This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Increasing number of firms, are outsourcing their factories and industries to different countries. Despite of economical benefits there are other challenges faced by the firms, the most important being health and safety of the laborers they employ. Not many management teams of the firms in India abide by the rules laid down by government of the countries and International Bodies such as International Labor Organization (ILO) and UNICEF, Implementing Healthy and safety stands for labors is a broader concept. It includes avoiding work-related injuries and diseases, such as industrial deafness, dermatitis, occupational overuse syndrome, asbestosis, and occupational cancers. It may also include more general health problems, such as heart disease, high blood pressure and stress, where the work environment and procedures can be shown to be contributing factors. The two concepts are combined for the purposes of the legislation, and the traditional distinction between 'health' and 'safety' is much less relevant than the Act's emphasis on the avoidance of harm through managing hazards. Towards this, the Act simply defines 'safe' as not exposed to hazards. For example labours working in garment factories are not given correct sitting posture chair for back. Due to neglectance of health and safety standards for labours, there is a rise in early back pain, work related depressions, other illness and to the worst accidents.
Background to the problem/issue:
Due to ever increase in employment, Labor safety Standards have become of vital important, the governments of the nations are also becoming aware of their importance, every organisation has to abide with the labor rules interconnected for the increase in globalization in recent years, as people around the world are getting aware of labor safety standards.
Numbers of people are killed every year in accidents and over million people are injured at work. Many people suffer illness caused by work, such as back pain because of wrong chair, or health made worst by their work targets. In a busy working environment where routine work is done day after day without any variety, labors may develop with dull attitude towards their health and safety. They may assume "we have been doing this for years together nothing can happen." To avoid such attitude employer should train their employee, accidents do happen an often happens when least expected, that's why it is very important to follow safety standards at work. In many jobs labors follow same routine for years after years, for example workers travel daily over the same roads to work for a same routine work or task. 7 days a week, often results in little conscious thought while repeating the same routine work. Without some periodic reawakening to the ever-present hazards, lethargy in human minds deepens and the odds of an accident occurring can increase.
Laborers many a times don't recognize the importance of safety training or they think of it as unnecessary because they have been doing it for years. There for periodic training is of vital importance the labours/ employees, it will serve as a reminder that a danger can exist and no one is immune to accidents. It is extremely important for workers to understand the purpose of the training session, on why it will be useful to them, and what will be the outcome or result for not following safety rules and procedures. Numbers of industrial workers died every year in different projects in different accidents. This requires immediate actions from the authorities entrusted with responsibilities to ensure safety guideline being adhered to.
There are number of accidents that could have easily being avoided, in factories every year caused by vehicular accidents. Although vehicles are ought to operate at minimum speed in factory premises, many workers are run over by vehicles inside the factory boundaries ispite of speed limit imposed with in the factory premises. Many work accidental are reported from either Sponge Iron Factories or Steel projects in past few years.
Why is implementation of safety standards at work important to Firm/Organisation?
With the help of globalization, employments have increased considerably in recent years, it has also given rise to cut throat competitions around the world resulting in laborers health is neglecting to meet the dead lines or targets or to survive the competitions It has become very important for an organisation to implement safety standards at work for their labors health and safety. It will prevent accidents and ill health caused by work.
Implementation of health and safety measures will develop a positive health and safety culture. Laborers or employees are the back bone of the organisations, without employees, organisation cannot run on its own, and at the same time organisation cannot be successful or survive in the business without healthy and energetic employees. Implementing Healthy and safety measures will contribute towards making employees competent in health and safety; resulting in less absenteeism due to illness, good concentration at work that will enable business to avoid the distress that accidents and ill health cause; it can help to avoid the financial costs of accidents and occupational ill health. As a matter of facts insurance doesn't cover all these costs, especially costs like, Damaged Products, lost production and demotivated staff and also according to the law organisation requires to provide, instruction and training that is needed to the employee failing to do so may result in legal consequences.
