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Employer should provide necessary information, proper instruction, appropriate training and supervision to make sure employees gain ability to be safe and take necessary action to maintain their health and safety.
Employer should take all the necessary action to arrange for the safe use, handling, storage and transport of goods and substances.
Employer should provide and maintain systems of work that are safe and healthy to the people who are at work.
Employer should provide and maintain a safe work place with safe entrance and exit places and also a safe working environment without risk to health and individual safety.
It should be noted that it is impossible to remove all risks and hazards from any working place. The law recognizes this. So, duties mentioned above qualified using the term 'so far as is reasonably practicable'.
Therefore level of risk involved always can be balanced against the time, difficulty of taking measures to remove the risk as well as trouble and cost.
Employee's duties are to:
Employees should always concern about care of the health and safety of themselves and of others who may be affected by what they do and people who are working around.
Employees should follow instructions from the employer on health and safety matters and attend relevant health and safety training conducted by particular organization.
Employees should not misuse any equipment that is provided and always use proper instructions given to use those equipment (eg fire extinguishers or safety goggles)
Employees should always cooperate with the employer on health and safety matters and be sensitive if their safety and health rights when working are violated.
Employer should always take action to report hazards and defects observed in the workplace which might threat to the employee's safety.
Who are the main parties responsible for the implementation of the legal matters in relation to the documents(s) you have mentioned in section 1.1?
Client's main duties and responsibilities are:-
Appoint a competent CDM coordinator where the project is notifiable. Where the project is not notifiable consider how to obtain suitable and sufficient advice to mange health and safety obligations.
Check competence and resource for all appointees.
Clients are required to ensure there are suitable management arrangements for the project welfare facilities on site during the construction phase of a project.
Allow sufficient time and resources for all stages.
Client must provide "pre-construction information" to the right people(to designers and contractors) at the right time - this information will cover such matters as environmental restrictions, existing site risks, surveys of existing buildings etc;
Client must also make sure that construction work does not start unless a construction phase plane is in place and there are adequate welfare facilities on site.
On "notifiable" projects client required to make sure that a construction phase plan and a health and safety file are prepared and maintained.
Client's another responsibility to Provide information relating to the health and safety file to the CDM coordinator.
The CDM coordinator's role includes.
Advise and assist the clients on construction and health and safety risk management matters;
Advising on the appointment of competent designers and contractors;
Ensuring that the design addresses health and safety both in terms of construction and in terms of operation and maintenance;
Ensuring that the design takes account of safe methods of construction;
Identifying and collecting "pre-construction information" and distributing it to those responsible for either design, tender submissions or construction;
Ensuring effective communication and co-operation between team members;
Notifying HSE of the project;
Advising the client on suitability of the initial construction phase plan and the provision of adequate welfare facilities on site;
Preparing and maintaining/updating the health and safety file.
The CDM Designers
If any one design or specify building work, then call designer. Designers are the people who prepare drawings, design details, analysis and calculations, specification and Bill of Quantities. This could include architects, engineers and quantity surveyors.
Designers have to:
Eliminate hazards and risk during design.
Reduce risks from any remaining hazard;
Provide information about remaining risks.
Where projects are notifiable under the regulations, designers must also check that the client is aware of their duties and that a CDM coordinator has been appointed.
Co-operate with CDM coordinator and others.
Provide information for the health and safety file
Provide information with the design to assist clients, other designers, & contractors.
The Principal Contractor
A principal contractor has to be appointed for projects which last more than 30 days or involve 500 person days of construction work. Principal contractors are usually the main or managing contractor. Before appointing a contractor to the position of principal contractor the project manager must be satisfied that they are competent and adequately resourced.
To make sure that health and safety is addressed and that the general principles of prevention are applied. Principal contractor Plan, manage and monitor construction phase in liaison with contractor
The key duty of principal contractors is to Prepare, develop and implement a written plan and site rules during the construction phase in order to ensure that the risks are properly controlled
Make sure that welfare facilities are provided for the construction phase.
Ensure all workers have site suitable induction and any further information and training needed for the work by taking reasonable steps.
Consult with the workers.
Liaise with CDM coordinator regarding ongoing design.
Another responsibility of principal contractor is to make sure that the client is aware of their duties under CDM 2007 and that they have designated a CDM coordinator
A 'Contractor' is a business who is involved in construction, alternation, maintenance or demolition work. Contractors have their part to play looking after their own health and safety and in improving the industry's health and safety record
On every project contractors responsibilities are:
Contractor have to plan, manage and monitor their own work and that of their workers
Check the competence of all their appointees and workers
Contractors have to train their own employees to minimize risk
To minimize risk contractor want to provide information to their workers
To satisfy workers facilities contractor have to ensure that there are adequate welfare facilities for their workers
In addition, where projects areÂ notifiableÂ under the Regulations,
Contractor have to Check that the client is aware of their duties, check that a CDM coordinator has been appointed and ensure that HSE has been notified before the work starts
Provide details to the principal contractor of any contractor engaged in connection with carrying out work
To minimize risk provide any information needed for the health and safety file
Inform the principal contractor of reportable accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences
Briefly describe how and why you should provide welfare facilities for your workers.
