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A Green building is process of providing complete surety about healthiest possible environment in construction and lifetime operations. Simultaneously, it represents the most effective and least troublesome usage of water, land, resources and energy. In order to implement Green building, optimum design solution technique is used which effectively follows all natural systems and conditions of a pre developed site- after complete development. It is an application of developing the efficiency of building and their usage of energy, materials, water and reducing building influences on the environment and human health during enhanced sitting, construction, operation, maintenance, design and removal of the structure at the termination stage of building life cycle.
According to Dick (2007), Sustainable feature is an arrangement of design, renovate, built or operate in resource efficient and ecological manner. As per Yost (2002), green house building also utilizes energy effective processes in order to achieve long term cost saving. In Fried (2005) views, Sustainability is termed as a holistic method to safeguard the environment by associating materials and design practices which uses energy in a very efficient way. (27Kellenberg, 2009) (sei, 2009)
According to Suttell (2006), Sustainability proposal works along with environment instead of going against to it. As per Environmental Building News (1999) views, green building is designed to protect occupant health, utilize resources more efficiently, improving employee productivity and decrease environmental impacts. (Anon, 2006)
Green building market is developing radically. According to McGraw Hill estimations the total amount of green construction was $10 billion in (2005), and that value gradually extended to $36 and $49 billion (2008). (Libby, 2009)
By 2013 estimations, the market may expanded to as much as $96-140 billion to develop a green building design, which not only minimize the influence on the environment, but also remain economical, comfortable and economical for use. It is significant to observe integrated design of green building, where design group works hand-in-hand all over the process, considering each integral part of a building in a holistic and integrative way. (Muldavin, 2009)
Conserve natural resources
Residential remodeling activities consume large quantities of wood, water, metals, fossil fuels and other resources. Even though the majority of the materials used to remodel a home are put to good use, vast quantities of resources are wasted. In fact, each year close to nine million tons of construction and demolition debris is disposed of in California landfills, accounting for 22% of the entire state's waste stream. (Kudret Ütebay, 2009)
Much of this waste is avoidable. Careful management of the construction process makes a big difference. There are also many well-established remodeling practices that help protect natural resources. If you are building an addition to an existing home, for example, advanced framing techniques can substantially reduce lumber requirements without compromising structural integrity. Using engineered lumber and wood products certified by the Forest Stewardship Council can help ensure the long-term health of forests. Many effective remodeling strategies not only conserve natural resources, but also provide additional benefits
such as saving money. These include using durable products such as roofing materials with 40- or 50-year warranties, and specifying recycled-content products that divert waste from landfills. Recycled-content decking, reclaimed lumber and other products put waste to good use, while providing quality and durability that often exceed conventional materials. For example, decking materials made of recycled plastic mixed with wood waste fibers can last up to five times longer than wood decking, and never needs to be treated or painted. (Anon, 2006)
Water is another critical resource. California residences use 5.6 million acre-feet of applied water annually. Our prosperity and ability to meet the needs of our growing population hinge on having adequate supplies of clean, fresh water. Homes remodeled and landscaped to use water wisely make a tremendous contribution to protecting our shared resources and reducing the pressure on municipal water systems and supplies. An added benefit is lower water and sewer bills for the homeowner. Today's building professionals and homeowners can take advantage of a new generation of costeffective, high efficiency appliances and landscape water management systems, as well as a variety of proven landscaping strategies that reduce water use . (HOME, 2007)
Energy efficiency is the cornerstone of every green home. Whether you are remodeling a 30-year-old suburban ranch house or a 120-year-old inner-city Victorian, you can improve its energy performance. Improving energy efficiency and using renewable energy sources are effective ways to reduce the potential of energy supply interruptions, improve air quality,
moderate the impacts of global warming, and slow the rate at which we need to build new power plants. Energy efficiency also makes good sense for homeowners: an energy-efficient house saves money by reducing utility bills year after year, and provides other valuable benefits. Better insulation, for example, reduces uncomfortable drafts, and double-pane windows make for a quieter home. Homeowners who have already made their homes as energy efficient as possible may choose to go a step further and install renewable energy systems such as solar water heating and photovoltaic panels. (Saliba G. , 2009)
The main scope of this work is evaluated the green building design and factors considered in developing a vital approach in eco friendly domain. It would further provide various design aspects considered for construction of green building.
The main aim of the research is to address the key approach considered in taking up Green Building Design and its development prospects.
In order to address the key issues with relevant to changing market scope for construction of green building, below things need to be addressed:
To identify various key factors considered for constructing preference of Green Building Design
To explore key design framework or scientific constraints in creating a perfect green building design
To evaluate various green building design and measuring performance for future growth of these design construction.
