing a novel method named preference selection index (PSI) method for selection of material for a given application. PSI method is a scientific method or tool for design engineers to select the appropriate material for the given application.(Shanian and Savadogo 2006) adopted a Multiple Attribute Decision Making model in the selection of materials and components for fuel cell. They distinguished two approaches that could be used to solve multi-objective optimization problems: Multiple Objective Decision-making (MODM) and Multiple Attribute Decision Making approaches. MODM employs decision variables that are determined in a continuous domain with either an infinite or a large number of choices. The best decision is then made so as to satisfy the material designer's preference. The MADM approach, on the other hand, can be used in selection problems where decisions involve a finite number of alternatives and a set of performance attributes. The decision variables can be quantitative or qualitative. The key difference in MADM models, as compared to MODM models, is that they include discreet variables with a number of pre-specified alternatives and, more importantly, they do not require an explicit relation between input and output variables.

3.1.1 Typical material selection process

Material selection can be made manually by using charts of various properties ranging from cost, strength, Young's modulus and many other mechanical and physical properties. The material selection chart can either consist of one variable, as in a bar chart, or two variables, as in the bubble chart. Figure one and two below represent two of such charts used to select materials (Ashby, Shercliff et al. 2010)

C:\Documents and Settings\Yisaak Rabbin\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\Content.MSO\95039FF1.jpg

Figure Strength density chart

Most engineering materials according to (Ashby, Shercliff et al. 2010) are designed to withstand a bending moment fracture and to be light. An aircraft wing should be light enough to enable the plane to fly and also to resist other forces that act on the wing. Considerations such as this require that the density of the wing be reasonably low and the modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) be considerably high. Figure 2 below shows a chart that has young's modulus E on the y-axis and density p on the x-axis.

The selection line for the index M has a slope of 2 (Ashby 2010) which is positioned so that a small group of materials are left above has a large value of M, which will provide the strength and the weight required in aircraft wing sections. It can be seen from the chart that materials in the metals bubble has high Young's modulus but the density is high also making them unsuitable for the task. Materials on the foams bubble have a low density but the strength is a limiting factor. The ideal candidate for the application according to the chart is CFRP which has a high modulus and a density that will suite such an application.

Figure Young's modulus density chart

3.1.2 Materials selection in innovative product design

Innovation typically follows an invention, the creation of a new idea in the context of material development. (Gessinger 2009) Innovation implies new idea that leads to the development of new products. The bubble chart of young's modulus against density presents two holes in which new materials can be created to fit perfectly in to, there by fulfilling the definition above and paving the way for more efficient materials. The hybrid synthesizer tool should prove useful in achieving this goal for which this project is based.

Figure Young's modulus density chart showing holes for new materials

3.2 Engineering composite materials

Composites are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure.

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) consist of two distinct chemical and physical phases that are suitably distributed to provide properties not obtained by the individual phase. Example of metal matrix composites will include Al2O3 fiber, reinforced with AL matrix which is used in transmission lines and N(Mahmoud M 2008)

B-Ti filaments in Cu matrix that is used in super conducting magnet. Other types of engineering composites will include polymer matrix composites (PMCs) and Ceramic Matrix composites (CMCs) which have a polymer matrix and a ceramic matrix respectively with their specific reinforcements.

(Graupner, Herrmann et al. 2009) investigates the properties obtained from composites made by mixing fibers of cotton, hemp, knaf and lycoll with a matrix of biodegradable polylactic acid. The results from (Graupner, Herrmann et al. 2009) experiment showed that the best composites were made by mixing bundles of knaf and hemp with Young's moduli of 10,995 N/mm2 and 9928 N/mm2 obtained respectively. (Graupner, Herrmann et al. 2009) found that the modulus is dependent on the force-elongation characteristics, chemical composition, the fibril angle and the type of sample (fiber or fiber bundle).(Baxevanis, Theocharis et al. 2010) presents Creep models for unidirectional ceramic matrix composites reinforced by long creeping fibers with weak interfaces and Creep models for metal matrix composites with long brittle ¬bers.(Baxevanis, Theocharis et al. 2010) takes in to consideration, the fiber effect that creep presents in the required operational temperatures for ceramic matrix composites (CMCs).(Bledzki, K. et al. 2006) uses Polypropylene matrix and hard wood fiber and a commercially available maleic anhydride-polypropylene copolymer as a compatibiliser to form micro-foam structure composites containing both wood fibers and matrix agent in an injection molding process.

