Highlighting And Managing The Changes To Projects Construction Essay

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Oracle (2009) mainly highlighted the best practices of identifying and managing the changes that may occur in any construction project and also provided a process to effectively manage changes in construction projects .It clearly explained about the different types of project changes in construction sector such as directed changes, constructive changes, cardinal changes. It also explained in detail about the change management process and also explained that they are few steps to be followed in construction sector such as recognizing the contract requirements, identifying the possible change and creating a potential change order file and determining privilege, measuring the effect of the change, and analysing the cost of the change, negotiating and executing the change order, maintaining complete records of the executed change. Like this, it gave an explanation for each and every step.

It also explained different methods for resolving change related construction disputes to avoid costly arbitration and mainly focused on the dispute resolution boards (DRBs) which are nonaligned authority consisting of three members as one preferred method. Choosing the board members can be performed in a number of ways; however, it is critical that the individuals are neutral and both the owner and the contractor view each board member as individual balanced. Naturally, DRBs are empanelled at the project level and management of the DRB process is governed by the project's contract. Other dispute resolution procedures could escalate the dispute from the project level to a higher governmental level between the owner's organization and the contractor's organization, before proceeding to an arbitration panel.  The terms used and contract documents referenced in this paper are geared towards usual design-bid-build public development projects, even though the basic principles are applicable to almost any construction project. It must be well-known that any change management procedure is only as effective as the participants' ability to communicate and collaborate with one another during the course of the project.

Swarup (2007) mainly gave a brief description about the overview of practices being used in Indian construction industry and he also gave an idea about political, legal and social frame work and also explains the economic overview of administrative and regulatory features improvement and development of Indian construction industry. He also told about the globalization of construction services with outlook of WTO and GATS. And he also notified the opportunity and activity in the construction areas where he relied on the usage of PPP models, type and extend use of international standard forms of contracts and its administration and certifications process. Generally, in this paper, he clearly explained about Indian economic surroundings and several systems and procedures and also focused on further boost in construction industry which would provide the basic infrastructure for the nation as well for different industries.

Brandon (1995) emphasized on the changes occurred in the society a decade ago and how far the technology got changed and improved in the construction industry. They also observed a change in the thinking of the society economically worldwide. Governments became so active and crucial in managing the public expenses levels and controlling the limit of public borrowing. This resulted in the less amount made available for building programmes. They observed a continuous requirement for the housing as well as the maintenance of the current building reserve. Efficiency became vital in getting the better value for the money in all the areas of public building investment. They stated that there should be a control not only in the building capital but also on the techniques that helps the initial investment costs to be controlled. They provided an integrated approach which underpins the wide-ranging and incorporated on the whole management of projects and also the control over the resources consumed by the similar. They focused on how the construction changed from construction manufacture to integrated construction information.

Woodward (1997) provided the importance of project management and also the main features of this approach. They delivered some methods that are applicable to change management in any industry. They concerned mainly on the applications in construction industry and they also highlighted the techniques that are appropriate to practically all other businesses where a change has to be executed and managed. They covered all the issues by including distinctive examples that would consist of: the instigation of a new product, penetrating into new market, installing a new production line, putting into practice a new business policy, starting a new branch office, setting up a modified accounting system, systematizing a sports or charitable trust occasion, recruiting and instructing staff for a new enterprise, the creation of a new product and the testing of it, a company surrender or reorganizing and setting up and initiating new legislation.

Siddique (n.d.) gave a detailed description about Indian cement industry and utilization of fly ash and construction waste in construction related activities. He also told that if there is development in materials, it will affect the design and construction of facilities. These facilities are very important for the significant growth of any nation. He also discussed about the topics like issues facing the technology of concrete materials, maintenance of construction facilities, quality, assurance, production, design. Finally, in this paper, he concluded that developments take place in construction industry India as well as potential advances anticipated in the next 10 years for the concrete construction industry through substantial use of supplementary cement materials.

