Inadequacies In The Construction Industry Construction Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Purpose of the paper: The rationale behind this assignment is to investigate the prominent problems occurring in the construction industry today, mainly focusing on one specific issue. Construction as we know it is labour based, and it is here where the major problem lies. This assignment will be focusing on the many downfalls in terms of the labour in construction and how it affects the actual progression towards what the constructor is contracted to do.

Methodology: Identified in this report are the possible issues in the labour department of the construction industry, most of which is based on the construction worker and the failure of the construction worker to fulfil duties and responsibilities required for the successful completion of the construction contract. The research is based on statutory provisions in terms of Labour Law and obligations in terms of the actual employment contract. This investigation involves an analysis of a sample of a construction employer/employee contract, by which the inadequacies are identified.

Findings: By identifying the inadequacies and the inconsistencies of the employment contract with Labour Law and what is expected in accordance to public policy it is found that the major construction delays occur due to the lenience given to "builders" and other minor function labourers. They do not complete required tasks in the expected period and are incompetent in terms of work method. This, along with possible protests cause delays in the contracted work being completed

Obligations need to be properly enforced on a basis of law in order to prevent builders from being truant at leisure. In addition, a higher level of competence should be introduced for the employment of builders.

Limitations and possible variations: These findings are based on South African Labour Law and the laws dealing with contractual employee obligations. The fact that the application of law varies in accordance to the varying circumstances in the construction and labour environment, can be a setback in establishing a clear cut solution.

Practical implications: If construction companies apply rules laws and the obligations stipulated by the contracts more strictly this may have a positive impact on the construction industry. We can expect a drastic reduction in incomplete buildings and a steady improvement in the workmanship. Ultimately, this would mean that the subordinates need to delegate and enforce the workload more strictly.

Table of Contents

Page

Chapter One : Introduction ....................................................................................................00

Chapter Two : Review of the Related Literature.

2.1 Poor Project Management ..................................................................................00

2.2 Complicated Role of the Sub - Contractor ............................................................00

2.3 Lack of Experience and Competencies in Labourers .............................................00

2.4 Language Barrier to Communication and the Lack of Communication ...................00

2.5 Unsuitable Construction Equipment ...................................................................00

2.6 Poor Weather Conditions ...................................................................................00

2.7 Limited Time ......................................................................................................00

2.8 Limited Cost ......................................................................................................00

Chapter Three: Construction Productivity and Performance ............................................00

Chapter Four: How Time is Spent ................................................................................00

Chapter Five : Research Methodology .........................................................................00

Chapter Six : Results .................................................................................................00

Chapter Seven : Discussion .........................................................................................00

Chapter Eight : Conclusion and Recommendation : Possible measures to minimise workmanship quality problem

8.1 Strict supervision ................................................................................................00

8.2 Training and Education ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….00

8.3 Proper Communication Among Parties Involved …………………………………………………………………00

8.4 Proper Construction Management ………………………………………………………………………………………00

8.6 Proper Manpower Management ………………………………………………………………………………………..00

8.7 Proper Design …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….00

References .............................................................................................................00

Appendices

Chapter One

Introduction

As the world develops and urbanises, there comes a greater demand in the construction and building industry. More buildings in a developing world mean more construction and more pressure on construction companies to improve. There are many ways in which construction falls short and often result in inadequate results. One of the main areas of concern, is labour in terms of workmanship of the builders, it is often seen that the lack of proper workmanship in this area can be problematic to the completion of building projects.

An unfinished building is a common result of these inadequacies in the construction industry, these building remained unfinished because it would either be too costly to complete or demolish.

An unfinished building is a building or any other architectural structure, as a bridge, a road or a tower) where construction work has been abandoned or on-hold for some reason at some stage or only exists as a design. It may also refer to buildings currently being built, particularly those that have been delayed or at which construction work progresses extremely slowly.

One of the oldest unfinished buildings in the world is Antoni Gaudí's Sagrada Família in Barcelona, a church that has been under construction since 1882, and that is now expected to be complete in 2026.

The question that arises here is what steps can subordinates in the construction project and owners of these construction companies take to ensure that the construction workers are performing at their peak.

This assignment critically analyses inadequacies in labour as being a major defect in construction, it explores the various methods enacted in terms of legislation of South Africa and rules of certain companies. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data derived from surveys and questionnaires provide us with guidance in terms of a solution for this problem, taking note of the manner in which other companies handle such problems.