The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (the HSW Act), section 33 (as amended) sets out the offences and maximum penalties under health and safety legislation.
Failing to comply with an improvement or prohibition notice, or a court remedy order (issued under the HSW Act sections 21, 22 and 42 respectively):
Lower court maximum: - £20,000 and/or 6 months' imprisonment
Higher court maximum: - Unlimited fine and/or 2 years' imprisonment
Breach of sections 2-6 of the HSW Act, which set out the general duties of employers, self-employed persons, manufacturers and suppliers to safeguard the health and safety of workers and members of the public who may be affected by work activities:
Lower court maximum: - £20,000
Higher court maximum: - Unlimited fine
Other breaches of the HSW Act and breaches of 'relevant statutory provisions' under the Act, which include all health and safety regulations. These impose both general and more specific requirements, such as requirements to carry out a suitable and sufficient risk assessment or to provide suitable personal protective equipment:
Lower court maximum: - £5,000
Higher court maximum: - unlimited fine
Contravening license requirements or provisions relating to explosives. Licensing requirements apply to nuclear installations, asbestos removal, and storage and manufacture of explosives. All entail serious hazards which must be rigorously controlled.
Lower court maximum: - £5,000
Higher court maximum: - Unlimited fine and/or 2 years' imprisonment
On conviction of directors for indictable offences in connection with the management of a company (all of the above, by virtue of the HSW Act sections 36 and 37), the courts may also make a disqualification order (Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986, sections 1 and 2). The courts have exercised this power following health and safety convictions. Health and Safety inspectors draw this power to the court's attention whenever appropriate.
Lower court maximum 5 years' disqualification
Higher court maximum 15 years' disqualification
Welfare facilities for employees
The law states that employers must offer 'suitable and sufficient' welfare facilities for the comfort of their employees while at work.
Welfare facilities cover many areas.
Somewhere clean to eat and drink during breaks
Changing facilities ex: Changing rooms and lockers
Good facilities can positively benefit health and well-being of the employees and can help to prevent dermatitis. Well being of them increase efficiency of the work they are on and by making them happy with the facilities this will definitely helpful in conflict management and psychological wellbeing of the employees.
Question no 02
Describe the training opportunities available in the country to train interested individuals in occupational safety
Health and safety policy
It is this company's policy to do everything possible to ensure that each employee works in that particular company a safe and healthy environment. Its commitment will be to protect the company, its employees and their clients.
It is the policy of the company to perform work of the highest capacity and in the safest manner possible while maintaining agreement with the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Protecting the health and safety of the employees will be a permanent objective.
Every employee will be held responsible to adhering to the regulations made under the O.H. & S. Act as well as the company policies. Desecrations will be recorded and addressed.
How to assess training requirements
There have use process which call "training need analysis" to training staff. The way of training mainly depends on the nature of the organization, capacity of the organization, the technology available, and the nature of the staff.
But for any kind of organization the fundamental elements of a training needs analysis are the same. It is a three-step process:
1. Identify the training needs
2. Deliver training that meets the needs
3. Assess the effectiveness of the training.
Describe why it is necessary to train workers in health and hygiene
Why is health and safety training important?
Ensure your employees are not injured or made ill by the work they do
Develop a positive health and safety culture, where safe and healthy working
Find out how you could manage health and safety better
Meet your legal duty to protect the health and safety of your employees
Preventing accidents and ill health caused by work is a key priority for everyone at work
Those will contribute towards making your employees competent in health and safety
In addition to keeping administrative records, an occupational health service normally maintain another two type of records these are
Personal Health Records
Environmental Health Records
This set of records concern the health status of each individual worker and health aspects of the workplace rather than the individual employee .The information which is usually found in the record includes:
Result of physical examinations
X-ray and laboratory reports
Occupational and Medical history
Acute treatment entries and progress
Worker's compensation and insurance medical records
Progress notes for rehabilitation
Site visit reports
Hazard monitoring result
Worksite health and safety committee reports
Accident investigation files
First Aid reports
CSC Inspection reports
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets)
WSIB (Workplace Safety Insurance Board) claims
Question no 03
List the type of hazards prevalent in a construction site. Indicate examples you have seen
Hazards while trenching and excavating.
