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A construction project was given with a high rise 25 storages condominium building has been constructed which located near the residential area in Manjung, Perak. Total area for this construction site is 7000 square ft. Procedures majorly consist of four stages, that is started with site preparations and site investigation which is before construction starts. Next procedure will precede to sub-structures which structures below the ground then followed by super-structures and lastly which is external work. In this report we will show the activities for site preparation, preparation of site investigation report, problem that may have for sub-structure and super-structure and etc.
2.0 SITE PREPARATION
Before construction started, some preparation should be done so that the construction process can be proceeding smoothly. A bad site preparation will delay the whole construction process and it will loss company money and time.
2.0.1 Activities that involve in the site:
Site clearance: clearing or removing the material that above the ground such as tree, junk, stone/rock and etc.
Earthwork: Activities such as excavation for cut and fill on the construction site, foundations.
Staking: a board that shows purpose for this construction, contractor, site engineer which approve by local government.
Perimeter fencing: a fence that cover the whole construction site which do not allow outsiders come in or knowing the whole construction process.
Dewatering: foundation settlement purpose, by pumping out the ground water which consider affect the stability of whole building.
Temporary building: building that build for temporary such as labors hostel, site office, store house, toilet.
Temporary access road: dirt road or gravel road which is temporary construct for transportation purpose.
2.0.2 Equipment and information should know before construction started
Site office, store house, toilet and etc.
Static crane and tower lift.
Position of water pipe, electric cable, drainage system
Local state of by-laws
2.1 SITE INVESTIGATION
Site investigation is a gathering of information about the proposed location of project such as highway or building. All of site investigation was followed by code of practice which given the most safety, economical and stable construction.
2.1.1 Code of practice- site investigation
Determine either the soil is suitable for site construction
To get specific information for complete design, safety and economy
To prepare for construction alternatives
2.1.2 Requirement and problem facing for SI
Soil Profile and Ground water table
In-situ test and laboratory experiments
Short term and long term bearing capacity of foundation
Lateral earth pressure
2.1.3 Stages of SI
Desk of study It was a reaching the site to get information as much as possible for both geological and historical. Information can be gain through geological map, site reconnaissance survey and aerial photography.
Preliminary Investigation Mainly focus at predicting geological structures, soil profile and position of ground water table by making few boreholes at the site. Preliminary design of the structure can be done in the end of this stage.
Detailed investigation Proceed the actual subsurface soil exploration by using suitable equipment. Steps of soil exploration: boring and in-situ testing, sampling, and laboratory testing.
Monitoring To observe on the site whether the expectations of the proceeding investigation have been realized. Measurement were made during the monitoring stage such as settlement, displacement, deformations, inclination, and pour water pressure
Sub-structure is the structure that builds below the ground such as piling & foundation, basement, column stumps and ground beams.
3.1 Problems that may happen for sub-structures
Soil profile not suitable for high rise structure.
Ground water table too high, possible happen uplift force to the structures
Majority content soft rock (limestone) which not suitable for pilling.
Bed rock in slope shape that will affect the building in future such as settlement, slide deformation in a part of the sub-structure.
3.2 Solution to overcome
For GTW too high, process dewatering to drive the water out by making the soil more compactable.
For soft rock under the ground, process drilling to more deeper until the location of strong rock reach.
Process pouring concrete cement into the empty space under the ground which construction pilling can be done more stable.
It is a structure that builds on the ground. These structures will not being conduct if the sub-structure is not complete.
4.1 Problems that may happen to super-structures
Cracking in the slab and walls
Honeycomb occur at main column and beam
Lacking material such steel bar to support the storage of building when building is constructing.
4.2 Solution to overcome
Do more checking on those critical parts by site engineer and supervisor
Make sure those curing process on concrete structures is enough.
Finding another material to replace , such as cement
5.0 EXTERNAL WORK
It is a finishing work at the end of the construction. In this project the external work will be conduct such as roads, landscape, vehicle parking, gutter, sewer and fence.
6.0 BY-LAWS AT LOCAL STATE OF MANJUNG PERAK
Street lamp pole will be done in 14 days either approve or reject
Process on application of permit road excavation will approve within 2 week
Contractor registration will be done in a week by propose complete document and payment
Process tender a) for local council will giving to contractor in 8 week.
-b) for state/federation, it will be shown by board of tender in 12 week
Example for bad site lay out
Figure below shows a bad sample of site layout. As you can see the first mistake they have been make is the store house. The location was set at far away from the site, plus they have to cross the road during transferring material to the site. Next mistake is the access point, if the store house located at that side, the access point should place at near to the site office so the site manager can check every the material when it transfer in.
The third mistake was made is the project sign board. As you can see it place at the back of the site which not everyone can easily saw it. Lastly is the position of the site office or toilet. Both should be place close together so the workers on the site no need walk a long distance through it.
By having a good site layout, such as the access point should close to the store house where the store house have to close to the site. Another one is the site offices which need close or near to the access so that the site officer can check each material when they brought in. Most important is the project sign board which need to place where everyone can know what purpose for the construction building for.