Research questions & objectives:
Health and safety of the employees/ labours is the prime requirement for the long run success of an organization/firm. The concept of employees safety is not a recent phenomenon. Legislation was developed in the 1970s by international labours in UK, to streamline the many different statutes governing safety issues making management responsible for the provision and maintenance of adequate standards and policies. But although there are a vast number of different statutes governing safety issues, health and safety is not only governed by legislation but also Under what is known as 'common law' all employers have a duty of care imposed on them to protect their employees. There is also a term implied into all employment contracts requiring employers to take care of their employees' health and safety. For example, employers must:
Provide a safe place of work for the workers.
Provide a safe system of work, risk and hazards free environment.
Provide correct posture chair, water etc.
Provide adequate plant and equipment that are safe to use.
Recruit competent and safety conscious staff to avoid risk of injury or accidents at work.
My research work is to find, whether in India, does the management of the factory, sweatshops, Industries, hotels follow above health and safety standards at work for their labours. In India Laborers working in sweatshops are mostly illiterate, due to lack of literacy and urgent need to earn bread and butter for self and family people work for factories, paying very low wage, the wages paid to such workers don't meet the minimum wage of the country. There also several issues like "prison worker" where workers are forced to work extra hours, some times 12 hours a day, and are not paid overtime.
Also my research is to find are the management of the factories, sweatshops, hotels implement health and safety standard, and if they do what measures do they follow?
The overall objective is "to find out, if health and safety measures are implemented in factories sweatshops and hotels in India", this has been broken into the following sub - objective.
To examine do selcted factories and sweatshops in India follow health and safety standards at work
To identify labours attitude towards their health and safety measures in their work.
Determine why implementation of health and safety standards at work is important?
The details of the objectives are as follow..
1. To examine do factories and sweatshops in India follow health and safety standards at work
According to the surveys done by world health organisation in 2008, implementation of health and safety measures were not met strictly in developing countries like India, Bhutan Bangladesh etc. With the help of Globalization trade barriers between nations has been removed. Globalization has helped the industrial sector to grow and this has increased the rate of employment. With this positive contribution by Globalization to the world it has also led to exploitation of labors like, Prisoners and child workers, who are used to work in inhumane conditions. Safety standards are totally ignored to produce cheap goods.
The major negative effects of Globalization is, Health and safety measures at work are ignored, safety measures are not met by the management of the organisation, Giving rise to illness caused by work stress, work depression, work accidents and death, To overcome this hazards, developed countries are vigilant about developing countries where they are either setting up their factories or outsourcing their work to, are following the set Labor Standards, for example USA threatened to stop the outsourcing of the production of apparel to Bangladesh when they came to know, developing country was employing child labor. And so Bangladesh had to ensure to the USA government that it would follow the Labor Standards and will not employ child labor in the future. In 1996, the International Labor Rights Fund which is an America based group launched a campaign in order to put pressure on Adidas and Nike companies to stop outsourcing the production of soccer balls to Pakistan on the ground that the companies in Pakistan were violating the Labor Standards by employing child labor.
2. To identify labours attitude towards their health and safety measures in their work.
According to the surveys, Healthy and safety measures are followed by labours in developed countries, employees are given full health and safety training by their employers, but the labours in developing countries like India, Bhutan, and Bangladesh etc, fail to follow health and safety measures, no training is given to their employees, most of the time labours in developing countries are forced to work over time, many women are exploited to work, maternal and paternal leaves are not given to the employees not aware of their rights to speak or rights to deny their work if they are forced to work overtime, without getting money for their overtime work. Many a time's managers of the organisation ill treat their fellow employee by using abusive language and in extreme condition beating their employee,
3. Determine why implementation of health and safety standards at work is important?
Many of the multinational companies around the world are outsourcing their factories to India that has given rise to employment opportunities, number of people are employed in sweatshop, factories producing good for export, for example laborers working in Nike sweatshop stitch clothes that will be exported to different part of the world. Good produced in such factories are produced to meet the demands of the customers around the globe, with the ever increase in population and economic development demands of multination goods rises and to meet the ever increasing demand, to keep up with production and supply of goods, workers in sweatshops are employed, not many such organizations follow heath and safety stands in India, often health of the worker working in such factories is neglected. Resulting in depression poor health etc, and to improve the conditions of the people and workers implementing health and safety is of adverse importance.
