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Construction planning and preparation play a very important role in today s construction. The effectiveness of the planning and preparation lead to the success of a project including the quality and time consumed in completing the project. A good and properly planned construction site can improve the efficiency and even the safety of the construction operation. Therefore, to construct a good building, the step of planning cannot be eliminated or skipped in order to save the construction time and money.
A 20 storeys of high-rise building is to be built on the proposed site at Jalan Universiti Utama. It is planned to be used as the highest building of condominium. Before the construction is started, a several stages of preparation have been conducted in order to have the most efficient construction operation.
1. SITE INVESTIGATION
First and foremost, a site investigation on the proposed site is conducted. Desktop study is conducted where the initial study is done using the available data and information given by JKR. Time and money can be saved due to desktop study on the proposed site. Based on the historical data, no extreme weather is expected. Then, the site investigation is conducted to decide whether the site is generally suitable to build the 20 storeys building as different location has different types of geology and geography. Previous data may not be accurate as the properties of soil keep changing due to the environment. Boring method has been done to identify the soil profile. The condition and contents of proposed site soil can be identified. Laboratory tests are conducted to determine the soil bearing strength. Based on the results, soil on the proposed site is strong enough to support the 20 storeys building. However, special dewatering equipment and blasting are required for the preparation of site.
Analysis of site data is as below:
- Site is in urban area = no transport and labor problems
- Subsoil = firm sandy clay; dewatering and sheeting are needed as the water table is high
- Based on historical data, no extreme weather expected
- Amount of earthwork needed = normal
- 3 resident clerk of works; 15 workers normal; 75 workers maximum (estimated)
- 1 site office; 1 store; 2 toilets; 1 canteen; 1 car park
- Guard house
- Water, electricity, telephone
- Warning and sign boards
2. SITE PREPARATION
Firstly, site clearing and demolition activities are conducted where tree, stump and all vegetation are removed and exist buildings are demolished. This is followed by earthworks activity, where a massive quantities of soil need to be moved. Volumes of cuts and fills are calculated properly in order to minimize the movement distance besides determine the mass haul cost and distance. Time and money can be saved. Bulldozer and backhoe are used during the earthworks. After all the earthworks activity have been done, fences are built around the proposed site perimeter. Perimeter fencing is important to ensure that the construction can be operated safely. Dewatering is then conducted in order to drain the ground water due to the high location of water table. Next, temporary buildings included site office, canteen, guard house, store, toilets and car park are built to improve the efficiency of construction operation. Temporary access road, water, electricity, phone and air conditioning are ensured available to optimize the efficiency of construction works. Finally, sign boards and warning boards are placed at the certain places to make sure that no intruder breaks into the construction site besides to ensure the safety during the construction operation.
Periodic inspection will be carried out by the Authority during further construction. A report of each inspection shall be prepared in duplicate and a copy of the same report signed by the Authority shall be given to the owner or to his Architect/Engineer/Supervisor. Besides, owner shall submit a notice of completion of the building to the Authority. It may also submitted by the owner through his Architect/Engineer/Supervisor, accompanied by three copies of completion plan and the required documents.
In a conclusion, a construction stages are included site preparations, construct of sub-structures, construct of super-structures and external works. All these stages are equally important in order to optimize the efficiency of a construction operation in any industries area.
One of the purposes of a site lay-out is to control and to increase the site efficiency. Time wastage need to be avoided by minimizing the walking distance within facilities and buildings. On the other hand, strategic material storage and usage are needed to minimize rehandling cost, breakage and wastage. Site lay-out is also needed in order to maximize the site and space utilization. Other than that, appropriate material monitoring and security can improve the efficiency of construction operation. Last but not least, the purpose of the site lay-out is to ensure the safety of workers and visitors. An example of bad site lay-out is as below:
Based on the above lay-out, there are several weaknesses of the site lay-out need to be improved. Firstly, there is only one entrance/exit in this site, which can cause negative effects to the construction operation. Construction operation may be delayed due to the traffic congestion at the entrance/exit. Two gates should be constructed where one is for entrance while the other is for exit. Secondly, store in the above site lay-out is located near the entrance. This may also cause traffic congestion when loading/unloading of building materials is operated. Besides, toilets that located beside the store may lead to pollution to the material if there is water leaking or overflowing in the toilet. Thirdly, the project signboard should be located near the entrance instead of inside the site. This is to ensure that visitors can find the place and get to know the information of the proposed building easily. Furthermore, the guard house should situate near the entrance and exit in order to manage the safety of the site. No intruder should break into the site for the safety of visitors and also workers. Lastly, car park is located too far away from the entrance where visitors need to pass by the construction building in order to park their vehicles. Their lives may be threatened as accidents rate in construction site is extremely high. Safety first!