CURT (2004) provided a report on controls in a construction project, cost management, time management and change management. Any project controls system should have sufficient capital to invest in a project. The extent and particulars of these control systems should be dependent on the difficulty, size, understanding and implementation scheme of the particular project. Any project controls system should comprise cost management, time management and change management process. This change management process predicts the effect of change allows and files the decisions regarding the change and also incorporates the change into the scope of the project. The change order records should notice not only the cost effect of the change but also on the quality, time and safety issues. It has been given in the report that change that is being proposed should be incorporated in a timely and a perfect way only after it is being authorized. Additional change may also lead to added difficulty and cost beyond the project expectations.

HIS global insight (2009) gave an information and detailed description about the recent progress and future trends in the key sector of infrastructure which leads to prevent various opportunities for private sector. It also told about some of the key facts about country's overall economic environment as well as legal and tax systems. This paper gave some important information about Indian construction industry.  It clearly explained about how many other countries were spending on Indian construction and how much amount there are spending for non residential and residential construction in India.   This paper also told that Indian companies have very limited contact with large markets such as Japan, United States and West Europe countries. This paper told one fact that Indian construction industry is highly uneven and this happened as there are no long term relations between contractors and clients in most of the projects.

Love et al (2000) presented a study on Total Quality Management (TQM) which is a means to any learning organisation. They felt that for the improvement of performance in construction industry there requires a cultural and behavioural transfer in the attitudes of the expert, academic and specialized organizations. They provided a theoretical model for any learning construction organisation. They notified that several organisations are looking for alternative means of supporting and allowing a learning society inside their organisations which allows the employees to make decisions and implement required changes. If construction organisations want to become learning organisation, then they should need to implement a change in culture and behaviour. They proposed a few number of dimensions that are to be taken into consideration for describing learning organisation as: a relation with the changed results and behaviour, difference between organisational and individual learning, identification of the environment, deutro learning and double loop learning.

Walker (2007) relied on a fact that management of construction projects seems to be a continuing challenge as the environment around which the projects are built increases in complication. He focuses mainly on the project management theory. Most of the construction projects are planned and designed in agreement with the previously developed process. But the project team must also consider the fact that changes might be incorporated in the middle of the project according to clients' requirements and the change has to be managed. There should be a minimum knowledge in understanding the environment of client as flexibility needs to be maintained when there is a need to incorporate changes in the project. He clearly mentioned that this can be achieved only through the maintenance of up to date information about the clients' requirements. Advancement in technology for any particular process can be taken as an example for this. He also stated that project team members should be aware of the changes that can be made and should be ready to explain them to the client consequently.

Sattineni (2008) presented the recent changes in telecommunications sector for off-shoring structural design work in developing countries like India and china. He also mentioned in the paper that economic outsource is a key reason for this possibility to be realized and it is reasonable to be considered regarding the effects of outstanding in the design sector and its effect on the construction industry. He mainly explained about United States construction industry. The author conducted detailed interviews with principals in US structural design and then he travelled to Bangalore for a detailed interview with Indian counter parts. These results lead to the development of outsourcing construction activities. He also discussed about the topics such as training, economics  and logistics and this document also identified three outsourcing models for  constructions companies namely Joint Ventura outsourcing, individual project outsourcing and global delivery off sourcing.

Indo Italian chamber of commerce and industry (2008) clearly gave an overview of construction industry in India. It clearly explained that construction industry is an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a significant part of its growth investment and it is poised for growth on report of industrialization economic development and rising people expectations for improved quality of living. This paper emphasizes on the financial criteria in Indian construction industry. This report told that construction is the second largest economic activity after the agriculture. This paper explains about what industry segments are and how many types of industrial segment are there. It also gave a clear idea of how about in all round development of Indian economy. Finally this paper concluded that India's booming infrastructure sector is fuelling demand for all types of construction equipment before booming the infrastructure development and construction equipments in real estate sector done manually.