Implementing health and safety measure in work environment is of vital importance. Owing to that fact that Indian factories are witnessing more and more work related accidents and death in recent years. Organization in India should abide by the rules and regulation laid down by International labour laws and by government of India both. Employers and employees in India should follow the old saying "Health is Wealth".
In this modern globalize world many International Bodies are formed for labours health and safety. Such as the International Labor Organization (ILO) and UNICEF they see to it that companies do not abuse their workers and follow the Labor Standards that has been set up. With the positive effects of globalization there are several negative effects too, that is although many new industries have been set up which in turn has increased the employment opportunities for the labors but most of the companies do not follow the Labor Standards that has been set by the countries government or by International Labor Organization. As a result of this, laborers are being exploited by the companies, especially in developing countries like India. Many companies exploit their laborers by not giving the standard wage (nation's minimum adult wage) to their employees, making employees work over time without paying them extra wage, employees from by providing unsatisfactory working conditions to their employees, and to ensure people from every cultural back ground, race, and gender ability are respected.
In every country government imposes legal rules and regulation for the employers or factories for the health and safety of the worker or laborers working in the factory; therefore there is debate about whether international labour standards should form the basis of national regulation and company policies, IFO defines implementation of health and safety at work as "fundamental to the rights of all human beings at work." However, some countries, including the USA and India, have not ratified all of the ILO Conventions, which may explain why companies do not support these publicly, labour standards and policies that are formed according to the rules laid down by Indian Government and Internationally formed Organization will make companies to uphold local and international labour laws, that will enable fair deal towards the workers of the factories sweatshops and hotels.
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 HASAWA in UK has laid down certain rules for the employers, Before 1974 approximately 8 million employees had no legal safety protection at work. HASAWA 74 provides the legal framework to promote, stimulate and encourage high standards of health and safety in places of work. It protects employees and the public from work activities. Everyone has a duty to comply with the Act, including employers, employees, trainees, self-employed, manufacturers, suppliers, designers, importers of work equipment.
And also International labour organization has laid down eight ILO core for the employers to abide the rules laid down by them, following is the eight ILO Core Convection cover..
The eight ILO core Conventions cover:
1. The Worst Forms of Child Labour (Convention 182)
2. Minimum Age (Convention 138)
3. Abolition of Forced Labour (Convention 105)
4. Forced Labour (Convention 29)
5. Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right
to Organise (Convention 87)
6. Discrimination in Employment and Opportunity
7. Equal Remuneration (Convention 100)
8. Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining
The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 requires employer to provide employee with whatever information, instruction, training and supervision is necessary to ensure, they practice the health and safety at work.
This is further expanded by the Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations 1999, which identify situations where health and safety training is particularly very important, for example; when new employee is appointed, when new technique is introduced or on exposure to new or increased risks and where existing skills may have become rusty or need updating. Employer must provide training during working hours and not at the expense of their employees.
The Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 and the
Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996 requires employer
to consult their employees, or their representatives, on health and safety issues.
Representatives should be appointed or trainers should be appointed to give training to the new employees/ labours, or provide training in change or implementation of new technology, or to give time to time training to avoid health hazards. And for all the training provided by the company employee should be paid as same as they are paid for the duties done by them.
The Health and Safety (Training for Employment) Regulations 1990 ensure that learners doing work experience are covered by health and safety law.
The legislation relating to health and safety is very extensive in India. One of the most important statutes is the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA). All work places are covered by this legislation which says that an employer must do everything reasonably practicable to provide a safe and healthy workplace with adequate welfare facilities. HSWA has been supported and extended by various sets of regulations, codes of practice and guidance, all of which deal with various aspects of health and safety.
The Health and Safety Commission (HSC) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) were established under the HSWA to respectively decide upon and implement health and safety policy. These two bodies merged into a new unitary body, retaining the name Health and Safety Executive in 2008.Only duly authorized officials of the HSE make individual enforcement decisions.
