Issues Of Waste Control And Reduction Construction Essay

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The group are committed to implementing an Environmental Plan and the Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) so that it is effective, accurate and economical and will ensure that the procedures put in place are continually working and are maintained. This Waste Management Assessment forms an analysis, on the issues of waste control inception through design and life of the proposed building. It is essential that the materials for construction are carefully chosen with consideration being given to their use and their useful life and subsequent disposal or re-use. The report seeks to deliver the project in a manner that causes least harm to the environment and achieves environmental benefits, inform the local community of the issues of waste control relating to the proposed development.

2.0 Duty of care

The Duty of Care is a legal requirement under Section 34 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990. This means disposing of business waste without harming the environment. There are further detailed requirements for waste transfer notes which are set out in the Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991.

3.0 Construction Phase

The wastes expected to be generated during the construction phase include the following:

(i) Vegetation and demolition waste from site clearance;

(ii) Excavated materials from earthworks

(iii) General construction waste (e.g. wood, scrap metal, concrete);

(iv) Chemical wastes generated from general site practices (e.g. vehicle and plant Maintenance/servicing); and

(vi) Municipal wastes generated by site workers i.e. waste, which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from households.

4.0 Waste Management on site

Any surplus or waste materials will arise from either the materials imported to the site or from those generated on site. The imported materials will be brought to the project for inclusion into the permanent works. The generated materials which are likely to be produced from the project are through excavation e.g. tarmac, hardcore, topsoil, sub-soil and trees.

5.0 Reclaiming demolition waste

Any reclamation waste produced at this stage of the project will be through excavation e.g. tarmac, hardcore, topsoil, sub-soil and trees. During the ground preparatory works, areas of tree and shrub cover will need to be cleared and waste will likely comprise of asphalt, concrete (from excavated road pavements). Where possible any excavated material from the earthworks should be re-used on site as structural fill or for landscaping purposes. This will maximise the utilisation rate of materials on site and reduce the requirement for any off-site disposal. If any excavated soils are to be deemed re-usable, the materials must be clean, inert and suitable for the proposed engineering or landscaping use.

6.0 Waste Segregation

A specific area of the site shall be laid out and labelled to facilitate the separation of materials for potential recycling, salvage, reuse and return. The recycling and waste skips will be kept clean and clearly marked in order to avoid contamination of materials. The labelling systems shall be the Waste Awareness Colour Coding Scheme. All materials will be deposited into the correct skip. Through various stages of the development other skips will be

placed to enable certain waste to be removed from site. All skips will be monitored to ensure that contamination of segregated skips will not occur, since contaminated skips will have to be sent direct to landfill and this will incur increased costs to the project.

7.0 Re-used material

Any surplus materials in their present form can be used in the construction and these will be classified as re-used materials. Should they become surplus to requirements in their present form they will be removed from site for reuse.

8.0 Recycled material

Any surplus material that cannot be re-used in its present form but could be used in a different form will be sent for recycling.

9.0 Landfill material

Landfill must only be used as a last resort if either of the above cannot be satisfied. It will then be deemed necessary that the only option left is to send the surplus materials to landfill. All surplus material being produced will be continually reviewed and where possible changes will be implemented to maximise on site re-use or recycling.

10.0 Burning construction waste

Any burning waste in the open around the development site during the construction phase may require an environmental permit, if burned in an incinerator or other similar plant. Only the burning of certain wood or plant wastes may be permitted without an environmental permit. This will only apply under the following criteria.

The wood or plant waste must be produced as a result of demolition work

The material must be burned on the land where it was produced

That up to 10 tonnes of waste wood or plant matter is burned in a 24 hour period

Any of the above will need to be registered for an exemption with the environmental regulator i.e. the Environment Agency.

12.0 Designing for deconstruction

The final design and material selection of the development will need to consider integrating the deconstruction / dismantlement of the building ensuring the materials can easily be reused (or recycled) at the end of the building's life.

13.0 Building Fabric and Construction Materials

The materials and equipment for the development should be selected based on their performance, durability and longevity in order to increase their lifecycle. Preference should be given to materials and equipment from sustainable sources. This includes materials e.g. recycled newspaper insulation and more commonly timber products.