Kumar (2000) noticed that completing projects faster than the normal duration is always a challenge to the management of any project as it often demands many thoughtful shifts. Opposition from private sector opportunities of globalization and multinationals force management of public sector organisations in Indian petroleum sector to adopt different insistent strategies to maintain their productivity. Construction infrastructure for handling petrol product is one of them. Moreover these projects require to be completed faster than normal schedules so that to get faster to run on their investment. He told that however it will be happened when there is change in management. These would not only ensure completion of projects in fast track but also to improve project effectiveness, cost, quality etc and in turn largely improves the productivity of the project organisation. This paper finally provided some suggestions and requirements of change management in present technology.

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (2004) highlighted a fact that project change is one of the common aspects in any construction project. During any construction project, decisions can be taken depending on the personal experiences of the construction expertise, assumptions and inadequate information. Changes can be seen even at the later stage of the project. These changes have to be managed for the project to be successful. If the changes made were inappropriate, then there can be a chance of delays and extra expenses. This report provided a tool for change management to guide the project teams and it consists of the following components: Change dependency framework, Change Prediction and Workflow tools and Guide for Knowledge Management. It mentioned the main problems in the project delivery as project delays, over expenditure and quality deficiency. Rework of any project can be mainly caused due to the poor change management.

This report presented several types of changes that may occur in a project and they are listed as follows: gradual change, radical change, anticipated and emergent changes, elective and required changes. It also demonstrated the reasons behind this change as internal and external. External changes refer to the changes related to the customer, competitors, government and societal demography. Internal changes refer to the changes happen within the organisation related to the management policy, organisational goals etc. Changes may also take place at the design or construction level and the causes may include errors in the design, blunders and operational upgrading. Rework is seen to the major direct effect caused due to the project change. This report finally depicted change management process in the following steps: Start up of the process, identifying and evaluating the changes, Change approval and finally implementing and reviewing the project work.

Insite (2006) highlighted that construction industry faces the problem of belief that they attempt to do things on a cheaper rate. In order to change this, an approach has been followed known as Avanti which seems to be a combined working that allows project partners of construction to work together by using ICT. This is not seen as an IT tool but can be said as the approach to see how the other tools can be used effectively. This approach is joined with another approach called Building Down Barriers which helps to manage people and the processes. Avanti seems to be a major change from how projects are currently working and this can be added as a British Standard if maximum experience comes from the methodology it provided. It has been a burden to make changes to construction contracts. In the present day scenarios, it is important to make use of a system where everyone in the project is going to be involved in the work in order to log on to a particular site and see what changes have to be made in the contract. Contract Change Management (CCM) has been established to manage the processes and procedures in the ECC or NEC construction contract through a web portal. This system was used to manage compensations and warnings as well as programme acceptance and submission.

Manjrekar (n.d.) explained that in India, there are large numbers of buildings which are more than 40 to 50 years and which need to be renewed.  They also explained about the old and new structures in constructions. They mainly focused on the constructions of old and new building and what are the rules applicable for that. They also told that construction chemicals have been used in large number of construction projects. They told that new construction projects market is also usual to enlarge the demand for construction chemicals. Within next few years, the construction market is expected to grow more than 30 percent. In most large scale construction, there is variety of construction chemicals that will be used for designing. This paper focused on the key issues and challenges this fledging industry faces and it also told about the desk research and field research. They explained about the construction industry turnover and rate of growth in construction industry from year 2002 to 2007. They emphasized on the outlook and potential of the Indian construction industry and also gave a light on the expenditure in construction structure and about different types of policies. They mainly focused on 2 main players in the market. They are Pidilite industries and Choksey chemicals and the growth strategies of these players have been evaluated.  It mainly compares the development strategies engaged by these Indian firms in the current scenario and environment of operation. It also focused on analysis of the theoretical propositions in Indian context.

Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2005) provided a report on the Local Government Pay and Workforce Strategy which mainly focused on the transforming of the authority to produce real and longing change. In order to adopt this change, England's Local government should have imaginative leadership, organisational elasticity and resources facility to offer better services, higher efficiency and best customer focus. Organisations try to change the approach from organisational development to the change management, applying a strategy that effectively deal with development of skills and leadership, applying reviews of local pay having the same opinion of a salary form that bear improvement of service.

