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In a construction site employers of labour have a general duty to ensure those reasonable practices that concern the health, safety and welfare of people under their employment are followed. The duties of employers are also to protect the health and safety of everyone that uses their work premises in respective of the person being their employee or not and should ensure that satisfactory welfare facilities are provided for people at work this measures are channelled towards reducing the occurrence of accidents at work sites.
In accessing various Health and safety practises that will lead to project success in the construction industry analysis was carried out and the results that were received based on the analysis that was carried out suggested that organisational failure and errors are the major causes of accidents(Hollnagel 2004). These organisational failure and errors have proved to be very fatal as Statistics released by Health and Safety Executives (HSE) indicates that 62 people died as a result of construction work within the first six months of 2000. Compared to 39 deaths in the same period in 1999(HSE 2001).
In recent times construction work there were 41 fatal injuries, with a rate of 2.0 deaths per 100,000 workers in 2009/10 compared to an average rate of 3.2 for the previous five years. This means that the rate in 2009/10 is 37% below the previous average for the past five years (HSE statistics 2009/10). The main causes of deaths and injuries during construction work are falling from roof slop and through fragile roof, falling from ladders, falling from scaffolding, Struck by excavators, lift trucks, dumpers and other plant separate, Crushed by collapsing structures and Electrocution. These accidents that lead to injuries and deaths can be reduced if Health and Safety laws are complied with.
These regulations helps ensure that construction projects is safe to build, safe to be used, safe to maintain and the delivery of good value. Good health and appropriate safety planning will ensure that projects are well managed and avoid or minimise unexpected costs and problems (HSE 2007)
An employer can reduce these causes of accidents on site because he has a big influence over the way work is done in a case where potential health and safety risk are relatively low there is little the employer is required to do. Where they have higher risk there is the need to do more.
Construction (Design and Management) CDM 2007 is all about choosing a competent team and helping the team to work safely and effectively as one (HSE 2007).
Overview of the case study
Bad health and safety practice is a major issue in the construction industry this have further increased the rate of accidents in the entire UK construction industry. The construction industry in the UK losses millions of pounds annually as a result of poor health and safety management practices. Poor health and safety management cost lives and the construction industry is said to be one of the most hazardous industries to work (Griffith 2001). In the same view, the importance of health and safety practise lead to a joint effort by the UK Government and health and safety commission (HSC) to form a pact (joint venture) set goals to work and cut down deaths related to work, injury and ill-health in the UK which cost the UK about £18 billion annually (Anno 2000).
Griffith 2001 while referring to the Egan report rethinking construction (DETR 1998) stated "the health and safety record of construction is the second worst of any industry" and made a suggestion that "accidents can account for 3-6 percent of total project cost". Accidents, dangerous situations and injuries are regular in the industry. The construction industry has suffered poor health and safety records over the past 20 years. This point is further highlighted in the Health and safety statistics 2008/09 with the following figures.
Ill health: 1.2 million people who worked the previous year were suffering from illness (Long-standing as well as new cases) believed was caused or aggravated by current or their past work. 551,000 of this were new cases. 216 people died as a result of mesothelioma (2007), and thousand died from occupational cancer and lung diseases (HSE statistics 2008/09).
Injuries: a total 180 workers were killed at work; this rate signifies 0.6 per 100,000 workers. 131,895 of other injuries to employees were reported under (RIDDOR) Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations, a rate of 502.2 per 10, 000 employees. Labour force survey (LFS) recorded 246,000 a rate of 870 per 100 000 workers (HSE statistics 2008/09).
Working days lost: a total of 29.3 million days were lost overall (1.24 days per worker), 24.6 million due to work-related ill health and 4.7 million due to workplace injury (HSE statistics 2008/09).
In a related view COHME (2009), stated that more than 2 million people employed in the UK construction industry have a high occurrence rate of occupational health related problems because of the type of work they carry out in their work place. The resultant impact of these problems leaves a long term effect on the quality of life and the financial security to the construction workers and their relatives in general.