3.2.1 The science of composite materials

Most composites are made of two different materials that work together to give it its unique properties. Humans have been using composite materials for thousands of years. Take mud bricks for example. The two materials that make up a composite are the matrix or binder that surrounds and binds together a cluster of fibres or fragments of a much stronger material called the reinforcement. In a common composite like concrete, the role of matrix and reinforcement is divided between the cement and the aggregate; in a piece of wood, by the cellulose and the lignin. In fibreglass, the reinforcement is provided by fine threads or fibres of glass, often woven into a sort of cloth, and the matrix is a plastic. (Ashby 2010)

The matrix of modern composite is mostly made of thermosetting plastic hence the name 'reinforced plastics' commonly given to composites. The plastics are polymers that hold the reinforcement together and help to determine the physical properties of the end product. Ceramics, carbon and metals are used as the matrix for some highly specialised purposes. For example, ceramics are used when the material is going to be exposed to high temperatures and carbon is used for products that are exposed to friction and wear. Determination of the strength of a composite can be done by simple calculation if the volume fraction of the matrix and reinforcement and the strength of the matrix and reinforcement are known using the simple formula below.

Ec = Em Vm + Ef Vf

Where Ec is the strength of the composite Em and Ef the strength of the matrix and reinforcement respectively, Vm and Vf the volume fraction of the matrix and reinforcement respectively. Although glass fibres are by far the most common reinforcement, many advanced composites now use fine fibres of pure carbon. Carbon fibres are much stronger than glass fibres, but are also more expensive to produce. Carbon fibre composites are light as well as strong. They are used in aircraft structures and in sporting goods and increasingly are used instead of metals to repair or replace damaged bones. Kevlar is one of the only polymers used as fibre. It is immensely strong and adds toughness to a composite. It is used as the reinforcement in composite products that require lightweight and reliable construction for example structural body parts of an aircraft.

3.3 Green initiative world wide

The US Government is making great attempts to get green technology industries rolling in the United States. There is a renewed impetus for U.S. companies by the government to make energy-efficient choices. It is now well known that global warming is a man-made threat and the Earth's climate and ecosystems are already being affected by greenhouse gases. With government initiatives, the opinion of the companies and individuals can change greatly.

Government incentives are making alternative energy, such as solar and wind power, economically feasible worldwide. Companies like Google are investing millions of dollars in renewable energy projects. The eventual goal of these companies is to develop electricity from renewable energy sources that is less expensive compared to electricity from coal. (Larsen and Kari 2010) predicts that wind will supply 12% of the world's energy needs within the next 12 years and could supply up to 30% by 2050. Wind energy is a growth industry worldwide.

With the drive towards wind, (Welch, B. et al. 2009) reviews different countries wind energy output and found that the USA wind energy output has increased by over 25% to reach 74,223 MW Germany was the leader with 20,822 MW, followed by Spain (11,615 MW), India (6270 MW) and Denmark (3126MW) Other countries that had reached 1500 MW were China, Italy, UK, Portugal and France. On an installed capacity per capita basis, Denmark was the leader with 576W per capital

3.4 Eco composites

As a result of the increasing demand for environmental protection, new materials and processes have been developed in order to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances(Ashby 2010). Renewable feedstock such as wood, bamboo, agricultural waste allows advancement in materials. Cellular anatomy of plants provides an attractive template for the design of materials with hierarchically ordered structures that cannot be processed by conventional technologies. Composites are obtained by polymer in¬ltration into plant ¬bers to form biocomposites (Krzesinska, M.Zachariasz et al. 2009) So far for the preparation of biocomposites, bamboo has been frequently used as a source of ¬bers or powders which are natural ¬llers of polymer matrices. Polymers/bamboo ¬ber biocomposites with bamboo ¬ber content reaching up to 50% were found to be strong with Young's modulus about 2-3.5 GPa (Krzesinska, M.Zachariasz et al. 2009). Bamboo is a member of the grass family. It contains highly aligned long cellulosic ¬bers that make up a strong woody stem. One of the most important advantages of bamboo is its very short time of growing in comparison with other plants. Bamboo takes 3-5 years to reach maturity, an advantage of an ever present source of raw material.

