In general, safety is very important in all industries. This is because, when there has safety, then employees will feel confident and comfortable to perform the work assigned. Safety must also be emphasized by management so as not to encounter problems in the future. Workplace accidents may be preventable if safety practices emphasized in daily work. Practice safety and suitability can range depending on the industry's performance, too. Safety practices important because it can give big benefit in term of financial because of if there no accident or incident, organization can minimize the payment for employee compensation, insurance fees and legal fee.
Indeed, hotel industries are currently very active as the statistic from tourist centre shows the increased of the arrival of tourist (http://corporate.tourism.gov.my). These have led to bustle of the employee in hotel industries to serve the customer as the best they can. Even so, the hotel management is still exposed to the threat internal and external. This threat can give bad impression on the management of the hotel if they fail handle it. For example, the latest bombing occurred at CS Hotel (Thailand) and also two other bombings at the JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels (Indonesia). This incident has caused tourists to be worried about renting a room at that hotel. Other issue involve safety in hotel such as fraud, fire or theft. Based on David J. Adams (2008,p.p. 89) stated that the major challenges within the hotel industry :
Accidents and Injuries,
They have to overcome this problem so that they can gain more customer and sale.
Therefore, the research and analysis needed to determine whether employees comply with the real and the effectiveness of any rules formulated by the hotel. Issue on hotel safety for employee also gets serious attention from NIOSH and OSHA until existing act OSHA 1994.
What are safety practices?
How far employees comply with safety practices and regulation in hotel industries and why?
To make sure this study achieve the purpose, researcher has set three
objectives that have been identified:
To define safety practices in hotel industries.
To determine the most important safety factors that affects the performance
To identify the effectiveness of safety practices
Scope/ limitation and key assumption of the project
This study will only discuss about compliance employee hotel on regulation and method hotel management apply to measure effectiveness of safety practice in order to mitigate the risk of accident involve hotel employee. However, other aspect such as assessment, quality, enforcement and investigate related with safety of employee are not being discuss as this study limitation.
Importance of the project
This study was conducted to observe on compliance safety practices among employee in hotel industry. The outcome from this study can help hotel management to improve their safety level of employee and workplace for sake their business continuity. Other than that, this study also can build up customer trustworthy as the hotel selected has applied safety for their employee and employer too. Customer trustworthy can be gain by hotel display their safety results annually from the internal hotel. So that, customer know, they will be safe if they stay in the hotel due to hotel management have put priority to the safety.
As a conclusion, this chapter briefing on the background of the topic research that researcher interested to have better understanding. It also gives some idea of â€‹â€‹what to be done by the researcher for this study topic but it still does not beyond the scope available. At the end of chapter, researcher strongly stresses the important of this study on hotel industry.
This chapter will focus on the literature review by presenting a definition of employees, employers, and safety practices. In addition, some discussion on employees' perception on the importance of safety practices and also why employees should comply with safety practices covered under OSHA 1994 and FMA 1967.
Employee is main asset in a business. Without employee, an organization will have hard time in handling their business as all jobs is handling by one person. Employee is an individual who work with an organization and receive wage for the work it done. Every job has own rate salary based on position.
Alwi Saad(2011,p.p. 19) stated that "any person who employs another person under a contract of service".
Daniel E. Della-Giustina(2010,p.p.6) define as "every person who is required or directed by any employer to engage in any employment, or to go to work or to be at any time in any place of employment".
Daniel E. Della-Giustina(2010,p.p.6) define as " an employer can be a principal employer or an immediate employer.
A principle employer includes the following:
A manager, agent or agent or person responsible for the payment of salary or wages to an employee.
The occupier of a workplace
The legal representative of a deceased owner or occupier.
Any government in Malaysia, such as government department, local authority or statutory body.
An immediate employer
Where the work of the principal employer is carried out by another person (at the place of work of the principal employer) this person is the immediate employer to the persons he employs.
A recent report put out by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that there are no guidelines for nanomaterial handling safety procedures, such as the selection of clothing or apparel (CDC DHHS, 2009).
