History Of The Manpower For Maintenance Construction Essay

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ABSTRACT

Maintenance work can be categorized as 'predictable' and 'avoidable' (Seeley, 1987). The major aim of maintenance is to preserve the building in its initial state as far as practicable so that it can serve it purpose effectively (Singh, 1996). The scope of work in maintenance is large which not only focus on repair and replacement of equipment.

To ensure the maintenance work run smoothly and effectively it requires be planning and organizing at the first place. Once the Property Manager take over the property he has to determine on how the maintenance work should be operate since maintenance work has direct relation with the budget and cost as well as the deterioration rate of the fabric and finishes and the equipment in the property (Seeley, 1987).

Maintenance plan should be prepared which take into account on short and long-term consideration (Scarrett, 1983). With the maintenance plan it can enhance the maintenance work so that it can run smoothly. Scheduling is also important in maintenance work since it have relationship with the workforce. A well-defined schedule of maintenance work will help to increase the productivity of the workforce (Paz, 1994).

The programme of maintenance work should align with the maintenance plan in order to balance the available resources with the workload to produce effective output (Seeley, 1987). All the maintenance work and information should be computerized to ease the monitoring, controlling and supervising work. Since the maintenance work requires manpower to carry out the task, so it is important to choose either to adopt in-house labour or contractor to do the task. Both have its own advantages and disadvantages. It is important to supervised or monitor all the work carry out by the labour to ensure the work achieved the standard. Lastly by doing maintenance audit it can help the organization to determine the level of effectiveness on maintenance work.

INTRODUCTION

Building maintenance is very crucial element in managing and maintaining a property (Seeley, 1987). A well-maintained and managed property will create a good environment not only to the property but to the users as well. However it is not easy to produce buildings that are maintenance-free. All elements in buildings will deteriorate at a greater or lesser rate depending on type of materials and method used during construction and the use of the building (Seeley, 1987).

There are a lot of definitions of 'maintenance' as accordance to BS 3811 :1964 maintenance is defined as work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve very facility, every part of a building, its services and surrounds, to a currently acceptable standard and to sustain the utility and value of the facility (Scarrett, 1983).

There are several types of maintenance which are Planned Maintenance, Unplanned Maintenance, Preventive and Corrective Maintenance and Emergency Maintenance (Singh, 1996). It is important to identify type of maintenance before can carry out any maintenance work in order to produce more effective and efficient output.

The main aim of maintenance is to preserve the building to be in a good state as far as practicable and to provide satisfaction to the users. Beside that the main purpose of the maintaining the building are to retain the value of investment of the property as well as to present a good appearance of the property (Wordsworth, 1987).

In order to provide a good maintenance work, the owner or Property Manager should first identify, planning and organize the maintenance work before maintenance can be carry out. Beside that it is important to clear out the objectives of maintenance as well as the benefit gained from the maintenance work which can be short-term or long-term (Wordsworth, 1987).

LITERATURE REVIEW

Maintenance Plan

Maintenance is the matter of organizing the work to be carried out coupled with close supervision, follow-up and controls (Singh, 1996). Therefore to produce an effective and efficient output, maintenance need to be planned at early stage when taking over the property.

It is important to have a long-term plan for maintenance that take into account on the vision, mission and the objectives of the organization and at the same time anticipated the change in technology (Al-Turki, 2011). The maintenance plan should be comprehensive and systematic and at the same time comprises of short and medium term consideration (Scarrett, 1983). A good maintenance plan should be based on the building itself since different building required different type of maintenance and at the same time should have regard to the life of the building, the standard to be achieved, financial implication and responsibility for maintenance (Scarrett, 1983).

Once the management plan have been formulated, execution on the plan should been carry out and the progress of the work should be monitor. One of the way to monitor the progress is by using progress chart .This progress chart should be prepared before the work is commenced which usually in the form of bar lines representing the time period allocated to each work or operation (Seeley, 1987).

