Life Cycle Of The Ctg Project Construction Essay


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The UK Construction Industry is constantly criticised for not delivering consistent quality and value for money. There has been renewed pressure on the industry to improve its efficiency and in particular to move away from the adversarial relationships and conflict for which it is notorious.

In comparison to the manufacturing industry, construction has been slow in establishing a means of self-improvement, the reason no doubt being due to the fragmented way in which it operates and the intensive competition between the parties to win work in the first place.

The report is based on life cycle of CTG project and further it provides detailed report of

current process methods like Royal Institute of British Plan of work and Generic Design and Construction process protocol.

The first part of report focuses on identifying the CTG project goals, scope of work and procurement method adapted.

second part of report focuses on mapping process of CTG project based on RIBA plan of work

third part of report focuses on mapping process and sub process of CTG project base on GDCPP which was developed by Salford University in 1995. The main objective of development is to provide a better design and construction frame work by analysing current method of practices in the industry.

Fourth part of report focuses on critical appraisal of current method of working. And potential benefits of adapting GDCPP into the process.

Fifth part of report focuses on identifying key value adding and wasteful activities based upon current production principles.


The Centre for Technology in Government (CTG) is a 250,000 square foot facility, built specifically to house world class super computers and a nuclear weapons design staff. The facility design staff had to carefully consider and balance safety, security, efficiency, life-cycle costs, working conditions, and the need for flexibility to address changing advanced technology for the effective and efficient execution of the public administration. The project went through the planning phases from late 2008 through 2010. The design/build contract was signed in August 2008 and the building will be completed in December 2010.

Building Name : Centre for Technology

Location : Liverpool

Project Size : 20,000 m²

Project Type : New Construction

Building Type : High Tech Facility with Office Spaces

Delivery Type : Design and Built

Total Building Costs : £ 50,000,000

Owner : Department for Business and Innovation Skills


There are set of goals prescribed by clients of CTG project. The set of goal are as follows

The accessibility goal is to comply with all state (country) requirements.

The cost effective goal is to maximise number of office spaces.

The functional goal is to provide an office space to support team environment with central break areas.

The productive goal is to create a teaming and communicative environment for scientists.

The secure/safe goal is to provide extremely secure environment.

The sustainable goal is to provide an energy efficient environment.


The procurement method adopted for CTG project is Design and Build.

According to Cooke et al (2010) in contractor led design and built procurement type, the contractor will take whole responsibility for full design as well as construction of building with respect to clients project requirements.

According to Morton (2009) the advantage of following the design and built procurement is that the design and construction process can overlap, so the construction process can be quicker and at low costs. And there is a direct communication between contractor and client so both can communicate their needs directly.

For the complex project like CTG it is better to adapt design and built procurement. The integrated nature helps us to reduce cost and time.


The scope of work for Centre for Technology in Government project is

To design and build an office complex specifically to house super computers and nuclear weapons design staff.

To meet clients goals and objective both in designing and execution process.


According to Cooper.D (2004) key performance indicators are interpreted as tool for "providing high-level snapshots of business performance". Fewings.P (2005 ) states that KPI's are useful predictors for client and marketing tool for the contractors. The effectiveness of KPI's depends on meeting the pre set objectives. To improve the efficiency of CTG project execution is better to assume the KPI's in the initial stage. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) monitors the construction performances and provides KPI's for performance. The KPI's from DIT are adapted for CTG project to improve the performance.

The KPI's adapted for CTG project is as follows.

Project KPI's


Client satisfaction-product

To satisfy client by achieving all project goals set by the client.

Client satisfaction-service

To provide excellent service to the client throughout lifecycle of CTG project from inception stage to completion stage.


There should not be any defects in CTG facility when it is handed over to the client.

Predictability - design cost

The defined design cost should not exceed.

Predictability- construction costs

The complete the CTG project within accepted costs.

Predictability-construction time

To complete the project within the accepted duration.


To reduce waste and add value at all stages.


To increase profits for company

Construction costs

To make CTG construction costs less as compared to similar previous projects.


There should not be any accident while executing the CTG project.

Source adapted from Cooper.D (2004) pg 109.