Currently, one of the only broadly-available "best practices" guidance for nanomaterial industries is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) "hierarchy of exposure control practices," which are used by industrial hygiene professionals to minimize risk and exposure to hazards in the workplace. Rather than featuring nanomaterial specific safety, these guild lines follow "the traditional NIOSH hierarchy of exposure control" (Barry, 2008).
Building contractor safety practices are important for many reason (Nicole,1988):
Humanitarian reasons: Safety protects people's lives
Government regulations: Most local authorities have safety laws and regulations of some kind. Typical safety regulations and fire codes are commonly issued and administered by the municipality and interior ministry or civil defense. Most of the regulations deal with the structural safety of buildings and with safety in construction and operations. These regulations govern the issue of building license or permit. Some of these regulations are (Brauer,1990):
The fire department enforces the building designer to include safety requirements in the architectural design of the building so that maintenance work will have safer environment.
Government emphasizes safety as a contractor responsibility and safety policy: a safety program must clearly identify who is responsible for what. Assignment of responsibility is normally a part of policy and procedure.
Government enforces contractor commitment to safety: for safety to be an effective program there must be a commitment at the highest level. That commitment must include a clear statement that safety is important and support for actions that will make safety important.
Government identified hazards to be recognized and controlled: identification of hazards may be associated with new or modified operations, equipment or facilities. Inspections or periodic review of operating procedures will help identify hazards and whether controls for them are in place and in use. For example, there should be inspections of repair and maintenance work to ensure the guards are replaced or an area is clear of sources of heat and fire.
Communicate with employees concerning their responsibilities for working safely: workers must learn about the hazards related to their job and the means for protecting themselves and how to perform particular safety procedures.
Accident affect public relations
Accident may affect operations
Accidents cost money
Productivity is increased with improved safety performance
Following with the guideline in 2003 undertaken by Ministry of Manpower it has been shown that responsibilities of employer and employee. As an employer, it duty is to ensure the safety and health of their staff and must take the lead in promoting safety and health in the hotel. Employees must understand that safety and health as not a responsibility but they have role to play it well.
Alwi Saad(2011,p.p. 26) describe hazard as "anything which has the potential to cause or contribute to or be a factor in an accident or mishap. Anything includes objects, sizes, shapes, design, features, characteristics, conditions, situations, immobility, speed, movement, location, electricity, lighting, noise, chemicals, darkness or brightness, etc."
Have five types of hazard based on (AGC Portal, 2011):
Physical Hazard: temperature high or low,mechanical,vibration,noise
Chemical Hazard: acids or alkalis, solvents, disinfection, gas anastasia and cytotoxic drugs.
Biological Hazard: virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungus, plasmodium
Ergonomic Hazard: repetitive motion, no movement, weights, skeletal muscle injury, visual display units
Psychological Hazard: job stress, depression or anxiety, addiction to drugs or medication, and sexual abuse.
One of the services that provide by hotel industry is room cleaning service including cleaning process and laundry. The staff will be assigned to the room that need to tidy up and when staff starts to work with cleaning process, staff will use chemical detergent whether for wash bathroom or wiping dust. As example of equipment that needs to worn PPE by staff are like masks and gloves. Masks and gloves are essential for staff who may be allergic on dust or chemical detergent.
By referring to Law of Malaysia Act 139, FACTORIES AND MACHINERY ACT 1967, under S. 24 FMA 1967 :
"Where in any factory persons are exposed to a wet or dusty process, to noise, to heat or to any poisonous, corrosive or other injurious substance which is liable to cause bodily injury to those persons the Minister may prescribe the provision and maintenance Factories and Machinery 23 for use of those persons suitable and adequate personal protective clothing and appliances including where necessary goggles, gloves, leggings, caps, foot-wear and protective ointment or lotion."
So, refer to above laws, staff need to wear Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) as in Reg. 2 OSH (Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health) Regulations 2000 which states as "any equipment which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work and which protects him against one or more risks to his health or safety and any additional accessory designed to meet that objective." Latest study by (Alwi Saad,2011) had a same view.
Safety manager should make sure that each employee is using his or her PPE properly and not disabling or bypassing. This view has been supported in the work of Daniel E. Della-Giustina(2010).
