The project task durations were estimated using the three point technique and the results were depicted to the above table, according to Robert ( 2009) , the Three Point Technique Formula is : E= ( O + 4M+P)/6 . The Earliest Start, Earliest Finish, Late Start and Late Finish were also calculated using the Forward and Backward Pass Calculation methods
As per Robert (2009) , the Critical Path can be identified in different ways as follows:
The Longest path duration of the Project:
Network Diagram Path
Duration ( Weeks)
Different path durations were calculated and the Critical Path was found to be ACFHJ (please see the path above highlighted in blue - longest duration)
The sequence of tasks that have similar early and late schedules or have Zero float. By looking at the table 1 above, it is apparent that the A, C, F, H, J tasks have realized both conditions.
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The project Completion time is the longest path duration and is calculated to be 39 Weeks.
B) What happens to the expected project completion time if:
Tasks D and E are each delayed by 9 weeks?
The Task D & E have 9 weeks float and thus the project completion time will not be affected in case each of the tasks are delayed by 9 weeks.
Task B is delayed by 3 weeks?
The Task B has only one (1) week float and therefore any further delay beyond the one week my affect the project completion time
By looking at the scenario whereby the task B is delayed by 3 weeks, the Task B can accommodate only 1 week and therefore, the start of Tasks E & F will be delayed by two weeks.
The two (2) weeks delay of the Task E will not affect the project completion time as it has 9 weeks float, however, Task F is on the critical path and has Zero Float and therefore, the Project Completion time will be delayed by two (2) weeks
All tasks are delayed each by one week?
The time to complete Task C is reduced by 25% of its expected completion time?
Assuming that Task C ( Zero Float- on the Critical Path) duration is reduced by 25% ie by 3 weeks, having Task C on the Critical Path, the Task F & G can start earlier by 3 weeks ( driven by Task C) , the same for Task H which can start also earlier by 3 weeks ( the Task H may also be driven by Task E and G whose have no impact in this case) and will be driving the J that can start earlier by 3 weeks and therefore the project completion time can be reduced by 3 weeks .
Discuss the possible risks involved in this project, assuming that it represents a typical building construction project, and identify a few risk mitigating activities that would minimise the likelihood of delaying the project completion time.
"Every project is subject to risks" (Robert 2009), The Risk Management is an ongoing process during the project lifecycle undertaken by the Project Manager to ensure that the risks are not affected any of the project objectives.
According to Robert (2009), the project risks shall be identified, assessed, mitigated, monitored and controlled during the project risk management life cycle, the risks' categorization and the undertaking of qualitative and quantitative risk analysis ( PMBOK Guide , 2008 ) are essential for the development of risks mitigation plan.
It is to be noted that ultimately, this Risk Management Plan is the responsibility of the entire project team with leadership coming from the custodians of the Risk Forms and the Risk Register. The established Risk Management Plan is a viable tool to keep the Client informed and provided with the best information and strategies to make the best business decisions for the Risk that are identified and tracked throughout the life of the project.
Considering the construction project in this assignment, several possible risks can affect the timely completion for such type of projects; the table below illustrates the probable risks for such type of projects based on my experience and the respective proposed mitigation plans:
Mitigation Activities/ Plan
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
No Objection Certificate (NOCs), Permits from the Authorities can be delayed.
Permit delays will delay Construction Starts (pouring the concrete foundation & putting up structural framing) and consequently the project completion will be delayed
Early submission the application for the permits and NOCs to the Authority.
Ensure a complete submittal is in place so that the permit will not be rejected
The Project Management team will maintain on-going dialogue with all statutory authorities.
Early Authority Reviews, Set Milestones &Track
Adequacy of Project Funding
Delay of whole project completion
Proper cash flow &Feasibility studies in place.
Project Cost does yield the required IRR, therefore the project is not considered feasible, causing re-Design and delays to project implementation
Delay of whole project completion Re-Design and delays to project implementation. May be rendering the project not Feasible.
Proper Feasibility Studies in place.
High Inflation, Increased duties, Volatile markets (Cement &Steel, etc.)
Cost Impact - Exceeds project budget- lack of fund.
Proper studies of the Market inflation and revise procurement strategy accordingly
Delayed Procurement Periodsespecially the long lead items
Project time completion in delay.
Develop procurement plan, identifying the site required delivery dates and the related risks Proper selection of the Vendors taken into consideration the manufacturing capacity
Logistic difficulties on site.
Project in delay
Develop Detailed Logistic Plan which to be agreed by the main contractor and all subcontractors
Time constraint dictates low quality.
- Abortive Works - Deliver Project in lower Quality then planned
Special attention to Monitoring the QA/QC Plan.
Lack Quality Control and Quality Assurance Plans/Strategy
-Project in delay
Develop, in accordance with the Client requirements, basic outlines and procedures for QA/QC plan for assigning responsibility on the Supervision Consultant and various contractors to maintain and achieve required quality during construction
Review all documentation submitted to ensure that they meet the required completeness to cover the whole envisaged scope and that the quality, and clarity are achieved .
The Project Manager will carry out visits to various contracts to ensure that the required quality
standard by the Master Plan is maintained in the Project.
Lack of proper and realistic Procurement strategy
Discrepancies on the procurement items
Materials Delivery to the Site in delay.
Project in delay
Develop and maintain a Realistic Procurement Strategies taken into consideration the Market status
Low Performance of the Supervision Consultant
Project in delay
Micor Management of the Supervision Consultant
Check the possibility of encouraging the Consultant to have additional qualified Resources
Search for immediate replacement of the consultant by requesting a proposal.
Low Performance of the Contractor
Project in Delay
Micro- management of the Contractor
Day to Day monitoring of the resources available
Search for immediate replacement of the Contractor ( Alternative Plan) by floating a tender
Pre-qualification of contractor prior engagement
Main Contractors Team / Design Team Relationships are not going smoothly
Flow of information is missing
Close monitoring of the Contractors'/Design Consultants programs and milestones, and reporting in accordance with the procedures set in this document,
â€¢ Performing coordination meetings, periodically and as required, chaired by the Project Manager,
â€¢ Requesting, monitoring and overseeing the exchange of planning and other information between the parties,
Communication System is not in place
Lack of Communication between the Project Stakeholders
Project in Delay
Developing and Implementing a feasible Communication Management Plan
Lack of Proper Health &Safety Control on Site
Works Stoppage on site, Project in Delay
Basic outlines will be set by the Project Manager for health and safety requirements
Project Manager and Engineer to Monitor the Safety precaution take by the Contractors
The Project Manager to ensure that the Health and Safety Plan is properly implemented and updated by the contractor,
Safety Meetings to be held on permanent basis
External Utilities Connection to the building is delayed
Testing &Commissioning can be delayed.
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Delivery &Occupancy will be delayed
Coordination and meetings with the relevant authority to ensure the supply by scheduled need dates
Handover and Completion Strategy( Close Out) are in delay
Delay in Handing Over project to the Tenants
Ensure that Close Out Procedure in place
Before issuing the Taking-over Certificate to the Contractor, the Project Manager will manage the Close Out procedure to ensure the following:
â€¢ The Client has examined the site and approved the taking-over of the works,
â€¢ All minor outstanding works or issues are identified for completion during the defects liability period. If more than minor outstanding works are identified then the Contractor will have to
complete these and a re-inspection will be undertaken,
â€¢ As built records and Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Manuals are confirmed.