Programming of Maintenance work

In planning maintenance work, the maintenance manager is responsibility to match the available resources with the workload in order to produce more efficient output (Seeley, 1987). An annual plan should be prepared to show the expected workload for the upcoming year and at the same time can matched effectively with the available resources (Seeley, 1987).

Classification of job in term of work content, urgency, amount of notice required and restriction on timing can make the job become easier to be handled (Seeley, 1987). Once have determined the annual plan, then the plan can be translated into weekly and monthly schedule together with maintenance programming prescribing the workload for certain period of time.

The programming should be update regularly to take into account the most recent information on the content and timing of specific jobs and at the same time the availability of resources. By doing this, the maintenance manager can retain close control of the maintenance work and if any event or problems diverge from the plan, the manager can make corrective action at the earliest possible time (Seeley, 1987).

The main part of any maintenance programme is normally the series of pre-planned inspections (Seeley, 1987). To produce effective inspection it must come with checklist. The programme of inspection can be fed to computer which it will print out the a slip requesting the inspection on specific date (Seeley, 1987).

Manpower for maintenance

Dealing with equipment and technical things required skilled and experienced worker. Usually maintenance work can be undertaken by contractors, direct labour or combination of both (Seeley, 1987). Before deciding what kind of management to be adopt, the structures of maintenance organization are examined together with programming and operational actives then only decision can be made by the top management (Seeley, 1987). However, there are always the question of whether there is need to have in house or contract labour to attend the maintenance issues (Singh, 1996). There is advantages and disadvantages in using direct labour as well as contract labour (Al-Turki, 2011).

As a Property Manager, he need to identify the type of work whether to be carry out in-house or to be contract out to contractor. Normally work regarding financial and administration will be handled in house while work involving lift, escalator, mechanical and electrical will be out source to the contractor (Seeley, 1987).

Some of advantages having direct labour are such as full control of the work given to the workers, down-time is shortened, response time or feedback is quick and the staffs are also familiar with the building as well as the occupants of the building which will create a good communication between the management team and the users (Singh, 1996).

As if the management out-sources the maintenance work, these will need to be tendered and evaluated. Tendering is a good system for contract where competitive pricing is required and every tender must have clear specification and notes to the tenderer. The specification must outline all the contract particulars, quality of workmanship and material required as well as the quantities of work needed to be carried out (Singh, 1996).

There is also hybrid or combination of in-house and out-source labour. This concept of hybrid maintenance management locates small groups of workers near critical equipment or machines while keeping the main group in centralized area. Or the other approach is by the operator is responsible to the routine maintenance on equipment they operate and if there is large problem arises maintenance workers will be called handle the problem (Paz, 1994).

Supervision of maintenance

The aim of supervision of maintenance work is to ensure the work is done accordance to the standard and specification. For a larger scope of work it is advise to employ a clerk of work and for a smaller scheme, the supervision can be made through the supervisory staff (Seeley, 1987).

As we know maintenance is a matter of organizing the work to be carried out coupled with close supervision, follow-up and control (Singh, 1996). Therefore, monitoring and supervising is very essential to ensure the effectiveness of maintenance work to be carried out by the labour or contactor (Singh, 1996). As a Property Manager, he should assign the responsibility to supervised all the maintenance work to someone who can be trustworthy and capable of doing his job effectively and efficiently in order to provide satisfaction to the user of the property.

Maintenance involved the preparation of the duties and responsibilities of the maintenance management team and the standard checklist for daily, weekly, and monthly inspection report. The person who is responsible to supervised the maintenance work should carry out his job faithfully and do not take for granted his job since maintenance involved a large scope of work such as recording requisition from the tenants, preparing specification for repairs, appraising quotations, issuing work order, and approving work payment (Singh, 1996).

One of the methods to supervise the work done is through the report of the maintenance work. There are three types of report namely weekly, periodic and special report (Seeley, 1987). This report can be obtained from inspection that been carried out by the workers. While doing the inspection, the person in-charge will fill-in the checklist form and take note any damages or breakdown. All the information from the inspection will be detailed out in the report which the report will be submit to supervisor or manager to take action (Seeley, 1987).