Rational of Study
The research is focussed on the construction industry because of the under listed reasons:
The researcher has a particular interest and a professional background in the construction industry.
The research will be of great relevance to the construction industry in general and also the project manager in how significant are the risk to health and safety and how it can be managed to achieve project success in the UK construction industry.
The research will give an insight on health and safety management practice in the construction industry and make recommendation that are reasonable and applicable in the management of health and safety in the construction industry.
Aim and Objectives
This research is aimed at critically evaluating the health and safety management practice as it relates to project success in the construction industry.
Project objectives are concrete statements detailing what a project hopes to achieve and they should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-based. It is important that they are shared and clearly interpreted by all relevant project participants and key stakeholders in order to build a common understanding and direction as well as avoid conflicts (Kerzner, 2006).
The objectives of this report therefore, include:
To investigate the implementation of health and safety Management practices in the UK construction industry.
To identify the best practices in Health and Safety programmes in construction projects.
To indentify the key problems that needs to be addressed in order to improve the health and safety performance in construction.
The research will basically be carried out as secondary research and will include best practices that will aid in construction projects, reducing the rate of health and safety matter like Accidents, dangerous situations and injuries which are regular in the industry and will facilitate in project success.
This research will not include carry out of any primary research in the health and safety in construction industry.
This research will include the following deliverable when concluded.
The complete research report on the subject matter that will have 5 chapters in the following sequence starting from an introduction chapter and 4 other chapters which include literature review, methodology, evaluation and recommendations.
A Gantt chart showing the time schedule of the research report stating the start and the finish date of each of the chapters.
A proposed questioner designed for primary research purpose.
Assumption and consideration
It is assumed that all materials that were used for this secondary research hard correct information at the time of the study.
Consideration of health and safety management practise in the construction industry because of its high rates of accidents.
The UK was considered because the Location of my school and availability of materials for the secondary research.
For a research to be meaningful and fulfil the purpose for which it was intended, it has to be undertaking using an appropriate method. Common research methods include surveys, focus groups, experiments, data mining, events study, historical research, grounded theory, action research, literature reviews, ethnographies and case studies (Miles and Huberman 1994, Cooper and Schindler 2003, Salkind 2003).
The study is a secondary research which is achieved by carrying out critically evaluating on relevant literature on the subject matter from journals, textbooks and the use of wed sites from the internet sites.
Health and safety targets: progress to 2008/09
A good start. Section 1 (the introduction) is still weak and need a better structure. You still also need to include all the sections discussed in the tutorial as follows:
vÂ Overview of the case study
vÂ Overview of the research
vÂ Rationale:-Academic, Business, Personal
vÂ Aims and Objectives
vÂ Assumptions and considerations
vÂ Project schedule
vÂ Structure of Research
Chapter 2 literature review
Harts (1998) defines literature review as the collection of accessible documents (both published and unpublished) on the subject matter that contains information, ideas, data and evidence. This selection is written from a particular point of view to fulfil certain views or express certain aims on the nature of the topic and how it should be investigated, and the efficient assessment of these documents in relation to the research being proposed.
A literature review can be said to be an assessment (secondary research) of a study that has been conducted in a particular field of research area.
The literature review in this research will be aimed at answering the following research questions.
To investigate the implementation of health and safety Management practices in the UK construction industry.
To identify the best practices in Health and Safety programmes in construction projects.
To indentify the key problems that needs to be addressed in order to improve the health and safety performance in the UK construction industry.
Every year thousands of people die from work-related diseases mainly due to
Exposures, several years ago, the number of cancer deaths from findings estimates the annual work-related cancer deaths is around 8000. About 4000 cancer deaths each year is due to exposure to asbestos and around 15% of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD - including bronchitis and emphysema) could be work associated. This implies there could be some 4000 COPD deaths each year related to past occupational exposures to fumes, Chemicals and dusts (HSE statistics 2008/09).