Data collection will be done by different survey, research and general use of questionnaires and interviews supporting each other. Questionnaires will help in data collection from a wide group of participants like workers from sweatshop, factories, hotels etc. The questionnaire will be extremely useful and will serve as an instrument for collecting data, information, it will provide structure, being able to be administered without the presence of the researcher, and often being comparatively straightforward to analyze
At the same time data gathered by the questionnaire often lacks 'personality' and depth. Semi-structured interviews serve as a perfect addition to questionnaire's also data will be collected by interviews that will enable observation of nonverbal information from interviewee. Questions designed for research cover overall knowledge of importance of health and safety measures at work.
Analysis of the gathered data is the stage when the mix of interviews and questionnaires reveals itself in the best light, as results of both methods serve as a check of each other significantly increasing its reliability. According to Moser and Kalton (1977) three main undertakings should be performed during questionnaire data processing: completeness (each question is answered), accuracy (check for misleading answers) and uniformity (check for uniform instructions' interpretation). Meanwhile results of the interview require more complicated processing because of their qualitative nature. Cohen and Manion (2000) identify four important steps in the analysis of interviews: generating natural units of meaning (basing on what measures answers should be interpreted?), classifying, categorizing and ordering these units of meaning; structuring narratives to describe the interview contents; and interpreting the interview data.
Limitations of the Study:
Of course, chosen methods have certain weaknesses. For example interviews are much differentiated depending on mutual trust, interviewee may feel that questioning is too deep (ethics problem), dependency of the results on the interviewer's skills, etc. In turn, questionnaire provides limited opportunities for asking and is very limited because of the instrument it uses. Many firms don't welcome questions about their work, people don't like answering to question, or employees may not want to be interviewed because of the management fear or fear of losing their jobs. Fortunately a mix of these methods significantly reduces the number of limitations, e.g. the variety of the information from interviews can be organized considering issues of questionnaire. Additionally use of case study can theoretically lead to improper generalization of the gathered results.
The research for implementing health and safety at work will be carried out by filed work that is by collecting views of laborers and management of the sweatshops, factories, hotels and industries. The purpose is to find are laborers aware of importance of health and safety at work, if they are then are they following.
Part of my work will include finding what rules or precautions are laid down by International
International organization such as, IOL had a consultation held to irradiate child labour. The consultations were held January 26-28, 2004.
Health and safety implementation in Indian organization is of vital importance.
Proposed research doesn't require any special equipment except for publishing questionnaires. it's also very convenient because it doesn't need any specific facilities.
Budget of the research includes the following costs:
Publishing questionnaires. (postage and printing).
Since the research is carried out by books, journals, and search engine with the help of my tutors their won't be monetary expenses for my research proposal.
'Safety' is concerned with physical safety issues such as strains, falls, accidents and injury.
'Healthy is concern with It includes avoiding work-related diseases, such as industrial deafness, dermatitis, occupational overuse syndrome, asbestosis, and occupational cancers. It may also include more general health problems, such as heart disease, high blood pressure and stress, where the work environment and procedures can be shown to be contributing factors. Therefore Heath and safety both are the important factor to be considered by employee and employer, at work.
While carrying out the research proposal, ethical consideration of the interview and questionnaire will be of vital importance, that it can be seen as intrusions into the life of the respondent. That is why the following ethical consideration will be considered when holding the research.
Interviewees will be given an opportunity to abandon the study at any stage; if they don't want to answer certain question, no personal questions will be asked. Bias questions will be avoided and the assurance of validity and reliability in the questionnaire will be considered with needed methodological rigour. "Methodological rigour is an ethical, not simply a technical, matter" (Morrison 1996); Interviewees will be guaranteed and assured that the research will not harm them and their privacy will remain unharmed. Data interpretation will be processed according to the objective information acquired and not on the personal views of the research. Interviews are much differentiated depending on mutual trust, interviewee may feel that questioning is too deep or too personal to be answered. Also the fact that not many people like to be questioned will be considered.
Resources of research methods will include, search engine, books and journals on health and safety at work in India, collection of data from surveys done by ILO, WHO and other national and international organisation acting for labour laws.
Analyzing the results
After interviewing and receiving all the feed backs from the people who were interviewed from hotels. Sweatshops, factories in India. The file report of the findings will be made. That will enable analyze the results.