The RIBA plan of work was published in 1964 and it is a framework for construction process which lists out activities from inception to practical completion. According to Cooke et al pg 24 "The RIBA plan of work is a model design process which explains in detail what happens in each stage and how the various engineers, the quantity surveyor and others contribute."


The RIBA plan of work for CTG project is categorised into five main work phases as follows.






These five main work phases are further classified in sub processes that are very much important for the project. Main work phases are considered as Hard Gates and sub processes are considered as Soft gate.


The main objective of Preparation phase is to identify client's requirements, objective and prepare initial requirements for the project. This phase is further divided in two work stages they are:

Stage A- Appraisal:

According to Cooke et al,(2010) the tasks performed in this stage is Confirmation of client's project requirements, prepare feasibility report, Engagement of consultant and select procurement route.

The key tasks involves in identification of goals, objectives and possible constraints on development of CTG project. And other major task in the appraisal stage of CTG project is to prepare feasibility report that enables the client whether to proceed with project or not.

Stage B- Design Brief:

According to Cooke et al, (2010) the tasks performed in this stage is Preparation of client's project brief, finalise the key requirements, Identify the procurement procedures and Organise structure of project design team.

The key task involved in this stage is to prepare initial statement of design requirements for CTG project and getting client approval on key requirements and constraints. This stage involves identification of procurement method.

The procurement method chosen for CTG project is design and built. Design team going to be involved in this CTG project is organised and task are assigned to members.


The design phase involves design team to develop final design for the CTG project. And the final design is developed in three stages in this phase.

Stage C- Concept:

The key task involved in this stage is preparation of initial concept design for CTG project by implementing requirements of design brief. The major task in this stage is not only preparing conceptual design but also the designer should propose outline for structural, building service systems, outline specification and preliminary cost plan for CTG project. And the procurement route for the CTG project is revived in this task.

Stage D- Design Development:

The key task involved in this stage is to development of conceptual design into detailed design by incorporating structural and building service systems detail in to design and to update outline specifications and cost plan according to detailed design.

All approvals and planning permission for CTG project is obtained at this stage.

Stage E- Technical Design:

The key task involved in this stage is preparation of the technical design and specifications that is sufficient to co-ordinate construction process.

Stage F- Production Information:

According to Cooke et al, (2010) the tasks performed in this stage is Preparation of "production information" to enable tender document to be prepared and obtain statutory approvals.

The key task involved in this phase is to prepare detailed information for the construction process of CTG project and apply for statutory approvals.

Stage G- Tender Documentation:

According to Cooke et al,(2010) the tasks performed in this stage is Preparation of "tender documentation". Completed tenders are invited for the project.

The key task involved in this stage is preparation of tender documents with sufficient details about the CTG project that enables tenders to obtain the project.

Stage H- Tender Action:

According to Cooke et al,(2010) the tasks performed in this stage is Evaluation of received tenders, Apprising tender documents and recommendations of potential contractors to client.

The key task involved in this stage is identification and appraisal of capable contractors for the CTG project and the tenders received are evaluated and recommendations are submitted to the clients.


Stage J- Mobilisation:

According to Cooke et al,(2010) the tasks performed in this stage is Award of building contract, Appoint contractor, Issue of production information to contractor, Occupation of site by contractor.

The key task involved in this stage is appointing contractor for the CTG project. And all technical information about CTG project is issued to the contractor. Finally the site is legally handed over to the contractor.

Stage K- Construction to Practical Completion:

According to Cooke et al, (2010) the tasks performed in this stage is administration of contract to practical completion stage and Provision of contract information during the project. "

The key task involved in this stage is to administrate the building contract till practical completion of CTG project. The other task involved in this stage is to provide assistance and further technical information to contractor when they require.


Stage L- Post Practical Completion:

According to Cooke et al, (2010) the tasks performed in this stage is administration of contract after practical completion. Final inspections on completed project and settle final accounts.

The key task involved in this stage is to administrate building contract after completion of CTG project and perform final inspections. The other task involved in this stage is to assist the client during initial occupation time. And review the performance of the project.