Accidents are another cause for concern as fatal injuries to workers in 20008/09 (provisional) was equivalent to a rate of 0.6 fatalities per 100 000 workers, the construction sector accounts for 53 fatalities. While reported non-fatal injuries to employees in 2008/09 were 27594 major injuries, the rate of injury was 105.1 per 100000 which over one third was caused by slipping or tripping or tripping, 103,301 other injuries to employees resulting to absence from work for over three days, which is equivalent to a rate of 397.2 about two fifths were caused by handling, lifting or carrying and about a quarter due to tripping or slipping (HSE statistics 2008/09).
Health and Safety is fast becoming a norm in most industries (Hoorebeek, 2004.)
Investigate the implementation
â- â- Each year thousands of people die from work-related diseases
mainly due to exposures many years ago.
â- â- The number of cancer deaths must be estimated rather than counted.
Emerging findings from work to produce up-to-date estimates suggest
the annual number of work-related cancer deaths is currently around
8000. The next phase of the project will seek to estimate the number
of cancers that will result from current conditions.
â- â- About 4000 cancer deaths each year are due to past exposure to
â- â- In 2007 there were 96 deaths from asbestosis (as underlying
cause), and 156 from other types of pneumoconiosis, mostly due
to coal dust and silica.
â- â- Around 15% of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD -
including bronchitis and emphysema) may be work related. This
suggests there could be some 4000 COPD deaths each year due
to past occupational exposures to fumes, chemicals and dusts.
80. Also in 2005 and as predicted at the H&S Summit earlier in the year, OGC published Common Minimum Standards for the procurement of built environments in the public sector (CMS). The result of a desire by Ministers for a commonality of approach to improve value for money, the CMS describe those policies that, as a minimum, the wider public sector must apply to construction projects. The health and safety Standard, drawn up in collaboration with HSE encompasses all the earlier guidance mentioned above.
81. OGC has very recently published a Case Study entitled DWP Jobcentre Plus roll-out Occupational Health & Safety, which describes the good health and safety practice the Department of Work and Pensions has employed to deliver their Jobcentre Plus project in an exemplary fashion whilst achieving value for money.
82. Currently HSE, OGC and the DTI have jointly commissioned research to establish current take up of best practice, so that lessons can
105. BWF have undertaken the collection of accident statistics for member companies, and have carried out a value-added assessment of the popular BWF Machinery Safety Cards. This has reinforced the business case for health and safety by providing evidence that each Safety Card, when properly used, has the potential to save a member company £1300 over its lifetime.
107. CECA has now begun the collation of annual accident statistics from its members.
108. The Major Contractors Group (MCG) have revised their Health and Safety Strategy in 2005 to include the following commitments:
o Everyone working on an MCG site will go through a health and safety induction process that will consist of an MCG Site Challenge, and a site health and safety familiarisation. The induction process should whenever possible include:
o A 'Site Challenge', delivered by the most senior manager on site for that project for all workers before they start on site. This is to take place at a set time and suitable venue whenever new workers are starting on site. Only in exceptional circumstances can a worker start on site if he misses the Site Challenge.
o MCG Companies will request of every client, a short CEO statement regarding their commitment to the highest standards of health and safety. This statement is to then feature in the 'Site Challenge'.
o Immediate identification of supervisors to take place at the challenge through the issuing of colour-coded helmets for supervisors, and a clear statement of expectation regarding their key role and need for them to challenge poor practice and reinforce safe working. Supervisors to be available to all operatives to resolve health and safety problems on site.
o Issuing at the challenge (or briefing) material setting out the project's core information and standards
o Follow-up with a site familiarisation, undertaken whenever possible on-site rather than in a classroom.
o Site Hazard Boards to be used on all MCG sites to reinforce the key messages.
Elimination and Reduction of Health Risks
o MCG companies will require substitution of smaller products or adoption of mechanical handling techniques for certain building materials as specified in this policy.
o MCG will develop a group risk assessment scheme for the assessment of risks from noise and vibration from construction plant and equipment
Health Surveillance and Rehabilitation
o MCG will seek to agree industry standards for the provision of specialist occupational health practitioners active with member companies, by setting up a Working Group.
