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The complex construction projects need effective project teams that use recognized documentation, tools and techniques to help deliver project success. This essay need to Set out the features of effective project teams and recognized documentation and project control tools and techniques that are appropriate for complex construction projects and discuss the Project teams such as composition, selection or appointment, roles and responsibilities, communication processes, characteristics of a project manager and the role of project leadership in identification and discussion of issues critical to effectiveness. the critical issues that need to be addressed in order to help deliver project success.
Code of Practice for project management (1996) stated that This project are normally form by a project team, the team are consist of the client, project manager, design team which consist of architect, structure or civil and electrical, consultant which consist quantity surveying, project planning, Insurance and etc. and contractor and subcontractor.
When we form the project team in the complex construction projects, It is important to appoint a team with many skill and technique, creative, positive team attitude, communication skills and good in teamwork During the selection. The project manager should consider the following factors such as the project team need to clearly defined and measurable project objectives,firm duties of teamwork, with shared financial motivation to pursue those objectives. These should involve a general assumption to achieve 'win-win' solution to problem which may arise during the course of the project. the production of satisfactory from each team member, to show that they can contribute the project objectives, the project manager also have to make sure the team member have to be responsible when the task is given and communicate these within the team. Last but not least, the project manager should create an environment for member of the project team can achieve their personal to meet socially and outside the work environment. (Code of Practice for project management 1996)
R.Burke (2003) stated that The Project manager is in the main position to develop and maintain all the communication links, both inside the company and project team, and outside the company with the client, contractors, suppliers and other stakeholder. Nowadays, It is likely that project managers meetings, writing memos, emailing, faxes, reading reports, or talking with team members, senior managers, customers, client, sub-contractor.
R.Burke (2003) also stated that might be overlap responsibilities and complex interfaces all applying a strain on the communication system. However, it could be the most important factor determining product quality, productivity and customer satisfaction if the communication system is well supervise.
Nowadays, the project team are using internet and mobile phones to communicate each other, the project team also can write their letter or communication using e-mail and faxes instead of sending to post office.
Code of Practice for project management (1996) defined the Project management as 'the overall planning, coordination and control of a project from start to completion aimed at meeting a client's wish in order to produce a functionally and economically feasible project that will be completed on time within authorized cost and to the required quality standards.'
Smith N J (2002)In the Other hand, The UK Association for project management defines it as 'the planning, organization, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all involved to achieve project objectives safely and within agreed time, cost and performance criteria.
The project manager have to be motivate, manage, coordinate and maintain the morale of the whole project team, so that the project team will raise their confidence on the project manager work, This leadership function is basically about managing people. A knowledge with all the other tools and techniques of project management will not compensate for shortcomings in this vital area. Smith N J (2002) However, what makes them unique is that they manage temporary, no repetitive activities, to complete a fixed life project. Unlike functional managers, who take over existing operations, project managers create a project team and association where none existed before. They have to settle and how the process should be complete instead of simply managing set processes. Clifford F. Gray, Erik W. Larson, (2008)
Smith N J (2002) say that "Project management must take action on the risks, and communicate the plans and priorities, anticipate problem, assess progress and trends, get quality and value for money, and change the plans if necessary to achieve the objectives. The needs of project management are dependent upon the relative size, complexity, urgency, important and novelty of a project. The needs are also greater where projects are interdependent, particularly those competing for the same resources."
Project managers must work with a different troupe of characters to complete projects. The project managers are normally direct link to the customer or client and must manage the stress between customer requirement and what is feasible and reasonable. Project managers provide direction, organization, and incorporation to the project team, which is often made up of part time participant loyal to their functional division. The project are often work with a cadre of outsides, suppliers, subcontractor who do not necessarily share with their project commitment. Clifford F. Gray, Erik W. Larson, (2008)
Clifford F. Gray, Erik W. Larson, (2008) also stated that the Project managers are ultimately responsible for performance. They must ensure that appropriate trade-offs are made between the time, cost, and quality, project managers generally possess only basic technical knowledge to make such decisions.
On leadership, the project manager would simply execute the project plan and the project would be finished. The project manager will have to prepare a schedule, organize a project team, keep track of progress, and announce what needs to be done next with other. Project managers are responsible for integrating assigned resources to complete the project according to plan. They also need to initiate changes in plans schedules as persistent problems make plan unworkable at the same time. Clifford F. Gray, Erik W. Larson, (2008)
Code of Practice for project management (1996) stated that "the project execution plan(PEP) is the core document for the management of a project. It is a statement of policies and procedures defined by the project sponsor; although it is usually developed by the project manager for the project sponsor's approval. It sets out in a structured format the project scope, objectives and relative priorities".