Chapter Two

Review of Related literature

2. Factors that contribute to poor workmanship in construction

According to Adul Rahman et al. (1996), workmanship was classified as one the most frequent non- conformance on a construction site. Through literature, eight factors that are related to the causes of poor quality in construction projects have been found out.

2.1 Poor project management

It was once mentioned that incompetence in management is generally recognised as a major factor in poor construction productivity and it was further stated that the management factors be due to poor supervision on the construction site (quoted from BRT : Sanvido 1988).

In fact, poor supervision on site contributes to the poor workmanship on construction site and it can be seen at many occasions on the jobsite (Kasun and Janaka, 2006). In addition, the ability of management on the construction site is the primary cause that affects labours' daily productivity (Dai et al.,2009). Jha and Chockalingam (2009) stated that the quality of project manager is one of the causes in affecting project quality (has quoted from Anderson, 1992). Therefore, poor project management is one of the factors contribute to poor workmanship.

2.2 Complicated role of the sub - contractor

Khalid et al. (2006) agreed that the role of subcontractor is one of the factors contribute to

construction deficiency (poor workmanship). Many people are not always focus on

this factor, however, in fact, the role of subcontractor is important in construction work.

This is because most of the site work is completed by subcontractors and the main

contractors just depend on the subcontractors (Khalid et al., 2006). Khalid et al. (2006)

further stated that approximate 90% of the site work is executed by variety of

subcontractors whereas main contractor is focus on management and coordination.

Besides, Chan et al. (2006) also mentioned that labour sub-contracting also arise severe

problems in the co-ordination of work and attainment of quality standards (quoted from

Shui On, 1991; Fan, 1994). Since there are various types of subcontractor involve in the

same construction project, the main contractor is difficult to inspect, supervise and control

the works that have been done by the subcontractors. Therefore, complicated role of

subcontractor in construction projects can contribute to poor workmanship.

2.3 Lack of experience and competency of labours

Kasun and Janaka (2006) mentioned that "productivity cannot be achieved by speed and

harder work only without adopting better work practices" (quoted from Banik, 1999).

Besides, industry stakeholders agreed that insufficient of skilled manpower is the most

important matter that they concern about (Jorge et al, 2005). According to Kazaz and

Birgonul (2005), some construction companies in Turkey usually prefer to employ shortterm

unskilled labours and consequently cause the fault in the process of attaining the

stability of quality associated issues. Hence, lack of experience and competency of

labours must be taken into account as a factor contributes to poor workmanship.

2.4 Language barrier to communication and the lack of communication

Different language between the foreign labours and local supervisors causes the

communication failure on the jobsite. From a research of Augusto et al. (2009), it found

that 82% of the respondents in the survey mentioned that the most general trouble faced

on the jobsite by the America supervisors is the language obstacle when communicating

with the foreign labours. Additionally, from a survey of Kasun and Janaka (2006) showed

that exceed 40% of the respondents from the construction site protested about the

insufficient of communication. Indeed, language barrier indirectly causes the lack of

communication between the supervisors and labours. This consequently causes the

misunderstanding by the labours in their work scope and then lead to poor workmanship.

2.5 Unsuitable construction equipment

Suitability of construction equipments can influence the workmanship quality in

construction. Faisal et al. (2006) quoted from Adrian (1983) and Al-Hazmi (1987) stated

that insufficient of latest information about the obtainable equipments can influence the

project quality. In a research of Kazaz and Birgonul (2005), the poor quality of mass

housing projects in Turkey mostly because low cost construction techniques which are

totally disregarded. Therefore, unsuitable construction equipments can cause low quality

of workmanship in construction.

2.6 Poor weather conditions

Dai et al. (2009) stated that extreme climate condition is one of the factors that affecting

construction labour productivity and workmanship. From the research of Faisal et al.

(2006) found that the climate of Saudi is hot and severe during summer that causes some

of the construction works very hard to carry out, such as concreting. As a result, the

quality of workmanship is affected.

2.7 Limited time

Insufficient time caused the construction projects executed to be rushed. According to

Andrew (1999), a number of "show houses" on the site were required for many

construction projects. Many concurrent works were carried out and inadequate checking

had been carried out by the senior managers sequentially caused by the speed of

working. As a result, the deficiency of workmanship had been happened. In short, limited

time causes low quality of workmanship in construction.