Provision of Training and Information
o Information resulting from the MCG Group Risk Assessment Scheme will be made freely available to all.
o The Major Contractors Group (MCG), states that 77% of all workers were CSCS qualified by October 2005 with 87 % membership common amongst direct employees of member companies and 71 % amongst subcontractors.
o Other CC member federations also report progress with the National Contractors Federation (NCF), achieving 71% CSCS registration and the Civil Engineering Contractors Confederation (CECA) reaching 80% take up for all workers. CECA members have made strong progress in 2005 engaging the supply chain on CSCS resulting in a take up of 75% amongst sub-contractors.
o The National Contractors Federation (NCF) are in the process of developing an occupational health strategy that will be completed in 2006.
o The National Federation of Builders (NFB) continue to develop an Accredited Membership scheme where members can become 'accredited' through audit and must set out training plans to develop their employees.
o NFB and UCATT have made strong progress extending worker participation in health and safety, with approximately 120 small NFB members actively involved in the Workers Safety Adviser (WSA) Project. Feedback from employers has been positive throughout. Year 3 funding (if granted) will see the scheme move to the NE, whilst leaving a sustainable rump service in the Midlands.
o Scottish Building have provided over 50 free health and safety training days to its members in 2005, and have set up a partnership on health and safety with NHBC.
o Scottish Building will be launching its occupational health support service in 2006, and are looking to enhance the service in partnership with UCATT.
Safe Site Access Certificate 120. The Certificate - available on the SEC Group Website - www.secgroup.org.uk - comprised of a checklist that enabled member firms to resolve site health and safety risks with the principal contractor before the member firm arrived on site. SEC Group is seeking endorsement of the Certificate from the Major Contractors Group and the Health and Safety Executive.
124. The British Constructional Steelwork Association (BCSA) have now established a regular and accurate accident data collection from a dedicated number of members that allowed the routine monitoring of statistics. From December 2005 the BCSA would be able to provide a 12-month rolling statistic analysis if needed to their members. This would be used to support the Revitalising programme and, of course, be available to share the information with other SEC Group member associations.
The TUC supports a continuation of funding for the Worker Safety Adviser (WSA) scheme. The success of partnership projects between the National Federation of Builders, the Construction Confederation, Federation of Mater Builders, TGWU and UCATT demonstrates that engagement of workers in small and medium sized companies is possible using WSAs. The projects have focussed on helping employers to set up structures that encourage worker engagement. Both projects have improved workers' understanding of health and safety issues, led to improved business performance and established sustainable partnerships between those involved in the projects.
To indentify the problems that needs to be addressed in order to improve the health and safety performance in construction.
The problems facing health and safety management practice in the UK construction industry are as follows.
Designs that meets all H&S standards in construction (with a view to the role of designers in preventing such accidents has been published by)
The main causes of accidents relate to workforce attitudes towards H&S.
The workforce's ability and willingness to apply safe approaches to working and awareness of their own and others' H&S.
Lack of adequate training and education, of health and safety practises
Clients' attitudes and approaches to construction.
The Great Britain health and safety regulation has been in existence, going back over 150 years. The current system came into existence with the Health and Safety at Work etc Act (HSW Act) in 1974 with further considerable modifications in 2008. This was to provide a unified institutional structure and legal framework for health and safety regulation (HSE 2009).
Overview of health and safety in construction industry in the UK
Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. London, Sage.
Managing health and safety in construction. Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007. Approved Code of Practice L144 HSE Books 2007 ISBN 978 0 7176 6223 4
Health and safety in construction HSG150 (Third edition) HSE Books 2006 ISBN 978 0 7176 6182 4
Workplace health, safety and welfare. Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)Regulations 1992. Approved Code of Practice L24 HSE Books 1992 ISBN 978 0 7176 0413 5