Day by day world's population is rapidly increasing, demanding more natural resources on the earth to obtain all the material requirements needed for the building construction. Unfortunately, the presence of natural resources is very low and their cost of extraction is very high. Therefore, usage of natural resources has a negative impact on earth's environment. (Morris, 2009)
As per Browning and Romm (1995) views, Sustainable design supporter's claims that design strategies and green technologies will improve interior environmental quality and adds more favorable conditions to human's life and productivity rather than the building which is using regular practices.
Green building aspects impacting on indoor environmental quality includes the following:
Increased contact with the natural environment through more open views to the outdoors (also associated with daylight) and through the inclusion of plants indoors for psychological reasons and for air quality enhancement
Greater attention to construction, maintenance and operation of buildings to reduce build up of microbial agents, especially in HVAC systems and construction materials
Advanced ventilating and mechanical systems to increase air flow and reduce occupant contact with air borne microbial agents
Selection of building materials and furnishings that have low toxicity
Increased use of day lighting to reduce energy demands and enhance interior lighting quality
Inclusion of high quality, energy efficient lighting to reduce computer glare and increase visual comfort
Green building design profits:
Interior environmental quality and individual performance
Even though, the above critical components gain good profitable results, still the researchers concentrate only on the present topic by neglecting the potential and far interconnection between strategic and building performance. In upcoming future, this becomes a severe issue for the growth of green building in the market place.
Green Buildings and Strategic Performance
Potential relationship between complete organizational success and green building are still in an influential stage, their case studies and theoretical considerations propose multiple links.
In order to observe the influences of a performance, useful to know what highly constitutes at company's level performance. According to Sink (1985) concept, all specialists of an organization follow various key success strategies in different ways, this seems to be significant agreement regarding the domains across which success criteria is calculated.
Capacity for innovation
Quality of work life (including employee work attitudes and job satisfaction)
According to Makower and Hart (1995), Green organizations research and theories explains about the elusion relationships and propose some potential measures of green building impacts. As per Magretta et.al (1997) views, Sustainable practices have gained increasing attention in the mainstream organizational management literature, including the Harvard Business Review and the Academy of Management Review. (Dabbert, 2009)
These research will give you evidence about the sustainable operations and designs associated with pollution prevention and increased resource efficiency which have a far reaching influences on a company including:
Enhanced community livability
Enhanced relationships with stakeholders
Process innovation associated with the quest for resource efficiency
Improved ability to market to pro-environmental consumers
Reduced operating costs
Reduced legal and insurance costs associated with reduced risks to current and future generations
Reduced regulatory inspection load
These strategic benefits are likely to be linked to such green building factors as:
Commissioning to assure the building operates as intended
Re-commissioning following changes in building use
Use of renewable resources, such as solar power and wind
Pollution prevention and waste reduction
Reduced use of resources, especially water and energy
Use of recycled materials in building construction and an in-house recycling program once the building is occupied.
As a result the above problems, the researchers frequently utilizes productivity self rating or self administered combination methods. Example, in UK, A tool kit was developed by Office productivity initiatives which include down time measuring aspects and other productivity self assessments. (Menzies, 2009)
According to Veitch et.al (1997), Self measures tends to be overvalued, when the measure is used in comparative manner to consider the responsibilities of a change initiatives and baseline environments, the self assessment are easily administered and imparts useful data. Investigations using productivity self assessments have found strong association in between air and thermal quality factors. (8Oliver, 2008)
As per UK Leaman 20 years occupant survey reports (1999) states that the comfort and perceived productivity are greater in buildings where occupants have more control on the mixed mode buildings and environment which have both air conditioning and natural ventilation.
According to Preller et.al (1990) reports, two cross sectional studies having more than 11000 workers in 107 buildings Europe also found that the increase in perceived productivity less absenteeism and fewer illness symptoms in buildings with supply of workers controlling the ventilations and temperature conditions when compared with control team. Menzies et al (1997), obtained similar kind o results when the investigation started with two groups of mechanically ventilated building workers.
Like airplanes, intervention group was given a authority to control over the ventilation at workspace with a hand held infrared device to regulate the direction and amount of air flow from four inches air outlets in the ceiling.
Research team environmental factors are:
Self assessed productivity
Workers in the intervention explained that their productivity had raised to11% in 16 months after the study. Contrasting to it, some other workers accepted that their productivity had decreased by 4%. Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms also considerably decreased in the intervention group and not in the control group.