2.8 Limited cost

Insuifficient cost or budget would cause inadequate allocation of cost in construction

project. Labour cost is included in construction cost. Proverbs et al. (1999) stated that

labour element is considered as the most difficult component to price within the

reasonable level of accuracy. Obviously, labour costs estimation is considered as

uncertainty (Proverbs et al., 1999). In addition, contractors who are not preparing

sufficient budget for the project will cause the labour cost cut down correspondingly. As a

result, the labours supplied are not sufficient to complete a project and construction

defects may appear.

Chapter three

Construction Productivity and Performance

In today's day and age there are major issues of cost overruns, delays and loss of productivity associated with the delivery of major construction projects everywhere. Many researchers such as Hewage and Ruwanpua (2006) have identified poor management practices that lead to poor performance such as scope changes, design errors and omissions, lack of proper planning and scheduling, improper management of tools, equipment, materials, and labour. Construction is not a machine driven industry and therefore requiring human workforce as its main source of building production, and here is where room there is room for improvement.

Identifying Construction Productivity

Researchers around the world have provided several contributions related to improving the various aspects of construction labour productivity. Research is being performed world-wide in research centres on many areas related to construction labour productivity. In this assignment inadequacies in terms of labour such as time management, communication skills, poor workmanship, negligence and alcohol and drug abuse shall be outlined. Construction failure occurs across the globe and South Africa been a upcoming developing country is prone to large amount of construction failure and continuous research will enable to overcome and foresee construction labour behaviour to be improved in all aspects to create a greater contribution to project success

Construction Performance

Construction productivity largely depends on the performance of construction workers. The labour force plays a vital role in the construction process. Uncertified work due to poor workmanship carried out by labourers may lead to project overtime, as work has to be re-done in accordance with principle agent's standards. Thus, if a project is behind schedule, work fatigue may become a growing problem and continuous error may be continued by labourers and all a contribution to less effectiveness and production.

Improving Construction Productivity

The improvement in construction productivity needs to be achieved through greater resource allocation and human resource efficiency, effectiveness and engagement; increased innovation and technology diffusion. Productivity Alberta also indicated that improving productivity and innovation is not necessarily expensive, time-consuming, or overly difficult. However, it takes a commitment to identifying areas for improvement, working toward the improvement, and maintaining the improvements over time. (Productivity Alberta, 2008)

The following are the productivity factors identified by Liberda et al. (2003):

Human factors such as worker motivation, worker boredom and fatigue, worker attitude and morale, worker's physical limitations, worker absenteeism, worker learning curve, worker experience, and worker skills as well as the team spirit of crew.

Chapter four

How time is spent

Hewage and Ruwanpua (2006) broke down a unskilled and unskilled trade worker's time in detail. The table below shows the detailed breakdown of how time is spent in a eight hour day by an unskilled labourer.

DAY BREAK DOWN

8 Hour day

Looking for materials

1.12 hours

Looking for tools

0.08 hours

Socializing

0.72 hours

Moving

0.64 hours

Idle

0.72 hours

Other

0.40 hours

Working time

4.08 hours

As per the above diagram, there is room for more work as working time only consists of half the day which applies to non skilled and skilled labourers. The rest of the day consists of:

Looking for materials : this can be overcome by all labours having a good communication and exact allocation for all materials that is required on site.

Looking for tools : tools should be properly utilised and returned once the task at hand is completed and no longer requiring a specific tool.

Socialising : Labours, just like any other workers are committed to fulfil their responsibilities and should therefore minimise socialising and maximize work rate.

Moving: Moving around work equipment and building material

Instructions : A small percentage of time is spent to receive adequate instruction which should involve more time to avoid incorrect work carried out on site by the labourer.

Idle : A substantial amount of time waiting on site for predecessor activities to be completed, however labours can contribute to other activities to be more efficient and productive

Skilled Labour Breakdown - Detailed

DAY BREAK DOWN

8 Hour day

Extra breaks

0.4

Idle

0.4

Waiting for material

0.1

Moving material

0.5

Searching for material

0.1

Equipment

0.1

Watching

0.1

Instructions

0.1

Movement on site

0.1

Check drawings

0.0

Interruption

0.1

Socialize

0.2

Inspection

0.2

Measure

0.2

Safety

0.1

Leave

0.1

House keeping

0.1

Warm up

0.1

Discussion

0.1

Washroom

0.0

Re-work

0.1

Tool time

4.8

Chapter five

Research Methodology

In researching the inadequacies in labour I was faced with various methods of research, and all which have its advantages and disadvantages. The different methods of research often include internet sources, textbook sources, surveys and questionnaires, all which represent both qualitative and quantitative forms.