The generic design & construction process protocol was developed by the Salford University. The main objective of development is to provide a better design and construction frame work by analysing current method of practices in the industry. It also aims to achieve the process through "a common set of definitions, documentation and procedures that provides the basis to allow a wide range of organisations involved in a construction project to work together seamlessly."And to distinguish information technology tool to support process protocol.


According to Cooper et al,( 2005)Key principles of process protocol are

Whole Project View

Progressive Design Fixity


Stake Holder Involvement

Feed Back

Process Flexibility

Customisable Process.

The generic design & construction process protocol divides the design and construction process for CTG project in four broad stages. The four broad stages are further classified in to ten different phases. The four main stages are as follows

Pre -project stage

Pre construction stage

Construction stage

Post-construction stage

Pre -Project Stage


Demonstrating The Need


Conception Of Need


Outline Feasibility


Substantive Feasibility Study And Outline Financial Authority

Pre -Construction Stage


Outline Line Conceptual Design


Full Conceptual Design


Co-ordinated Design, Procurement And Full Financial Authority

Construction Stage


Production Information



Post -Construction /Completion Stage


Operation And Maintenance



PHASE- 0 - Demonstrating the Need:

According to Cooper et al,( 2005) The key task involved in this phase is to determine the client requirements for CTG project and define the client about possible problems that could be encountered while executing the project based on clients requirements. The next task is to identify key stake holders and their business requirement in the CTG project.

PHASE- 1 Conception of Need:

According to Cooper et al,( 2005) The major task involved in this stage is develop client's requirements of CTG project into a well structured brief and requirements of all the stakeholders involved in the project is captured . Based on client requirements and project stake holders requirements the overall CTG project requirements are identified.

PHASE- 2 Outline The Feasibility:

According to Cooper et al, ( 2005) Based on the perceived CTG project requirements many possible solutions are critically analysed .The purpose of this phase is to examine the feasibility of the project and narrow down the solution that could be considered further. And the best possible solution that is very close to client's objectives and business requirements are suggested to client.

PHASE- 3 - Substantive Feasibility Study and Outline Financial Authority:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) "The decision to develop a solution or solutions further will need to be informed by the results of the substantive feasibility study or studies the purpose of this phase is to finance the 'right' solution for concept design development and outline planning approval"

PHASE- 4 - Outline Conceptual Design:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) the main objective of this phase is to develop the conceptual design solutions based on the final CTG project requirements. All potential schematic design options are presented for approval. All considerable design elements for CTG project should be analysed in this stage.

PHASE- 5 - Full Conceptual Design:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) The main objective of this phase is to prepare a detailed conceptual design for CTG project including M&E, architecture and other required details. The conceptual design proposed for CTG project is critically evaluated and all possible details are added to the design. The developed detail plan is submitted for planning approval.

PHASE- 6 - Production Design, Procurement and Full Financial Authority:

According to Cooper et al, pg no 135, 2005 the key task involved in this phase is to co-ordinate design information of CTG project to production activities. The information provided should include predictability of cost for CTG project.

PHASE- 7 - Production Information:

According to Cooper et al, pg no 136, 2005 the key task involved in this stage is preparation of final detailed design for the CTG project. The major task in this phase is to make sure that there is "no more changes" in CTG final design after this stage. Every effort should be done to optimise the "design after consideration of whole life cycle of the product".

PHASE- 8 - Construction:

According to Cooper et al, pg no 137, 2005 Once the design for CTG is finalised construction activities are started. And if in case any problem is encountered in executing the project the problem should be immediately solved and it is made sure the problem should not happen in future.

PHASE- 9 - Operation and Maintenance:

According to Cooper et al, pg no 138, 2005After completion of CTG project construction the building is handed over to client. And project review is performed to identify the factors to be considered in coming projects. The main aim of this phase is to create "Learning Environment" to members of execution team and all designs are documented for further use.


There are nine activity zones in process protocol. The main objective of having activity zone is to encourage the involvement of multifunctional team very early in the project.

Development Management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Development Management is responsible for both "creating and maintaining business focus" which satisfies client's and stakeholders objective for CTG project.

Project Management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Project Management team is responsible for "effectively and efficiently" implementing the project goals with all process in the CTG project.

Resource management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Resource management team is responsible for the "planning, co-ordination procurement and monitoring" of all resources involved in CTG project.