3.5. Hybrid Materials

Hybrids are a combination of two or more materials in a predetermined configuration. The attributes obtained from combining these two materials cannot be obtained from one single material on its own. According to the figure below hybrids can either be composites, sandwiches, segmented structures lattices and foams (Ashby 2011)

Figure Classification of hybrids (Ashby 2011)

3.5.1 Porous/cellular materials

Cellular structures are either lattice or foams, with a distinction visible from their mechanical properties. While foams are bending dominated structures, lattice structures are stretch dominated structures. Foams are hybrids of a solid and a gas, formed by expanding polymer, metals, ceramics or glass with a foaming agent hence introducing a gas in to the solid. A simplified example according to (Ashby 2011) is yeast in the baking of bread.

Foams consist of solid cell walls surrounding a void space containing gas or fluid. The relative density of the foam is given by;

Where p is the density of the foam, the density of the material from which the foam was made, L is the cell size and t is the thickness of the cell edge. Applying a force on to the foam will make the foam to bend, leading to various properties. The figure below depicts what happen upon the application of a force to a foam.

Figure Low Modulus structure formed by application of force to a foam (Ashby 2011)

The mechanical properties of the foam according to (Ashby 2011) varies in a linear and elastic fission, with the modulus of elasticity increasing till it reaches its buckling stage where it fractures. The material continues to collapse at a constant stress rate known as the plateau stress to the densification strain where the strain rise rapidly

Figure Stress strain curve for foams showing plateau stress (Ashby 2011)

The bending deformation of the material can be calculated from;

Where E is the modulus of the foam, Es is the modulus of the material from which the foam was made. Where p is the density of the foam, ps is the density of the material from which the foam was made, implying that a small decrease in relative density can cause a large change in the modulus of the foam.

Figure CES input window for cellular structures

The hybrid synthesizer tool allows for performance to be predicted based on relative density, generating records that can be compared against existing records.

3.5.2 Sandwiches

According to (Ashby 2011) sandwiches epitomise the concept of hybrids. They are composed of two distinct materials in a specified geometry and scale. One material forms the face and the core. The properties that come this are; enhanced bending stiffness, high strength and a low density. With the low density, they are used in applications where weight saving is crucial such as aircraft, trains, human implants such as skull, sports equipments and many others. The figure below shows a sandwich with t, the face thickness, c the core thickness is and d the panel thickness.

Figure sandwich structure (Ashby 2011)

The face material that is exposed to the atmosphere has to be stiff and resistant to environmental forces, while the inner core material has to be light and stiff as it occupies most of the volume of the whole structure. The figure below shows the flexural modulus density chart for foam sandwich formed from CFRP and its enhanced density and strength as a result of the mixture.

Figure modulus density chat showing exceptional flexural strength(Ashby 2011)

Figure CES input window for sandwich structures

3.6.1 Hybrid synthesizer

The hybrid synthesizer is a scoping tool that follows fast exploration of hybrid structures. It gives analysis of the properties that can be achieved by forming a single material in to a cellular structure.

The hybrid synthesizer uses CES level 3 data base that is either user defined or integrated in to the tool to create new records allowing for more complex material to be designed in a design process.

According to (Ashby 2010) the tool generates feed-back of which its long term purpose is to encourage innovation by allowing estimated property-profile for virtual novel hybrids to be explored and compared with the property-profile of established engineering materials

Figure Hybrid Synthesizer showing material type

The synthesizer is accessed through the CES interface that displays an input Window containing six hybrid materials as shown in fig 1 above.

Figure Input window showing number of loading levels, volume fractions etc

The input window of the synthesizer, set for Composites - Particulate reinforcement. It is used to exploring particulate composites. It allows for performance to be predicted by adding reinforcement to material matrix. The output window allows properties to be compared by displaying the original material used to create the composite.

3.7 Existing companies

Many industries are seeking to replace metals with advanced composites which are able to perform the function; provide the same strength but with less weight as compared to their metal companions.

Bombardier is a company that manufactures aircrafts and has part of its design and manufacturing units in Belfast. With such ideas in mind 10 years ago, according to the composite world website, it is set to bring to the market the Learjet 85 in 2013 that is made entirely of composites The 85 will offer a four-passenger range of 3,000 nautical miles (5,555 km) at Mach 0.78 cruising speed with a high-speed cruise of Mach 0.82 and a ceiling of 49,000 ft/14,935m. The 24.7-ft/7.54m long cabin will offer stand-up capability, with 5.91 ft/1.8m of headroom, and will seat a pilot, copilot and as many as eight passengers.