Ergonomic can be explained as workplace condition which is having risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system of the employee. Receptionist and bell attendant have high potential risk for occupational injuries because either longer hours spent on mouse and keyboard or would increase the risk of having the neck and shoulder disorders.
Thomas F.Fisher and Stephen F. Wintermeyer (2012) in their recent report found result from musculoskeletal pain is awkward postures when bending, reaching, twisting or performing repetitive motions while completing their tasks.
Based on (Alwi Saad,2011,p.p.25) , ergonomics is the study of relationship of people to work. Work involves the use of tool, be in a certain posture, and in certain cases as in monitoring of control panel , the employee has to keep watch on various buttons and signals. How could work be done without the employee having to suffer strains or stress or even injuries?
Recent research from (Norashikin Mahmud, Dianna T Kenny and Hamidah Ab. Rahman, n.d) has written in their report that ergonomics education program is beneficial in reducing neck complaints among respondents. This is supported by the previous studies that office ergonomics training can reduce the risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among computer user.
(Alwi Saad, 2011) acknowledge that there have two applications of ergonomics:
Regarding lifting of weight
Under S. 12 FMA 1967 stated that "No person shall be employed to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause bodily injury to him.
Regarding comfort and elimination of stress by refer to FM (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulation 1970,
Reg. 24 (2): the height of a workroom should not be less than 3.3 m (10 ft).
Reg. 30 (1),(2) and (3): seating facilities should be of proper design and strongly supported.
Reg. 31: every workbench or work table shall be of a design construction and dimensions suitable for persons employed so that the work can be carried out without undue strain.
Maintenance and service
The efficiency of the hotel activity also have related with maintenance work. In a building, there a lot of activity maintenance that can be observes such as installation of air conditioning units, wiring electrical, creaking wall or maintenance roof. To perform this job, employees have to follow a few guideline provided by OSHA 1994.
(Alwi Saad,2011) has agree about general requirements regarding to maintenance. Under S. 15(2)(d) OSHA 1994:" so far as it practicable, as regard any place of work under the control of the employer or a self- employed person, the maintenance of it in a condition that is safe and without risk to health.
Before any maintenance work starting, the employers, occupier or contractor has to put or install appropriate signages and warning system so that persons are adequately warned of dangers that may arise ( Alwi Saad,2011):
Such worksite is closed
Such worksite is close or nearby to public thoroughfare
Where person may pass by and
Where persons may pass through
Referring to Factories and Machinery (Building Operations And Works Of Engineering Construction) (Safety) Regulations 1986,
Reg. 99 ( Warning signs at any demolition site) state as" On every demolition job, danger signs shall be conspicuously posted around the property, and all doorways or thoroughfares giving access to the property shall be kept barricaded except when being used as a passage for men or equipment and during darkness, and lights at flares shall be placed on or about all barricades."
Regulation 109( Barricades, catch platforms and warning signs.) stated as
"(1) Along every sidewalk or thoroughfare bordering demolition operations there shall be erected a substantial barricade to prevent unauthorised persons from entering the site of such operations.
(2) During the demolition of an exterior masonry wall or a roof from a point more than 12 metres above the adjoining ground level, if persons below are exposed to falling objects, catch platforms which meet the requirements of regulation 43 shall be provided and maintained at a level not more than 6 metres below the working level except where an exterior built-up scaffold provides equivalent protection.
(3) Suitable warning signs shall be put up at conspicuous positions."
Installation of air conditioning units and wiring electrical.
By referring to S. 20(3) OSHA 1994, stated that " It shall be the duty of a person who erects or installs any plant for use by persons at work to ensure, so far as is practicable, that nothing about the way in which it is erected or installed makes it unsafe or a risk to health when properly used."