Design management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Design management team is responsible for the "design process" that translates the client's requirements and project brief of CTG project into a tangible final product. Main task of design development team is to integrate all design inputs from various teams.

Production management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Production management team is responsible for ensuring the best solution for the "build ability of the design, the construction logistics and organization" for execution of CTG project.

Facilities management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Facilities management team is responsible for ensuring the "cost -efficient management of assets and creation of an environment" that supports the CTG project goals and objectives.

Health and safety, statutory and legal management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Health and safety, statutory and legal management team is responsible for the "identification, consideration and management" of all required health and safety aspects of CTG project.

Process management:

According to Cooper et al, (2005) Process management team is responsible for developing and implementing the process protocol for CTG project and is responsible for "planning and monitoring" activities in each phase .

Change management.

According to Cooper et al, pg no 144, 2005 Change management team is responsible for "effectively communicating project changes" to all other activity zones in CTG project.



The Royal Institute of British plan of work is widely accepted standard frame work for construction sector activities.

According Morton (2006), the RIBA plan focuses on design process and progress it gives architects the freedom to develop the designs in consultation with different specialists. And design team has control over execution of project and any problems relating design can be easily clarified by design team.

According to Fewings.P(2005,) RIBA plan of work stages provide a organised process with greater attention on design process.

According to Winch.G (2009), RIBA plan of work is designed to meet the important functions like providing contractual arrangements between designers and clients and main advantage is that it provides a language by which the persons involved in the process can communicate their needs and understandings.

The RIBA Plan of Work is the best known and most comprehensive set of documentation. It is not intended to be specific to any one kind of project, neither is it intended to be immutable. There is much detail allocating responsibilities to particular consultants at every stage.



The demerits of RIBA plan of work are as follows

According to Kagioglou.M.,(year ) RIBA plan of work is just a model of method of operation and slight adjustment should be made according to complexity and size of the project. And RIBA plan of work functions on linear approach which requires completion of one stage before proceeding to next.

Cooper et al (year) states that RIBA plan of work is designed in architectural perspective and it is not comprehensive enough for all construction activities. It sets construction functions on linear fashion which requires completion of one stage before proceeding to next. And it leads to lot of problems inside organisation and whole of construction industry.

According to Winch.G (2009) RIBA plan of work being developed by institution representing architects mainly focuses on formalising the "Design process "and is less focused on construction activities. The main drawback is that the RIBA plan of work is not client focused and lacks in providing client about detailed information on detailed specification. RIBA plan of was developed when architect had control over execution of project and now due to development in different types of procurement route the role of architect itself is questionable.


The potential advantages of implementing process protocol to CTG project is that the complexity nature of the CTG project can be easily managed and with activity zones clarifying the responsibilities.

Advantages of process protocol( Lee. A et all, 2000 ).

The main advantage of using GDCPP is that It takes "a whole project view"

GDCPP recognizes the interdependency of activities throughout the lifecycle of execution of the project.

It focuses on 'front-end' activities, paying attention to the "identification, definition and evaluation of clients' requirements"

It provides the potential to establish consistency reducing ambiguity, and provides for the adoption of a standard approach to performance measurement, evaluation and control to facilitate continuous improvement in construction

The stage / gate approach used facilitates concurrency and the progressive fixing and / or approval of information throughout the process

It enables co-ordination of the participants and activities of the phases of construction projects and identifies the responsible parties

It encourages the establishment of multi-function teams in the early stages of the construction process. This should help foster a team environment and encourage appropriate and timely communication and decision making"

According to chan et al the GDCPP focuses on addressing the current market issues to client and their organisations.

Dis advantages of process protocol.

Lee a et al there are three issues where GDCPP has to be improved and the issues are "integration, skills and competence and towards process management". Refer appemdix(x)

There is a "lack of integration of participants at operational level". The GDCPP was developed with a main objective to "integrate project participants, clients, contractors and supply chain" but the main risk is that whether will it be "brought on to" operational level people who perform the activity.

Over all GDCPP is less focused on "skills and competence" required for user to effectively implement the process.

GDCPP is very much "client led" and all the other people involved in project are just seen as "actors" within the process. And there may be tendency of "pre-selecting" of participants.

