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Located in the densely built up Kowloon City district, Kai Tak has little expansion scope due to lack of available area. It is one of the busiest airports and requires immediate expansion as it exceeds its passenger and cargo handling capabilities leading to delays due to lack of space for aircrafts and being limited to just one runway. With large infrastructure being built in the centre of the city, the people of Hong Kong face severe risks in terms of mishaps or accidents. This project is required because
To manage the daily passenger and cargo requirements of one of the world's largest economic cities. (average ƒ 750 takeoffs per day, 3.5 million tonnes of cargo per year)
To remove restriction of "only day flights" that bind Kai Tak airport due to noise pollution, because of which night time flights are restricted.
To allow scope of further expansion in the future as economy and population grows.
To cut down time taken to travel to the airport due to high congestion and traffic.
To ensure safety of citizens as well as aircraft and passengers currently at risk because of location and runway length of Kai Tak airport.
This project requires:
Joining of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau by filling in mud in the 2.4 km wide gap and flattening it for construction of airport and terminal.
Construct a 35km transportation network including 2 tunnels, 2 bridges and superhighways. A 3rd underwater tunnel to be built out of Hong Kong Island connecting the mainland, to reduce congestion. New highway connecting central Hong Kong to tunnel to be built above existing highways for easier connectivity. Construct a high speed railway transport system. Station to be built by extending land through landfill out on water. Mainland and North Lantao island to be connected by a suspension bridge with two 700 feet support towers and 1 meter diameter cables. Extend slope of mountain to create space and stable ground for highway construction by landfill.
Secure foundation of airport terminal by driving piles and build world's largest terminal, ATC centre and a cargo freight centre.
Construct World class airport with 2 runways:
3800m X 60m ƒ one category 2 and another category 3A on the outskirts of Hong Kong
World's largest single terminal(Terminal 1)
ƒ 1.3 km in length, 560,000 square meters in area with 8 stories designed to withstand typhoons and other natural ailments. 59 frontal, 27 remote and 34 cargo stands for docking
State of the art Air Traffic Control with an 84 meter tower and 9 fuel tanks capable of holding 180 billion litres of fuel.
World's Largest Air Freight Centre and catering houses and headquarters of Airport Authority of Hong Kong and Cathay Pacific
Sponsors for financial help and advice - estimated costs $20 billion
Land - reclaimed land between 2 islands - Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau; landfill to create an island large enough to house the project. Increase land area from 302 hectares to 938 hectares
Transportation corridor from heart of Hong Kong Island to the airport; 34 km in length incorporating a high speed rail system, construction of 2 bridges(one world's largest double decker suspension bridge at 2.5km length), 2 tunnels and a six lane expressway.
Hong Kong/British Government - 23-hk-airport.jpg
BCJ JV(British Chinese Japanese Joint Venture: comprises of AMEC international construction, Balfour Beatty Construction, China State Engineering Corporation, Kumagai Gumi and Maeda Corporation)
Sponsors - for Financing and investing in the $20billion project
Aviation Authority of Hong Kong - to counter risk and operate better from the new facility
Chinese Government( Later stages) - in case project couldn't be completed in stipulated time
Airline Companies - to stop delays and operate at night to reduce costs
Passengers - to stop delays and to allow travel at night
Logistics/Cargo Carriers - For larger cargo shipments and reduced costs from less delays
Companies involved in project: Airport Authority of Hong Kong, BAA Plc, Balfour Beatty Major Projects, Bank of America NA, BMCE Bank, British Energy Generation Ltd, British, Trade International, Capital and United Kingdom, CMS Cameron McKenna, Costain Group, CSE International, David W Myles, Defence Procurement Agency, Denton Wilde Sapte, Freshfields, Bruckhaus Deringer, Halcrow Linklaters & Alliance, MEPC, Mott MacDonald, National Air Traffic Services, PA Consulting Group, PLC Consultants, Thames Water Utilities Ltd, The Institution of Civil Engineers, The Underwriter Insurance Company, Union Railways,WS Atkins Consulting Ltd
Douglas Oakervee - Airport Authority Project Director
Russell Black - Mass Transit Railway Project Director
Multiple Project managers for each project looking at work segments
A huge task force of constituting contractors, sub contractors, workers, engineers and architects for each project for round the clock construction.
Also required a task force of explosive experts, surveyors, deep sea divers and mountaineers for ancillary work to help establish airport and route to it.
To be started in September 1991, with an estimated completion time of 7 years for all projects tentative handover to Airport Authority of Hong Kong in June, 1997 (Actual handover date July, 1998)
5 years for completion of bridge
2 years for completion of tunnel
5 years for completion of highway system
Airport Authority of Hong Kong (AAHK) & Project Director for each individual project
Project Managers for each project undertaken
Change Management: All change requests will be documented, submitted to, and assessed by the Project Manager for analysis of impact and project necessity prior to approval. If change is approved, the project schedule, scope, and budget will be updated accordingly and communicated to appropriate stakeholders. Then PM/project team will communicate the approved change and updated schedule to the staff/contractor responsible for implementing the change.
First project built at such a large scale
Political risk of handover to Chinese government, thus impeding any work
Removing hills and creating landfill for the gap between the islands in short period of time - Worlds biggest land moving exercise
Sea Floor clearing for stable land for landfill exercise of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau
Finding a way out of Victoria harbour. Existing tunnels cramped and congested. Deep underwater tunnel (around 50 metres) needed to be created to connect Hong Kong Island to mainland.
New highway needs to be built above the existing highways; only at night because of traffic connectivity to existing airport could not be restricted.
Long gap between North Lantao Island and mainland needed to be covered. Underwater tunnel cannot be constructed, primarily due to depth and heavy shipping traffic, causing safety concerns. Bridging the gap with a simple bridge could not be done because of environmental risks.
New rail transit system needs to be created; new island for station to be build on manmade island at sea because of lack of space on Hong Kong Island.
Highway path along coast line consisted of steep slopes, needs landfill for highway construction.
Construction of world's largest air terminal base needs to be bolted down with piles to avoid damage by nature; typhoons, hurricanes etc. Roofing for large area also a concern.