Environmental measurements of the two scenarios' showed that air velocity in the intervention space tripled. Even temperature and ventilation variability across the space increased i.e.an indication that workers were making adjustments according to their personal preferences and needs.
Designing for sustainability
In a project's life, early decisions affect its ecology. In the design & construction procedure, the longer wait, difficult and pricey it becomes to incorporate sustainable conceptions and technology. In construction, the commitment to sustainable is made before the site selected, since site features are a significant component of building green. An existing building reutilized/a new building built on a formerly untroubled site, how a structure sits on the property and the size of the facility are some instances of prelim design decisions which can influence optimistically/ negatively the ecological effects of the project. A green design team bringing jointly and hiring qualified creator/ LEEDâ„¢ project manager, it can addresses sustainability issues from the starting. (Sentman, 2009)
Minimize Energy Consumption
The energy consumption decreased by easy, less-price, logical approaches, in addition to the high-technology, high-recital ones which has a high initial price tag. The definition of "Passive Solar Design" is facility of properly sitting/ sizing and placing windows to take benefit of sunlight. It needs small more than additional tine and attention. The following are considering the life cycle prices for other items. They are:
1. Choose roofs and walls rooted in permanence and detached necessities.
2. To take execution on-site renewable energy technologies like solar water heating, photovoltaic's, geothermal heat pumps, and air turbines. Methane gas is frequently available as a low-cost, renewable resource.
3. The HVAC and lighting systems meets/exceed Department of Energy standards.
4. Minimize the construction performance by sensors, digital controls or modular elements.
5. Supervise and assess the ecological recital of the construction systems via comprehensive construction commissioning plan.
Use Environmentally Preferable Products.
When it looks like the products which goes into constructing a building have small ecological influence it bought, into the construction and sit there the composition of these materials are main factor in a building's life cycle affect and indoor air quality. EO 13101, Greening the Government via Waste Prevention, Recycling and Federal Acquisition", needs Federal agencies to utilize recycled content and environmentally desirable products. The factors including waste prevention; reclaimable; use of recycled content, environmentally desirable and biogases products; life cycle price; and quality of disposal can be considered in writing conditions and making buying decisions. (Libby, 2009)
Developer should ask include:
â€¢ Does the builder use a third-party commissioning or certification standard for its green homes?
â€¢ Does the builder have an internally mandated recycling program during demolition and construction?
â€¢ Does the builder use low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) paints and sealants as a matter of practice?
By refusal means this positive exercise the extent of potential builder's green building. Rather, the essential questions start discussions on perspectives to include green building into a project. The next questions can be stated in accordance with developer's project goals. It is not attempted whether the correct or wrong answer.
â€¢ Has the builder received any grants, funding, or public recognition of its green building efforts or completed projects?
â€¢ How do the builder's green building practices differ from other builders in the same geographic area?
â€¢ If the builder uses a commissioning or certification standard, is the standard focused on reaching a minimum set of goals or reaching a high mark? Is it a nationally or locally based standard?
â€¢ Is the builder's green building practices focused on purely energy efficiency or are they focused on a holistic sustainability approach to building?
In interviewing potential building associates both sets of questions, the programmer should commence to formulate the whole understanding of motivations, skills, and goals of the builders in the area. Moreover, the builders depicted on whether their managerial processes are agile or slow-moving, frequently influenced by whether firm is openly owned. Commonly, the dedication of high management plays a vital role in making company's green building practices. The outcome of internal efforts impact significantly by origin of those efforts: if they are top-down or bottom-up and if engrained in the corporate society. Ultimately, green builders measured among builder should implement like the cost, experience, reputation and management policies. (Senick, 2006)
Marketing and sales strategies: Best practices
However, the plentiful evidence stated the growth in residential green building market is developing significantly at the national surface different attributes remain at the local level and for individual programmers are yet to carve perform triumphant niche on this field. However, green home builders prefer significantly raise sales and profitability and to preserve industry robust and aimed marketing efforts on specific nature of geography and consumer. For instance, certain geographic markets owned robust infrastructure of consumer awareness industry skills and government aid programs and incentives. In more mature environments, successful marketing and sales strategies are essentially differ from those in more emerging locations, as consumer desires stakeholder awareness, are more nascent. Eventually, the challenge lies not in whether viable consumers for green homes exist.