Beer et al (1990) focused on the efficient corporate regeneration that initiates at the bottom through casual efforts to resolve business problems. They observed a situation where the change has to be incorporated to meet the challenges to which the bank's conventional hierarchical organisations were ill-outfitted to act in response. There has to be extra care taken about who should direct the change attempt, what required changing, and how to go about implementing the change. Most of the companies are facing challenges with the changing marketplace and raised competition to develop their authority, recover market share and guarantee their endurance. Changes in approaches direct the changes in the individual attitude which results in the organisational changes. The most common problem with the most change programs is that they tackle only one or two of these three factors: coordination, commitment and competencies.

They provided six steps to the efficient change: Organize assurance to change through joint verdict of business issues, establish a distributed vision of how to systematize and manage for competition, promote agreement for the new vision, ability to perform it, and consistency to move it alongside, broaden regeneration to all the departments, establishment of revitalization through formal structures, policies and systems and observe and regulate strategies responding to the problems in the regeneration process. They gave priority to the top managers in making the change in the entire organisation by generating a market to change, utilizing successfully regenerated units as the organisational replicas for the entire organisation and establishing career paths that support the development of leadership. They laid emphasis on the particularity of the mind set for change management which is difficult to be maintained in an atmosphere that pushes down for periodical earnings.

Aouad et al (n.d.) explained about process map in construction sector where they told that construction industry has witnessed severe efforts in the last few years through the consideration of the implementation of new procurement systems and manufacturing philosophies. On the other hand, process maps which can help organisations map their processes into some important structure are still missing. The product (building) is still the majorly focused one in construction. In the developed industry, most large organisations have process maps which can help them in ensuring the delivery of products on time, within budget and to the right quality while capturing the best process practices. They also told that in construction industry, there are some labours to plan process maps such as the RIBA plan of work in the UK. This paper delivered that the process map based on principles is used in the developed industry. Information was elicited from experts through a series of workshops and case studies. The results of few of these case studies, which have been used to assess the realism of implementing this process map on real life projects, are presented. Finally, they told that IT which needs to maintain and enable the effective implementation of the process map is clearly explained and also demonstrated the process and manufacturing of construction process. Finally they focused on more holistic picture of design and construction procedure that can be known through the organisation of process and it capabilities. They also spoke about the usage of case studies for testing the practical implementation and also also told about the problems occur during the implementation phase.

Bandhyopadhyay et al (2008) focused on the stems partly from GOI's distress concerning the capacity of the road construction industry to deliver, and partly from the Bank's growing need to recognize the impact of the expanded road investments on the industry's capacity in South Asia. The study attempts to outline the entire gamut of problems and capacity constraints faced by India's construction industry. It comes out with previous studies information and industry-wide stakeholder surveys and workshops and speaks about government initiatives and road development program. This paper suggested and felt that there is a huge gap between supply and demand for improved roads. The domestic construction industry is not geared up to expectations demand. There is a need to bring new players into the field, both domestic and foreigner and they also suggested that present contract procedures and requirements need major modifications as they do not encourage incorporation of scientific, labour and major innovations .They also provided key issues and strategies of the road construction industry in the past and future.

CITB (n.d.) conducted a survey on two types of construction firms, one is outward looking which believe to be helped by the outsiders improve their business and the other whose do not. This study observed how small to medium sized construction firms managed change. Majority of the firms faced a broad range of problems and welcomed the requirement to change and explained the reason why only 50 percent of the firms had ever wanted help from outside to enhance business management. This report helped in finding the cause for adopting change. The main reason for making change was to make profits. The other reasons would be new technology, new legislation, new ways of working, discovering new customers, facing the competitors and pressure from the rivalry. The least reasons came out to be facing the rivalry and new technology.

After reviewing the above literature, the researcher came to an idea of conducting a study on change management in Indian construction industry as very less research is carried out on this. The researcher identified the changes and its effects in the projects and how they can be incorporated in the project. The researcher focused on his research in such a way that it may lead to the successful completion of any construction project without any delays and errors meeting the clients' requirements.

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