GDCPP mainly focuses on "client led " projects, but there also contractor led projects which are less emphasis is paid upon contractor led projects.


Production activity in construction is conversion process of raw materials into finished products. the universal goal is to maximise value and to minimise the waste

According to Hyun Lee.S, et al (1999) "lean production principle provides a continuous improvement process by eliminating various type of wastes".

According to Koskela.L,et al(2001) in lean approach process the products are designed to provide maximum value to the client by minimising the waste.

The TFV(Task/Flow/value) concept of production combined with project- based production system is applied for production activities in CTG project. According to Koskela.L,et al(2001) the TFV framework insists a "third production system goal. Along with maximising value and minimising waste, the issue is about producing the product". These goals can be easily achieved by implementing work breakdown structure (WBS) and organisational break down structure (OBS). The work breakdown structure breaks total work into simple elements. By integrating WBS and OBS the responsibility of delivery can be clearly identified. This type of production involves both designing and producing the products.

According to Koskela.L,et al(2001) "following ends-means hierarchies, guidelines are proposed for the design of project-based production systems". The key task identified in CTG project by following chosen production principle is: (refer appendix no.x)

Minimize waste

Deliver the project

Maximize value


According to Hyun Lee.S, et al (1999) waste in construction industry includes different factors like delay times, quality costs, lack of safety in sites. And final description of waste activities can classified as follows:

1. Defects

2. Over-production

3. Unnecessary Processing

4. Unnecessary People Moves

5. Unnecessary Movement of Material

6. Waiting

7. Inventories

8. Designing Something that Does Not Meet the Client's Needs.

According to Koskela.L,et al(2001) the waste is "categorized in terms of defective products, lack of flow, lost capacity, and avoidable cost". The waste in different levels of the process can be clearly identified by implementing "ends-means hierarchies".

Wastes identified by "End-means hierarchies" are as follows: (refer appendix no. x)

Level 1 Koskela.L,et al(2001)

Reduce defective products

Make materials flow

Get more from less



Last planner system can be used to measure the efficiency of chosen production system.

By implementing last planner in ctg project

It increases "productivity by identifying bottlenecks and encouraging short term planning by the people"


Just-in-time is a key productive element in lean production principle. According to Waller(2005) by following just-in-time manufacturing principle the productivity and quality of the product will be increased and production cost will be decreased. Implementing just-in-time principle to CTG project will reduce waste and increase productivity.

The principles of JIT that can be used in CTG project are:

Optimising supply chain such that, the required amounts of raw materials are supplied at scheduled time and date.

Producing product when required, not early or late

Value Management recommendations in Design Phase:

Introducing value management into the design needs accurate understanding of

function, objectives and goals of the project. After carefully considering all functions

and goals of the CTG project the best possible solutions according to us are:


Deriving the basic concept for the design from "green architecture" principles

to achieve aesthetic, sustainable, productive, functional and cost effective

goals of the project.(see appendix 12)


Implementing "Green architecture" principles help us in reducing carbon foot

prints to create a sustainable environment.


Moreover by following green architecture principles, the operating cost of the

CTG will be reduced reasonably which adds long term value to the project.

(see appendix 12)


The major factor of concern is the safety and security arrangements for CTG.

So design will have clear definition of public areas, semi-public areas and

private areas for ease of access and control. Modern security system will be

incorporated at planning level to make sure of high level security is provided

in and around the periphery of the building.


Value management Recommendations in Pre- Construction phase:


Organizing meeting, 40 hour workshop and mini work shop to assess the value

engineering of the project.


Organizing meetings not only helps to assess the value engineering, but also

helps everyone involved in project to know the value goal of the project and

focus on achieving the goals.


Another major factor of concern is "Material resource planning". The main

objective of MRP in CTG is to add value by choosing the best material in

terms of quality for the best price from the best supplier for uninterrupted

supply mater.

Value Management in Construction Phase:

Adding value in the construction phase needs extensive knowledge about current

trends and methods of construction practice. The value management in construction

phase mainly focuses on reducing non value adding activities and increasing the



Following "just -in- time" principle helps to increase business performance by

reducing the cost on storing inventory.


