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In 1998, the Department of Health has embarked on a programme to rehabilitate hospitals after an audit by the CSIR in 1996 showed that many health facilities were dilapidated. The HRRP projects were funded through a conditional grant to upgrade the physical infrastructure and repair work was scheduled to end in 2006 (Ref). The Hospital Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Programme (HRRP) has been replaced by the Hospital Revitalisation Programme (HRP).
Hospital Revitalisation Programme (HRP)
With the repairs to medical facilities completed, the Department of Health started the HRP to improve hospital conditions by providing infrastructure, management and specialised services to the public health sector. The Hospital Revitalisation Programme is an attempt to upgrade health care facilities by improving service delivery and quality of care. The programme is projected to take 20 years. found that the programme has suffered cutbacks as in 2008 there were forty hospitals in the programme and in 2009 there were only twenty seven participating hospitals.
Free Health Care policy
In 1994, the South African government announced that the State would provide free health care to children under the age of six years, pregnant and lactating women The policy meant that services at public clinics and community health centres were free of charge. In 1996, the Free Health Care policy was extended to all people using primary level public sector health care services In 2003, free hospital care was further extended to include children older than six with moderate and severe disabilities
e-Rural Access Programme
The e-Rural Access Programme (eRAP) aims to provide access to technology infrastructure for the public. The programme provides the platform for people who do not have the resources to engage with their government and others via electronic communications (ICT). e-RAP targets communities who are unemployed and poor. Centers of operation for eRAP are schools, libraries and multi-purpose centres. Users can freely use the equipment supplied and internet connectivity is monitored. It is hoped that the programme will aid in socio-economic development at community level and aid in development.
National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP)
The predecessor of the NSNP is the Primary School Nutrition Programme (PSNP) which was established in 1997, it later gave way to the NSNP. The overall purpose of the NSNP is to improve the health and nutritional status of South African primary school children, to improve levels of school attendance and to improve the learning capacity of children The programme has been in running for seventeen years
Scholar Transport Programme
The Scholar Transport Programme was initiated in 2011 with aims to promote access to education for the youth The programme has experienced a number of problems as it was largely operator driven and in a number of cases operators reported false information to the Department of Education regarding the number of scholars they had transported and distances travelled.
The programme experienced growing pains as poor planning and management created an environment that could not deliver on programme objectives. The programme has since moved to the Department of Transport and in some provinces, such as the Eastern Cape, there have been a number of attempts to rid the STP of corruption by inviting new transport service providers
Accelerated Electrification Programme
Also known as the Rapid Electrification Programme, the objective of the Accelerated Electrification Programme was to achieve universal access to electricity by 2012 Target areas of the programme were urban sprawl areas, informal settlements and rural areas The Accelerated Electrification Programme provided the foundation for the National Electrification Programme which was in operation between 1994 and 1999. In its eight years of operation, the programme has encountered a number of institutional and financing problems as Figure 3 below indicates.
Figure 3. The timeline of South Africa's electricity policies
Integrated National Electrification Programme (INEP)
The INEP's aim is to provide electricity to rural areas of South Africa and where residents have not been able to access grid electricity e.g. informal settlements The INEP has been highly successful having connected over two million households in the last decade The programme has seen a 22925 increase in household connections between the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 financial year
Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers (IPP) Bidding Programme
Taking its lead from the Integrated Resource Plan, the Department of Energy has found a way to sustainably provide energy. explains that the bidding programme aims to provide 3265Megawatts of capacity to the overextended South African electricity sector. By divorcing energy supply from government (independent power producers), the country is able to seek alternate energy source such as landfill gas, biomass, biogas, small hydro and cogeneration technologies
BOX 2: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN SOUTH AFRICA
The Durban Landfill-Gas to Electricity Project (LG2EP) has received much praise as it is a positive step for local municipalities to move towards alternative sources of electricity generation. The project is one of many that the country has seen e.g. the New England Road Landfill in Msunduzi and the Joburg Landfill to Gas Energy Project. However, in terms of size, power generation and service, the LGEP is a first in the country and Africa. Investment in the project is 100 million rand ($ 12 million) funded by the eThekwini (Durban) city, the Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Energy and the French Development Bank.
Landfill gas has significant amounts of methane (CH4) & carbon Dioxide (CO2). Methane gas is used to generate electricity as it is a clean burning gas. In the early phases of project implementation, Mariahhill and La Mercy were selected as the two landfill sites in Durban. Later the Bisasar Road Landfill site was added. The Marianhill landfill has a 1MW engine. The Bisasar Landfill has six 1MW engines and an additional 0,5MW engine. Thus far, the LG2EP has generated R48m worth of electricity in the eThekwini Metropolitan area and over 600 000 carbon credits. The energy generated provided by the LG2EP provides an equivalent of 6 000 low income households with electricity daily. eThekwini Metro also benefits from the sale of electricity and carbon credits.