The main components of research, specific to this investigation, comprised of surveys, questionnaires and extracts of articles on the internet.

The articles were mostly based on the construction industry and other components relative to the investigation. There were articles that dealt with other inadequacies in the construction industry such as poor management and poor planning and very few that dealt with poor labour skills as an inadequacy, which lead me to make use of a more "hands on" approach, a survey and a questionnaire. This meant, that there would be personal interaction with people who were experienced in the construction field and that the person completing the survey would offer expert advice and experienced output in terms of recommendations.

Owners, CEOs and the labour management team of construction companies were approached, to complete the survey and questionnaires in which they were required to answer questions ba

Chapter six

Results

**will be completed as discussed, still under investigation

Chapter seven

Discussion

Chapter eight

Conclusion and Recommendations

8. Possible Measures to Minimise Workmanship Quality Problems

We have already established that inadequate labour practices are one of the most impacting factors that have a negative effect on the construction industry. Labour and good workmanship being the root of a successful construction project is of utmost importance. Failures of sub-ordinates improperly enforcing rules and laws can result in such inadequacies, the lack of skills in construction workers also play a role.

There are possible measures that can be taken to improve workmanship quality and minimise problems in workmanship quality.

8.1 Strict Supervision

Ghaffar et al. (2010) quoted from Howell and Ballard (1998) that enhancing the

Quality, by strict supervision in a construction site can be very effective. Daily supervision should also be carried out by the contractors or subcontractors so that workmanship problems can be identified and the remedy work can be performed immediately. When executing the supervision, contractor supervisory staff must have the knowledge, expertise, and capabilities to direct the construction work and manage the craft worker efficiently (Maloney, 2002).

8.2 Training and Education

People in the construction industry all agree that appropriate training and enlarging experience is necessary in transferring the quality of a project. Osama and Khan(2010) note that labour productivity has become important in construction because of its impact in the process of completing projects. Chan (2006) further says that the construction quality can be enhanced by increasing the capability of site labours.

8.3 Proper Communication Among Parties Involved

Proper communication is a necessary in construction. From a research that has been done by Augusto et al. (2009), 80% of the Hispanic workers in U.S. construction sector mentioned that the communication with the supervisors is vital and need to be improved. Therefore, American supervisors suggested that the training in communication skills is essential to eliminate the language gap among themselves and the foreign labours. Ling(2007) stated that effective communication leads the projects complete faster (quoted from Walker, 1998). As Tai et al. (2009) mentioned, "no communications means no management". Apart from the communication between supervisors and construction labours, proper communication and teamwork are also necessary between contractors and subcontractors. Through a continual communication among parties involved, working relationship among the construction parties can be closer. Therefore, proper communication is very important to improve the relationship among the construction team and consequently improve the workmanship quality in construction.

8.4 Proper Construction Management

Proper construction management would enhance the workmanship quality in construction. Dai et al. (2009) quoted from Olson (1982) stated that the capability of construction managers to manage, arrange and lead the work would affect the construction labour productivity. If a construction manager fails to lead and control the construction project, the quality problems may arise. Therefore, a proper construction management is very essential for every construction project.

8.5 Proper Manpower Management

Manpower management in terms of amount and quality of skill workers is an important cause of contractor performance and extremely arranged by employers. A construction project which has well arrangement of manpower will produce a high quality project. Manpower is the sole productive resource; hence construction productivity is principally relying on human endeavour and performance. Therefore the management of manpower in every construction project should be arranged skilfully.

8.6 Proper Design

Better design can get rid of workmanship problems and help to avoid the defects. Inadequately worded specifications and uncertain designs always cause low construction quality (has quoted from Calder, 1997). Better design may correct some defects which due to workmanship in brick work. Robby et al. (2001) stated that well-prepared designs and drawings affect the future works to become easier and the defects can be identified and rectified more effectively.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.