Falls - Falling from scaffolding, ladders, stairways
Heavy Construction Equipment
Fire And Emergency
Describe different methods in identifying hazards
Hazards in a workplace can arise from a number of sources including:
Poorly designed workplace.
Hazardous tasks being performed in the workplace;
Introducing poorly designed plant and machineries.
Incorrect installation, poor maintenance, no repair or alteration of plant in the workplace when necessary.
People being exposed to hazardous substances, processes or environment.
The hazard identification process is designed to identify all the possible situations where people may possibly be exposed to injury, illness and diseases arising from all sources including the above.There are a number of ways hazards can be identified in the workplace. These include:
Health and environment monitoring
Monitoring injury and illness records
Consultation between employees and employers
Discuss the importance in record keeping in managing hazards
Importance of Record keeping Hazards
Recording safety hazards on the hazard/incident report can help to keep track of the hazards reported and what's been done to fix them?
Reminds employees that keeping an eye out for safety hazards is important.
Completing a report makes sure that a person who can fix the hazard can decide how serious the hazard is and how quickly it needs to be fixed
Know what has been done and what more needs to be done;
Helps to determine that the precautions taken to prevent hazards works better or not and as a helping tool to review the progress of the preventing programmes.
There are generally five steps to risk assessment.
Identify the hazards and the place occurring it
Decide who might be affected and how
Evaluate the risks and decide on safety measure
Record the findings and implement them
Review assessment and update if necessary
For simple example for the risk assessment, we can take Construction Company. Here five steps to risk assignment were followed.
To identify the hazards, first it should walk around all the areas and places in the construction site to find out where are the places can be potential threat to the health and safety to the employees.
And for the next step it should talked through the issues with the health and safety representative, other members of the staff and sometimes with supervisors to learn more about particular places and jobs and with the use of accident book more knowledge about hazards could be gathered.
Then it should write down the findings and the people who are affecting or could be harmed.
For each hazard, the fitter should write down what was already being done to manage those hazards. And after that it should be noted down what else needed to be done to control the risk.
Then with those finding and prepared report it is good to discuss with the safety representative, supervisors and with the managing director of the company. Giving copies of the risk assessment to them, and pin up a copy on the notice board. Then those should make findings of the risk assessment into practice. When each action was completed it should ticked if off and recorded the date which completed each tasks.
If decided to review and update the assessment at least once a year, or t times when changes occurred to the workplace.
Question no: 04
Describe with examples different theories of accident occurrence in a workplace.
Slipping,tripping and falls
Slipping, tripping and falls can cause serious injuries such as
Severe head injuries
Sprains and strains to muscles and even death
Health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Noise can cause
Ischemic heart disease
Heart failure by damage small blood vessels
Radiation kills nerve cells and small blood vessels, and can cause seizures
Lower bearing life - unexpected plant shutdowns.
Energy wastage due to kinetic energy required for vibration.
Operator fatigue and nuisance. Annoyance.
Describe how the mechanisms mentioned in 4.1 can be used to minimize accidents
Question no: 05
Discuss the term safety audit
Monitoring and review involves ongoing monitoring of the hazards identified by risk assessment process, risk assessment and risk control processes and reviewing them to make sure they are working effectively.
Hazard identification, risk assessment and control are continuous processes. Therefore, regularly review the effectiveness of hazard assessment and control measures make sure that the employer undertake a hazard and risk assessment when there is a change to the workplace including when work systems, labor force tools, machinery, technology or equipment change.it also Provide additional supervision when new employees with poor skill levels or knowledge are introduced to the industry.
List the different types of safety audits giving examples
When Particular company's health and safety policy too old
Old policies become not suitable. Because
Company workers can be changed.
Company output (type of output/amount of output) can be changed.
Ex-in construction industry some time doing building construction, some time do road construction, and also some time water project, then can't use same health and safety policy.
Policy create by company responsible person (Ex:-Managing Director),if new Managing Director come in to company and that person need to change.
When unable to protect the health and safety of all person in work place
The main objective of health and safety policy is to protect the health and safety of all people in work place. When any company unable to achieve this objective,(That's mean in other words if hazard increases, if there problem with company workers health and safety)then need to change health and safety policy to ensure worker's health and safety.
When government implements arises
Government implement also can made changes in health and safety policy. If government introduce new rule for every organization, that rule can say every organization have to ensure these, these things which related with health and safety to every employee. Then organizations have to change health and safety policy.
When introduce new technologies
New technologies mean introducing new machines/plants. In this case new harms can happen in different way because of no better knowledge about new machines.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
By doing this Assignment I learned a lot in this Health, Safety and Welfare subject. It's a good benefit to me and will be very useful to me in the Future. Now I know everything about Health, Safety and Welfare whenever a problem arise I can solve it. But I have to learn more.
By keeping this experience in mind I'm going to do my future task carefully and successfully.