In his State of the Nation Address (SoNA), President Jacob Zuma announced that R75billion would be allocated to the Medupi, Kusile and Ingula Power Projects. The Medupi project has received much attention as its construction began in 2007. Medupi is a coal-fired base load power plant in Lephalale comprising of six units with a power capacity of 4,764 MW; This project is in line with South Africa's aim to increase power generation capacity and improve reserve margin in order to supply household with sufficient power. However, due to a number of problems and lack of speed in vitalising resources for the project, the project is currently R77.1bn over budget
d) SPORTS FACILITIES
Schools Sport Programme
Also known as the National School Sports Programme, this initiative was launched in 2011 by the Department of Education and the Department of Sports and Recreation. The aim of the programme is develop and foster talent in sports in school-going children The timespan of the programme is 10-20 years and it is hoped that the model will simulate the success achieved by countries such as Australia, the United States of America and the United Kingdom To date, R46.2million has been invested in the project
Mass Participation Programme (MPP)
The Mass Participation Programme consists of four sub-programme; namely, Siyadlala, Schools Sports Mass Participation Programme (SSMPP) and Legacy and Compensation. The Siyadlala Mass Participation Programme (SMPP) is a national project of the Department of Sport and Recreation. The programme was launched in 2002 and seeks to "facilitate mass participation in sport and recreation activities.The project aims to bring sports to communities that may have previously not had the chance to engage in sporting and recreational activities. The SSMPP is also a joint venture initiative between the Department of Sport and Recreation and the Department of Education. Through the SSMPP rural schools are given equipment that helps coaches and learners achieve their goals in their various sport codes. In the 2012/13 financial year R470million has been allocated to the MPP. An approximated 45% was allocated to the SSMPP.
Special Integrated Presidential Projects
The SIPPs and urban renewal projects were initiated in 1994 in line with RDP objectives. The aim was to provide and upgrade basic service infrastructure to selected communities in South Africa e.g. primary schools, street lights, water and sewerage and road upgrades. The SIPP projects are an example of government "getting it right" and the programme did well as the deadline of the projects was in the 1999/2000 financial year. Table 2 below shows the success of the SIPPs in eight provinces in South Africa.
Table 2: SIPPs for the 1998/1999 financial year).
The SIPPs gave way to the National Urban Renewal Programme and later the Neighbourhood Development Programme.
During the 2001 SoNA the Urban Renewal and Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programmes were introduced. The Urban Renewal programme identified eight urban nodes or exclusion zones to focus on; namely, Alexandra, Mitchell's Plain, Khayelitsha, Inanda, KwaMashu, Mdantsane, Motherwell and Galeshewe .The selection criteria of the nodes are shown in Table 3 below.
Table 3: Selection criteria of exclusion zones
Table 3 above indicates that government aimed to address poverty and promote development in the exclusion zones. This in in part similar to what the Neighbourhood Development Partnership aimed to achieve, which was To support neighbourhood development projects that provide community infrastructure and create the platform for other public and private sector development, towards improving the quality of life of residents in targeted underserved neighbourhoods (townships generally). To date, 57 out of 100 projects in townships across the country have been identified. explain that the success of the programme and grant lie in private sector investment.
In a continued effort to upgrade urban settlements, the Department of Human Settlements launched the Upgrading of Informal Settlements programme. The aim of the programme is to upgrade informal settlements within communities instead of relocation so that residents can maintain their socio-economic networks (Department of Human Settlements, 2009). According to Bua News (2010), the target number of informal settlements to be upgraded is 500000 by 2014.The main way in which the objectives are achieved is through grant allocation.
f) WATER SUPPLY
Lesotho Highlands Water Project 2
It is predicted that the Upper Vaal Water Management area will experience water deficits by 2015. This has implications for the mining sector, industries and urban water supplies systems as this WMA is host to the hub of the South African economy. Water delivery is expected to begin in 2020 but the R9billion construction phase of the Polihali Dam begins in 2014.The project aims to increase current water supply by 465 million cubic meters of water per year. Other large scale projects include the Olifants River Water Resources Development Project (Phase 2A), Mokolo from Crocodile Water Augmentation Project (Phase 1) and Mooi Umgeni Transfer Scheme 2.
The provision of basic services and free basic water to communities has gone a long way to address issues of water delivery and access.
g) ROADS AND TRANSPORT
Public Transport Strategy
In 2007 the Department of Transport undertook a forecasting exercise to gauge the needs of the transport user, the available infrastructure and global market trends regarding fuel. The Department of Transport developed a vision for the transport sector for 2007- 2020. The Integrated Rapid Public Transport Network, Mass Rapid Public Transport Network (Rail, Taxi, Bus, Gautrain and Bus Rapid Transit System (BRT) are the fulfilment of that vision. These efforts to streamline modes of transport and deliver service have been met with mixed emotions. If infrastructure backlogs and funding are dealt with, the abovementioned transport alternatives can go a long way to revitalising South Africa's transport system. The BRT for example has since left its growing pains and has been largely accepted in Johannesburg as a means of transport. Its success has seen metros such as Nelson Mandela Bay, Cape Town, Ekurhuleni and Tshwane adopt the transport system
S'hamba Sonke Roads Programme
The programme was initiated in 2011 and aims to provide improved road infrastructure in rural areas (Ndebele, 2012). The programme is due to be completed in 2014 and has been allocated R6.4billion for the 2011/2012 financial year
Although S'hamba Sonke Programme was able to create 68000 jobs, capacity problems and under-spending have tarnished the programme's early stages
Community Water Supply and Sanitation Programme
The CWSSP is perhaps one of the success stories of the RDP. The CWSSP was initiated in 1994 to supply water and sanitation to rural communities. In the early stages, one tenth of the budget was allocated to sanitation. The programme has had its fair share of trouble, but the sanitation budget grew as sanitation as more policies pushed for sanitation services to be prioritised. Figure 4 below shows the proportion of Municipal Infrastructure Programme funding allocated to rural beneficiaries.
Figure 4: MIP beneficiary breakdown
In Figure 4 above it can be seen that the major beneficiaries of the MIP were water and sanitation related. The reports that R1.2billion was allocated to the program in 1998 to do away with bucket latrines. The success of the programme is almost complete and has made good progress in addressing water and sanitation problems in both rural and urban environments.
Additional policies that government initiated that address the sanitation problem are the the Strategic Framework for Water Services, National Sanitation Strategy and Free Basic Sanitation Implementation Strategy.