Latest research that made by (Alwi Saad,2011) have same view on safety aspect regarding to installation as stated that a machinery may only be installed on strong foundations. This as refer to below regulation:
By Reg. 5 FM ( Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulation 1970:
" 10. Without prejudice to any law with respect to local authorities, in respect of any factory, the following provisions relating to safety shall apply:
(a) foundations and floors shall be of sufficient strength to sustain the loads for which they are designed; and no foundation or floor shall be overloaded;
(b) roofs shall be of sufficient strength to carry where necessary suspended loads;
(c) all floors, working levels, platforms, decks, stairways, passages, gangways, ladders and steps shall be of safe construction so as to prevent a risk of persons falling, and structurally sound so as to prevent a risk of collapse, and shall be properly maintained and kept, as far as reasonably practicable, free from any loose material and in a non-slippery condition;
(d) such means as are reasonably practicable shall be provided, maintained, and used so as to ensure safe access to any place at which any person has at any time to work;
(e) every opening, sump, pit or fixed vessel in a floor, or working level shall be securely covered or securely fenced so as to prevent risk of persons falling;and
Factories and Machinery 17
(f) All goods, articles and substances which are stored or stacked shall be so placed or stacked-
(a) in such manner as will best ensure stability and prevent any collapse of the goods, articles or substances or their supports; and
(b) in such a manner as not to interfere with the adequate distribution of light, adequate ventilation, proper operation of machinery, the unobstructed use of passageways or gangways and the efficient functioning or use of fire-fighting equipment."
Maintenance work for building can be dividing into two categories:
Planned maintenance work performed and controlled taking into account the possibility that will exist during the future.
Eg pumps regularly maintained
Not schedule maintenance
Maintenance work done without following any form of planning.
Eg a damaged pump - maintainability correction
Daniel E. Della-Giustina(2010,p.p.34) cited that employee should contact appropriate maintenance dispatcher for specific instructions and procedure. Maintenance work order system although it can lead to the correction of hazardous conditions, it will not necessarily eliminate hazardous practices or provide for more imaginative approaches to standard conditions and procedures to improve worksite safety and health.
By referring to Law of Malaysia Act 514, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1994, under S. 15 OSH 1994 :
"Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), the matters to which the duty extends include in particular-
(a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work that are, so far as is practicable, safe and without risks to health;
(b) the making of arrangements for ensuring, so far as is practicable, safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use or operation, handling, storage and transport of plant and substances;
(c) the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety and health at work of his employees;
(d) so far as is practicable, as regards any place of work under the control of the employer or self-employed person, the maintenance of it in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of the means of access to and egress from it that are safe and without such risks;
(e) The provision and maintenance of a working environment for his employees that is, so far as is practicable, safe, without risks to health, and adequate as regards facilities for their welfare at work."
All works or repair and maintenance should be recorded, photographed and documented for archival purposes and future building maintenance.
As a conclusion, employee must have high level on safety awareness. Safety practices in the hotel are very important. Therefore, these safety practices should be seriously considered by supervisors to ensure that employees comply with OSHA 1994 and FMA 1967. The hotel management must also ensure that each of their employees understand and have knowledge relating to employment safety practices so that in future they improve the quality of work and the number of accidents can be reduced at the hotel.
This chapter will discuss on how to assure the objective of this study can be achieved. It also focussed on how to conduct the right distribute questionnaire and interview among employee in hotel industries. After discuss on the method of research it will follow with some discussion on the questionnaire.
Descriptive research design
As the studies are on current condition of hotel in Malaysia, the researcher prefers to use descriptive research design because descriptive research design is more flexible and formal. In researcher study, employee in hotel industry is main subject that researcher will use to gain the information about current safety practices and the effectiveness of safety practices.
The researcher focus group were hotel employee because they can give the real situation on safety practices in their workplace. Employee of hotel industry is the right responder as they always expose in the hotel environment so that will more easy to evaluate them.
Cross sectional studies
Because primary data collection researcher use is survey that is distribute questionnaire, so cross sectional studies is the most suitable as it will take up little time to conduct. Other than that, researcher choose to use cross sectional because the study that researcher conduct is based on current issue in hotel industry, it as a short term of review, that why this cross sectional studies is the best way.
In this study, the researcher interested in identifies the safety practices of the hotel in Malaysia and also the number of accident that involve hotel industry from the latest information. So, this study will conducted in short period at selected hotel in Malaysia.
Research question will be answered through primary data. For this study researcher have chosen to distribute questionnaire and conduct interview.
Data obtained through the questionnaire will be analyzed by using selected technique. The results of this questionnaire will then answered objective of this study. Researcher chooses to use questionnaire as method for data collection because of the respondent in large scale and also the data collection are the latest information.