Selling green homes
The green houses are possessed a diversity of attributes which appeal to prospective buyers. Accordingly, sales effort targeted and centered which addresses one kind of user isn't resonate with another equally desirable and viable type of user. Nevertheless, the overall market landscape features in a given location points to sales tactics which is most effective. For example, the market has been recognized as nascent with limited infiltration of green homes. It is most beneficial for a first-mover constructor in the green home space to make sure that the constructor captures those users like LOKAS, Cultural Innovation, and True Blue Green who are inherently drawn to their new product offering.
On the other hand, in mature market, where the industry and government involvement has been robust, sales tactics wants to capture any remaining LOHAS kind of users in addition to the mainstream user. When selling to any consumer, discerning which necessities the purchaser is concerned with and hope to address with their buying decision is crucial.
Is the buyer purchasing to address concerns about health, to capture energy savings, or to express a lifestyle statement?
The home is the tight place, size and cost and the green attributes are irrelevant to the user. The mixture of characteristics and advantages resonates effectively with the purchaser clearly differ from person to person and from one location to the next, two aspects are not totally unrelated.
Safety & Health Impact of Green Buildings: A Pilot Study
Green buildings are considered to make eco-friendly practices in the growth of project with the aid of LEED rating system. Throughout world 50 states and 13 countries 2,069 new construction projects are listed with USGBC and 289 are received LEED certification (USGBC, 2005b). This cab be estimated approximately 235mn gross square feet of building space (USGBC, 2005b). Analyst's measure the number of listed projects is enhanced to 5,000 by the end of 2007 with more than 1,000 LEED-certified projects during the same time. (Gambatese, 2009)
Such forceful movement toward sustainable plan which shows significant element of building activity, and it affects on the safety and health of the workers who build the buildings. As stated, the LEED rating system has merely focus on construction worker safety and health. Only one aspect which is Indoor Air Quality management in construction addresses this area. The aim of this aspect is to secure the workers and building tenants from potential air quality issues during the construction process. For example, strategy encompasses the protection on dust formation in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning duct systems should set the growth of mold during construction. On execute the successful plan project obtain one LEED credit. Stating that maximum number of latent credits for a project is 69, however, one credit is negligible and emphasizes the minimal consideration given to construction worker safety and health in the LEED system.
Participants of green building could include the following features in their design for being part of the green building design:
â€¢ Recycling program: Normally, large numbers of recyclable waste materials are produced by the construction activities. Those waste materials such as plastic, metal and wood have to be separated using containers for recycling facility.
â€¢ Rainwater collection system: Rainwater can be used in flushing toilets, irrigation and cooling. It is mainly used for increasing the ground water level. For these purposes, rainwater is collected from the roof and stored in the particular basement.
â€¢ Low VOC-emitting paint: Paints which are having the nature of emitting unpleasant and harmful smells should not be used in building. Paint that does not have the above mentioned effects can be used in the building.
â€¢ Energy efficiency: For reducing energy use, high-efficiency electrical fixtures and mechanical systems were used in buildings.
â€¢ Window heaters: For specific temperature control, thermostats were fitted in offices which can be controlled independently. For natural temperature control, windows were planned to be opened.
â€¢ Natural lighting: There are certain possibilities for reducing the artificial lighting by allotting large atrium in the center of the building which makes the light to penetrate into the interior areas of the building.
â€¢ Solar panels: Solar panels were installed on the building's roof for generating electricity through sun light. Now a day, the shortage in electricity is increasing. Solar panels could become a solution for that shortage. Electricity produced by the solar panels is stored in batteries which can be used for building's electrical needs.
â€¢ Regional materials: Getting construction materials from local suppliers could reduce the environmental effects which would be high when dragging heavy materials from long distances.
â€¢ Waste diversion: Construction could produce large waste material which can be recycled again. So, if possible, use the material on the same project or any other project instead of wasting those materials.
â€¢ Permeable paving: Paved area around the building were planned to allow water to go through the paving. It would help to get rid of the need for an extensive site storm water system and to reduce the further runoff into the city's storm water system.
â€¢ Reflective roof coating: A coating on the roof would reduce the heat absorbed by the roof on sizzling days. So, coatings on the building roof were applied to reflect the sunlight which would help to prevent a heat island effect.
Construction workers are facing lot of risks and problems such as fatal accident, injury and illness in their works. Researches about the safety and health of construction workers have minimized the ratio of those risks of workers and also have improved the safety and health aspects of workers. In the U.S., the attempt on green design and constructions has influenced a lot in the building's construction and design. This paper provides suggestive evidence on workers' safety and health aspects in both positive and negative impacts of green practice. There are also certain efforts and researches required to arrange such effects related with green buildings. So, there is a need for appreciating the positive effects and eliminating the negative effects.