Quickstep Technologies Pty Ltd is a company with locations in the UK, Australia, USA and Germany that offers design and engineering, aerospace manufacturing solutions for the manufacture of advanced composite components.

The company also specializes in the automotive components where in comparison to the aerospace industry, strength and weight are critical. According to (Brent and Strong 1996) the technique in making aircraft parts was sophisticated consisting of Al parts. Boeing 7E7 gave the need for the use of advanced composites through Rocky mountain composites that took away the need for autoclave.

With the use of composites in aircraft, it was possible to achieve a better surface finish, the range that the aircraft could fly was increase to 8500 miles, an increase in speed there was efficient use of fuel of up to 20 % and the cargo carrying capacity was increase up to 60% with the introduction of composites in aircrafts.

Airex T90 is foam manufactured by Alcan composites which is based on Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) and combines the use of a core material in a sandwich application usable with all type of resin. Aires T90 has good mechanical properties, high thermal stability of up to 150 0c, and good physical properties that do not ingress moisture suitable for use in marine applications (Wanner 2008).

Chapter 4 Methodology

Become familiar with using the hybrid synthesizer tool from the CES Edupack 2010 software.

Become familiar with the composition of existing composite materials and their method of manufacture.

Identify materials that are used in most conventional composites; matrix to reinforcement or fibre proportions.

Identify natural existing composite materials which are friendly to the environment.

Predict the properties of polymer matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

Design composites, foams and sandwich materials that will suit specific areas of interest (sports, wind turbines, aircraft wing sections, automobile, medical devices etc)

Identifying the relevant performance indices for the various applications in foams, composites and sandwich structures

Test manufactured foam materials and compare properties to foams from the CES hybrid synthesizer.

Design sandwich structures in line with the CES hybrid synthesizer tool, test for properties, performance.

Chapter 5 Experimental

There are three sections that are linked to the hybrid synthesizer tool. It consists of cellular structure, sandwich panels and the last for composites as can be seen in the figure below. This project concentrates on the composites simple bonds and will be based around unidirectional fibres, quasi-isotropic and particulate filled materials.

Figure Synthesizer Interface

This section will be based on the results from the performance predicted by adding reinforcement A to material B. The results of the synthesizer will comprise of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% layup particulates of the reinforcement. The analysis will then be based on the composition of matrix to reinforcement and analyzed in terms of;

Density, which is a general property.

The mechanical property which includes

Young's modulus, flexural modulus, shears modulus, poisons ratio, yield strength (elastic limit), tensile strength, compressive strength, and the flexural strength (modulus of rapture).

Thermal properties which includes; the conductivity, the specific heat capacity and the thermal expansion coefficient.

The electrical property, which is base on the electrical resistivity alone.

Chapter 6 Results/Analyses

This section will be based on comparison of composites and composite materials that are used at present in applications which include; wind turbines, aircraft wing sections, medical devices and even sports equipments, with materials and composites that have been designed using the hybrid synthesizer. The comparison will be geared towards the ability of the composite to be recycled, their nature and reaction towards the environment, whether they are harmful to the environment and the most important one being whether they are able to perform the same functions as the conventional composite materials in terms of strength and performance.

Chapter 7 Conclusion

With no financial aspects linked to this project, it is assumed that the project will be completed well in time. Considerations such as; going in to industry and taking up raw materials that companies are using and coming out with composites that are environmentally friendly and serve the same purpose, is not left out of the project, but will require the financial side to come in to play.

Upon completion of this project, the understanding of the effect of composites that are not friendly to the environment will be brought to light.

The importance of using composites that are friendly to the environment will also be brought to light.

The potentials of the hybrid synthesizer, which is a tool that came out in 2010, will also be exposed, as it has never been in a project of this scale.

Our carbon foot prints will be taken in to consideration, for as not only in the efficient recycling of damaged turbines, light weight aircrafts and efficient smart cars will also be manufactured and hence the amount of gas use will be greatly reduced.

A path way to the future will be known.

Chapter 8 project progress

Acquaintance with the soft ware and the tool which is the hybrid synthesizer

Research on various materials involved.

Weekly meeting scheduled with project supervisor