To make the work easier it is advisedly to ensure all the maintenance work or task is been computerized (Singh, 1996). If all the works and data has been computerized it will ease the work to supervised and monitor all the maintenance work that has been or will be carried out. Once the workers has carried out the technical inspection, all the data can be fed into computer which can produce detailed orders based on standard specification items (Seeley, 1987).

Scheduling

Maintenance requires three resources which are manpower, materials and equipment (Paz, 1994). Scheduling involved the how, when and how the work is to be performed (Paz, 1994). The major determinant of the productivity of the workforce will be the effectiveness used of scheduling in the maintenance work (Paz, 1994).

As we know that nowadays the complexity of the maintenance function has increased together with the increase in the complexity of operation (Paz, 1994). Originally the maintenance work only involved replacing or repairing equipment or tool that has been deteriorate or broke down but nowadays the maintenance work has become more complex and involved more scope of work since building nowadays is more sophisticated (Paz, 1994).

Preventive maintenance is one of the methods of scheduling which it is required to keep the items in a specified condition and the policy is based on the earliest expected failure time of similar machines or equipment (Paz, 1994). Examples of Preventive Maintenance are periodic inspection, condition monitoring, critical item replacement and calibration and servicing requirement (Paz, 1994).

Predictive maintenance is also one of scheduling method which is a technique that aims to repair or replace equipment in advance before the breakdown of the equipment occur (Paz, 1994). This can be done by monitoring analysis of the equipment or machines in order to predict any failure and at the same time to allow repair to be made at the most suitable time (Paz, 1994).

The different between Preventive and Predictive Maintenance will be in term of the method on how the scheduling of the maintenance work to be carry out (Paz, 1994). The Predictive Maintenance is scheduled based on reliability theory or historical data on similar equipment whereas the Predictive Maintenance is schedule based on time to response in monitoring the devise reading which is out of range (Paz, 1994).

Maintenance audit

Audit is not only on management or account but also for maintenance work. Therefore each organization should have some means of checking its output efficiency and as for maintenance there is no single measure that is appropriate to measure the efficiency of the maintenance (Wordsworth, 1987).

The maintenance audit can be breakdown into several area such as technical, management, financial, direct labour force, and contractors (Wordsworth, 1987). Based on the result we can determine whether the maintenance work has been carried out efficiently and effectively or not. Further action can be made to improve the maintenance work if the maintenance work do not achieved the standard or requirement.

In order to carry out this maintenance audit it requires full cooperation from the maintenance team and staffs (Wordsworth, 1987). The audit will comprises of a survey and collection of relevant information and data on the operation of the maintenance department as well as the performances (Wordsworth, 1987).

CONCLUSION

In short, maintenance involved a large scope of work and it should be well-planned at the first place. Once a Property Manager take over the building, he should first plan on how to organize the maintenance work in order to ensure the work will run smoothly and effectively.

Without a proper plan or organized on the maintenance work it could led to inefficient management and maintenance. In order to ensure the work run smoothly, the organization should first defined their organizational structure especially on Maintenance Department so that, each person involved in the maintenance team will know their role and responsibility. If there any problems occur in the future, the person in-charge will be responsible and this will shorten the line of communication.

The organizational structure of the organization should align with the mission, vision and objectives of the owner of the property. Then Property Manager should prepare the Maintenance Plan for the property to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the maintenance work. At the same time, he should set up the maintenance programme to ensure the maintenance work is run smoothly.

As we know maintenance requires manpower to carry out the maintenance work. Combination of in-house and out-source labour will have more advantages and benefit rather than used solely in-house or out-source labour. All the work done should be monitor and supervised by supervisor for example in order to ensure all the work done achieved the standard or requirement. An annual audit will help the organization to identify the level of efficiency of the maintenance work.

Lastly, a well-organized and planned on maintenance work will give high impact not only to the organization and owner but also to the user or public. Productivity can also be increase if the maintenance work has been well-planned and organized. Unplanned and unorganized of maintenance work can incurred a lot of production cost.

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