The questionnaire was created based on compliance of employee on the regulation of hotel and effectiveness of the safety practices in term number of accident involve employee. So that, from the questionnaire, the researcher can get the information on the comply employee on the hotel regulation, awareness level of employee on their safety and also the effectiveness the safety program organized by the hotel management.
Interview also one of the processes in collect data. Usually in a formal meeting with a person, such as one conducted by a reporter, in which facts or statements are elicited from another. For this study, researcher will conduct interview on supervisor as supervisor is the closest one to the employee. Data obtain from employee can be verify from the interview conducted.
For this study, researcher plan to conduct at least two supervisors (daylight and night shift) for each hotel. By only doing this, the data that researcher obtains from the questionnaire can be accepted as have supported from the supervisor.
Data were obtained from the literature to have a better understanding to this study. The information that researcher gain from government agencies, private and in doing so in this study as information reference. That information also help researcher in build up the question for questionnaire.
Case study is main reading of the researcher. In order to increase understanding level of researcher about the topic study, researcher explore on article reading, take a few example of organization that have same issue as researcher topic. A lot of case study found by researcher but sort it out into safety practices and hotel or hospitality industry only.
Internet source as the back up reading. Sometime, a certain issue on safety is not clearly discuss in the selected case study, so that why internet is needed to make researcher have better understand on the issue. A few government portal, education portal and jurnal online was use as reference for researcher.
Book or magazine
Help from book or magazine also as additional reading list. Each issue of the magazine have help researcher to improve the idea on safety practices. Professional Safety Magazine ( Journal of American Society of Safety Engineers) open mind of researcher about safety in workplace.
Validity, Generalisability and reliability
Under this section, researcher will explain by using scientific canons (Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Andrian Thornhill,2012):
Researcher must avoid the four threats in reliability that is participant bias, participant error, researcher bias and last but not least is researcher error.
Researcher error can be avoided by clearly understand the answer given by the interview. If researcher feel that need explanation, ask for it. Do not hesitate to ask if not understand what responder answer as it important for result of finding.
Researcher bias can be avoided by researcher must stick with the scope of study. Do not get influences by the respondent answer.
Participant error can be avoided by distribute the questionnaire at the right time. As example ask the responder to answer questionnaire not at peak hour as that time employee are really busy. Questionnaire or interview can be conducted at day that was promised like on leave or before employee start it working hours. Do not come to the employer after working as that time employee must tired and not really focus on the questionnaire.
Participant bias can be avoided like meet the supervisor at their office or let the employee answer the questionnaire not around their supervisor. This because researcher worry if the supervisor mingle around or in view of employee, the answer employee given is not true as they scared their supervisor.
This is process which researcher examining the results and questionnaire. This mean capability of this study topic regarding to safety practices to other people and on other situation. As example researcher focus groups is employee with safety practice in all level awareness and researcher use likert scale for measurement and situation in safety environment. As example is researcher study on employee that apply safety practices in their different daily job at different date and at different hotel. Only after researcher have strong external validity, researcher can generalize to other people and situations with confidence.
Construct validity would test whether the employee actually was measure the effectiveness safety practices and not method, training or any other factor. Pilot study may be an effective method to test construct validity because allow them to make any adjustments on the questionnaire.
To define safety practices in hotel industries.
To answer this objective, researchers have to use secondary data such as journals, book, and refer to case study and internet search. A lot of reading material are need to make researcher have a better understanding on safety practice before conduct an interview and distribute questionnaire.
To determine the most important safety factors that affects the performance
Method that researcher use to collect answer for this objective thru distribute questionnaire. Based on the understanding of literature review, researchers create a questionnaire.
To identify the effectiveness of safety practices
For this objective, researchers have use two method that is questionnaire and conduct an interview. This to verify the answer and also gain extra information on effectiveness of safety practices. In the questionnaire must have a question that can answer for this objective question.
In this chapter, researcher concludes the research design researcher use is descriptive, cross sectional function and data collection thru questionnaire and interview. Scientific canon also uses to analyse the questionnaire and interview section are valid in real situation or not. Overall, this chapter briefing about the researcher plan to do for it field work after this chapter. The result from this primary and secondary data will discuss on the next chapter.