14.0 Modern Methods of Construction

Investigations have identified that 'Modern Methods of Construction' (MMC) have more environmental benefits and these construction methods vary from volumetric i.e. factory-produced three-dimension nits stacked on site to form a building to sub-assemblies and components e.g. pre-fabricated floor and roof cassettes. There is greater accuracy with MMC which means that more components can be ordered cut to size and the construction process is sheltered from the weather and there are storage facilities for materials. Compared to site-based construction this will lead to less waste.

15.0 Block Construction

Durisol is a proprietary material containing a cement/PFA (pulverized fuel ash)-bonded, recycled wood material with excellent thermal, acoustic and fire protection properties, that is renewable and energy efficient. It is around 30% cheaper than traditional brick and block masonry construction and is a fast-build method of masonry construction suited to all types of buildings. Durisol can be used to construct solid or cavity external walls, separating walls and internal walls. The product is made from 80% recycled wood and 100% of the product can be recycled thus reducing the amount of material that is sent to landfill with any waste units or off cuts being returned to the factory to be recycled into more walling units. At the end of building life, Durisol units can be recycled with the concrete core and mineral wool insulation as hardcore as it will not rot.

16.0 Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)

Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) are made up of an energy-efficient Polyurethane foam core, enclosed in a high-density Oriented Strand Board (OSB) sandwich. They are a modern method of construction and the foam core provides super thermal insulation, while the exterior OSB skins account for the high tensile and compressive strength. The panels are for use above the damp-proof course and may as part of a separating wall, internal walls, and inner leaf of external walls and in roof constructions. SIPs are made from young fast growing trees which are deliberately grown in plantations accredited by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). The core insulation is Polyurethane foam (PUR) which is CFC and HCFC free and has an ozone depletion potential of zero. Compared with traditional timber frame buildings, SIPs construction uses approximately 50% less wood and construction is draught free. This will reduce energy consumption leading to a corresponding reduction of up to 60% in carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels for the lifetime of the building. SIPs produce less waste than other forms of construction and the panels are engineered in a controlled environment,

reducing the amount of waste produced on the building site and allowing unused materials to be recycled.

17.0 Pitched roofing materials compared

Careful consideration should be given to the type of product used and the impact on the environment. Sourcing local products can dramatically reduce its embodied energy. The greater the durability of the roofing material, the lower environmental impact.

Timber shingles and shakes


As a sustainable roofing material, the timber shingle (in cedar or oak) can only be matched in its low environmental impact by thatch. If sourced in the UK it has the lowest embodied energy of all roof coverings. Western Red Cedar is commonly imported from the USA where transport adds considerably to the embodied energy figure. Care should also be taken in specifying FSC sources as a number of imported timbers are unsustainably harvested. Shingles have relatively smooth faces and backs, while shakes have a highly textured, natural grain face and either a sawn or split back.

Reusable and recyclable

Very low embodied energy if sourced in the UK

Renewable resource but be sure to use FSC sources

Can be re-used though there are no facilities for recycling

No pollution

Production can make use of otherwise unusable logs and parts of logs


Lightweight compared with clay and concrete

Offers some thermal insulation K=0.1067W/m ²

Maintenance issues

Concerns over fire

Care should be taken with acid run-off from cedar.

Natural slate


If sourced in the UK, natural slate has a very low embodied energy. Imported slate often comes with quality issues along with added embodied energy from transportation. Slate is very durable and can be reused with relative ease.

Reusable and recyclable

18.0 Recycled Green roof

There are a range of recycled green roof profiles, each being directed towards a specific kind of roof or structure. A recycled green roof will benefit the proposed development for its recreational, aesthetic and environmental purposes. These roofs provide significant benefits to the environment and to a building's performance. The main benefits will be an increase in the usable space of the building, protect the building against the effects of rapid temperature changes, visually attractive with a range of flower and foliage, additional habitat for wildlife and local bio-diversity benefits. Investigations have revealed a recycled green roof has the potential to last much longer than a traditional roof, around seven to eight times longer, as a consequence resulting from the protection the plants give as they absorb ultraviolet rays from the sun and protect the roof itself from prolonged and damaging exposure. The use of recycled materials will significantly decrease the initial costs of set up and will help reduce the waste that goes into landfills and using resources more efficiently.