They have some checklist for the PEP such as whether they already include plans, procedures and control processes for project implementation, define the role and responsibilities for the project team to make sure they can communicate, accepts and carried out their responsibilities, last but not least,they have to make sure to set out the mechanisms for quality control, review and feedback, define the meeting requirement and the criteria for independent external review.
In essential contents, Most of the PEP are consistent, but the standard have to be modified to meet the particular circumstances of each project. A typical PEP will cover the items listed such as Project definition and brief, Statement of objective, the business plan with costs, revenue and cash flow projections including borrowing interest, development strategy and procurement route, risk management, project planning and phasing, Safety and environmental issues, such as the construction design and management regulations, management of information systems including docement management system, quality assurance and etc. Code of Practice for project management (1996)
R.Burke (2003) stated that the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) is to subdivide the scope of work manageable work packages that can be estimated, planned and assigned to a responsible person or department for completion. A Work breakdown Structure element may be a product, data, a service, or any combination, in addition, the Work breakdown Structure can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager.
According to the R.Burke (2003) Work breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure representation which is best prevented by a graphical subdivision of the scope of work. Element of scope are decomposed to a level that provides a more detail and clear understanding of what is to be deliver for reason of planning, controlling, and managing project scope. when the scope is clearly understood, the project manager will determined who will deliver it and how they will be delivered. R C Mishra, Tarun Soota(2006)
In developing a Work Breakdown Structure, we must realize that there are many ways to develop a Work Breakdown Structure for any given project. but the most important things is to remember the Work Breakdown Structure must contain all approved scope and the Project Manager must develop the Work Breakdown Structure to reflect the way they can intends to manage the project. They have some document we have to consider such as WBS element or number, WBS task name, task effort or duration, resource name, dictionary description and Cost. R C Mishra, Tarun Soota(2006)
According to R C Mishra, Tarun Soota (2006) the Organizational breakdown structure (OBS) represents the project organizational structure arranged and coded in a hierarchical format to improve the communicate throughout a project. The Organizational breakdown structure assists in reporting project attributes that are the responsibility of an agency. R.Burke ( 2003) stated that the Organisation breakdown structure will consist any of the following subdivisions such as department or discipline, contractor or supplier and team member and contractor.
According to the H.Kerzner (2009), The Statement Of Work (SOW) is a narrative description of the work required for the project. The most difficult challenge of the Statement Of Work is to determined by the needs of top management and the customer. The Statement of Work is prepared by the project office with input from the user groups because the project office is usually concern more on personnel with writing skills.
For projects external to the organization, the contractor have to write the Statement of Work to the customer for approval because some of the customer do not have people trained in Statement of work preparation. In addition (Ronald B. Cagle,2003), the statement of work will be from during the design reviews, the status meetings, process review, and the actual production of the product is on schedule, and is being produced in accordance with the specification. This factor should be evident such as Schedule reviews, Budget review, Design Review and technical interchange meetings.
Last but not least, The WHYPERLINK "http://www.google.co.uk/search?tbs=bks:1&tbo=p&q=+inauthor:"Wolfgang+Spiess"".HYPERLINK "http://www.google.co.uk/search?tbs=bks:1&tbo=p&q=+inauthor:"Wolfgang+Spiess""Spiess, FHYPERLINK "http://www.google.co.uk/search?tbs=bks:1&tbo=p&q=+inauthor:"Finn+Felding"".HYPERLINK "http://www.google.co.uk/search?tbs=bks:1&tbo=p&q=+inauthor:"Finn+Felding""Felding,( 2008) stated that "the task responsibility matrix assign the responsibility of the project team to task and define the interfaces between bordering tasks, so there is no possibility of making others responsible for problems that oneself has to stand up for in the project".
By drawing up the task responsibility matrix, the organizers of a project are forced to work force to fulfil a certain task. Therefore the task responsibility matrix and the time schedule have to be worked out in an iterative process
As a conclusion to this report, I have learn how the project manager communicate with the project team and the project leader leadership such as how is the project leader to form a project team and announce what things or job we need to complete for this project. On the other hand, I have learned all the methods of the documentation, tools and techniques are required for this project.