For the complex project like which involves numerous tasks, very crucial success factor lies in the planning and execution of the project. It is important that all success factors are benchmarked very earlier in the process so the project milestones can be targeted vey earlier in the project.

As construction industry performs better after implementing "process thinking" into construction process. There are different type of framework developed by various organisation are available now the key task is to identify the best solution and implement to CTG project to achieve best result.

After clearly understanding merits and demerits of RIBA plan of work and GDCPP it is clearly understood that RIBA plan of work is more focused on architect led design process and it not suitable for the fragmented nature of construction industry right now. On the other hand, GDCPP was developed on focusing management method fragmented nature of construction industry. Being developed by analysis of the demerits of RIBA plan of work, adapting GDCPP in project certainly provides the better way of managing projects. (Refer appendix no.)

There are quite few concerns with implementing GDCPP in CTG project they are

The GDCPP focuses on "client -led " but CTG project is contractor led project

For effective implementation GDCPP in the project the user should have very high level of technical competence.

It will be fair to say adapting GDCPP in CTG project provides better way of managing than implementing RIBA plan of work.

Identifying value added and waste activities very early in the project will help to improve the efficiency of production system by reducing waste and adding value.


Cooper.R, Ghassan.A, Lee.A, Wu.S, Fleming.A and Kagioglou.M (2005) "Process Management In Design and Constrution", Blackwell publishing edition.

Derek L. Waller (2003) "Operation Management A Supply Chain Approach" Gray


Brain Cooke and Peter Williams (2010) "Construction Planning, Programming And

Control" Wiley Blackwell publications.

Fewings, P. (2005). Construction Project Management. An integrated Approach.

Kelly, J. & Male, S. (1993). Value Management in Design and Construction. E & FN


Kagioglou, M. (1999) "Adapting Manufacturing Project Processes into Construction: A Methodology". Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Salford.

Paul Chan, Stuart Carmichael, Patricia Tzortzopoulos and Rachel Cooper

"Beyond Process Protocol: A Review Of The Generic Design And Construction Process Protocol To Explore Future Work" a paper presentation.

Lee. A et all, 2000 Angela Lee, Professor Rachel Cooper and Professor Ghassan Aouad

("A Methodology for Designing Perfomance Measures for the UK construction industry")

Generic Design and Construction Process Protocol

Levels 1, 2 and 3 of definition

Process Protocol IT Toolkit

What has been done?

What can be done?

Problem: Appropriateness of the term generic in GDCPP raised by skeptics

Possible Solution: To investigate the variations of protocols to suit the genera of client organizations in the construction industry

Note: Still client led

Gap 1: Need for integrating the 'technicians' throughout the GDCPP.

Possible Solution: To investigate the perceptions of the 'technicians' with regards the process issues so as to identify ways for better integration

Gap 2: Lack of a Skills and Competence Map

Possible Solution: To map out the skills and competence requirements throughout the GDCPP

Note: Still client led

Gap 3: Move towards using the GDCPP as a tool for process management (loosely coupled as opposed to tightly managed)

Possible Solution: To investigate the feasibility of shifting the power from the client to the contractor

Note: Contractor led

Figure . Research gaps in GDCPP

Source adaped from research paper


Comparision of stages of RIBA and GDPP



Preparation stage

Pre -project stage


Demonstrating The Need


Conception Of Need

Design stage

Outline Feasibility


Substantive Feasibility Study And Outline Financial Authority

Design development

Technical design

Pre -construction stage

Pre -Construction Stage

Production information

Outline Line Conceptual Design

Tender documentation

Full Conceptual Design

Tender action

Co-ordinated Design, Procurement And Full Financial Authority

Construction stage

Construction Stage


Production Information

Construction to practical completion



Post -Construction /Completion Stage

Post practical completion

Operation And Maintenance

Lee, Diekmann, Songer, and Brown

72 26-28 July 1999, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA





Is the site located outside the residential area in Liverpool, witheasy transport access?


Is the planning approval obtained before starting construction?


Were all the environmental studies related to nuclear projects

carried out?


Was the cost/ft2 agreed with the client being more than £5 ft2?


Was the date of construction agreed with the client to start in

January 2009?


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