19.0 Triple Glazed Timber Windows

Investigations have established that windows and doors (including framework) would need to be constructed from renewable sustainable materials. Triple glazed timber windows are manufactured from slow grown pine from Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) sustainably managed sources. Units are composed of laminated softwood, glass, zinc alloy and stainless steel and

components are reusable and recyclable. Subject to maintenance the design life has the potential in excess of 50 years.

20.0 Timber Frame / Cladding

Timber is renewable, reusable and biodegradable with minimal embodied energy. Timber would greatly protect the external fabric of the development and provide a renewable and sustainable source of material. The timber can be protected with a range of preservatives and easily repaired or renewed. Off site cutting reduces waste and investigations have revealed that the most suitable timber for the development would be Larch or Cedar due to their durable qualities. The design strategies may enhance durability by reducing the risk of wetting and removing moisture promptly. All timber products used for the development should be from recycled sources. The Timber Research and Development Association and BRE provide detailed good practice guidance.

21.0 Insulation

Investigations have revealed that insulation has the greatest potential for reducing CO2 emissions. One of the most important aspects of an insulation material is performance and ensuring that it continually provides resistance to the passage of heat throughout the lifetime of the building. An insulation material should be first considered for its thermal performance and subsequently for its environmental impact. Natural insulation products have many advantages over conventional materials. They are low impact, made from renewable, organic resources and have low embodied energy. They can be reused and recycled and are fully biodegradable, non-toxic, allergen-free and can be safely handled and installed.

22.0 Rainwater Goods

Investigations have established that wood is the oldest form of guttering. It was popular until the 20th century and then replaced by cheaper plastic and metal alternatives. To ensure durability the correct choice of wood is essential and suitable species include Scots pine, Pitch pine, Sweet chestnut and Elm. Maintenance includes repainting of the outside and re-oiling of the inside on a regular basis if no lining exists. Wood however performs best when un-painted. Painting will increase the drying time after rain and durability can be increased by lining the gutter with single-ply roof covering, bitumen or specialist wood oil. Wood guttering has the lowest environmental impact.

23.0 Concrete structures

Concrete is strong, inexpensive, durable and it`s most important properties are high compressive strength, fire resistance and thermal storage capacity. It has been established that Concrete binders and reinforcements, are the constituents with the highest environmental impact. It is therefore essential to choose the most appropriate alternatives and reduce the proportion of these constituents. In situ concrete in terms of recycling is low however it can be crushed and ground to aggregate, the majority being sorted and used as landfill. Steel can also be recycled from reinforcement but this is a complex process and will require using machines for crushing the concrete and electromagnets for separating. At the end of building life concrete slabs and structures can be ground and recycled as aggregate or fill material for new projects.

24.0 Metal structures

Investigations have established the production of metal products causes high levels of environmental pollution and emissions as well as being energy intensive however once installed there are no significant emissions. Steel is the most common structural metal. Steel components are usually

prefabricated in different cross-sections and as square hollow sections, round hollow sections being constructed to make different sorts of braced or un-braced framework structures. Steel components can also be fixed together mechanically, with or without the use of bolts and this will considerably increases the ease of recycling. It should be noted that possible additives may change this e.g. surface treatment in particular the fireproof coatings required in many steel structures may contain highly toxic substances. When re-using metal structural elements it is essential to assess the risk of material fatigue.

25.0 Conclusion

Waste reduction will be addressed as part of the project sustainability agenda throughout the design process. The proposed development will generate a number of waste materials and the potential impacts of waste arising from the construction the project have been assessed. Provided that mitigation measures outlined in the report are implemented, the potential impacts to the environment associated with waste generated by the construction and the deconstruction of the project will be controlled and will not lead to any significant adverse environmental impacts.