Forms Of Discrimination Against Women Construction Essay

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In the Convention on the elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against women which was adopted by the United Nation General Assembly in 1979, discrimination is defined as 'any distinction , exclusion or restrictions made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field'.

Discuss factors that contribute to the professional marginalization of women in hospitality industry.

Risk management focuses on both the internal and external violators of a code ethics. Communication helps to reduce risk and can be vital in loss prevention.

From your point of view, why hotel should have a comprehensive risk management plan?

1.0 Introduction Question no 1

Discrimination refers to any instance of treating someone in a less favorable manner on the basis of that person's characteristics. The legal definition of discrimination, however, is narrower than the dictionary definition of discrimination. Under the law, only certain behaviors are considered discrimination and only certain classes or types of discrimination are illegal. There few types of discrimination which is Age Discrimination, Pregnancy Discrimination, Religious Discrimination, Sexual Harassment ,Racial Discrimination and etc.

2.0 Answer

Woman discrimination in hospitality industry

For years, hospitality industry experts and analysts have talked about the "glass ceiling" that has prevented women in the field from ascending to the upper ranks of supervisory and managerial positions. To an extent, the same conditions prevail in virtually every industry -- although women have come a long way in the workplace, men continue to hold most leadership roles. However, the unique culture and history that define the hospitality industry have made the prospect of change particularly challenging.

Although this pattern continues to hold true in the hospitality industry, the last several decades have been a period of remarkable change and growth for women in the field. In restaurants, hotels, catering firms, resorts, and many other venues, women are becoming much more visible in management roles and other key positions than ever before, and experts predict that the opportunities for women in the industry will only increase as businesses struggle to keep pace with growth and demand in the field

2.1 Why they (women) choose this field

Nowadays women more prefer to choose hospitality industry as this field is the largest industry in the world with full of opportunities, requires a great deal of hand work to succeed and a career that can provide responsibility, advancement, diversity and personal satisfaction.

Hospitality industry also a growing sectors of the economy alone is multibillion and growing enterprise. It's also an economic advantage for those who prepared to work in this line and an exciting, never boring. Basically this field was choose by males, since it's a job that require allots of efforts; men are faster than women and etc.

On research it shows that early twentieth century women's are very traditional and they only wanted a standard jobs like nurse, teacher, doctor and secretary, but women's consciousness are changed because they are become more ambitious and more responsible and even higher pay. Nowadays, women take jobs that dependable with their needs and they don't take jobs that are not consistent with their needs.

2.1.1 Why women have difficulty working as professional in hospitality industry

Even women are hard worker and enough strength to work; they still have working as professional in hospitality industry because they have been discriminate by Gender equality, Race, Color, Sex and etc.

In hospitality industry gender equality has been serious dilemma. One of the major discrimination in hospitality industry will be men who in sense that they cannot work under a women because they feel that are subjected themselves under the female leader. In hospitality industry there is very little percentage of women that obtain top management jobs because most organization wants an employee who is forceful and self confidence. They also can be project in the wrong image even they are highly qualified for a position that she can handle even better than man.

As in most organization in the hospitality industry the senior managers are mostly men and are more powerful when compare to woman. This because the structures and systems of the organization have been designed largely to suit the needs and priorities of men, who are also represented in greater numbers in decision making at critical levels. In this level woman don't have the space and the opportunity to show their ability.

In hospitality industry the jobs available will be hotel, manager, sales manager, banquet manager, Bar/club manager, Tour Escort/Operator, Travel Journalist and, normally this are available mainly for men. When women are willing to take this job an organization may discriminate them for few things like they are not enough qualified, Lack of awareness of organizational politics, inhospitable organizational culture, Lack of direct fee back, Lack of opportunity to work in high viability assignments and etc.

Women are also more likely judged by their looks like the types of clothing that they wear, hairstyle, shoes and etc. women are not only discriminated against for being "pretty" or "provocative" they are also discriminated against for being not pretty enough, too old, or, in some positions like sales, public relations and secretary they looking for a women who is so pretty and sexy, one of the main reason why women cannot hold the powerful positions will be this. The reason for this discrimination more likely they don't have enough communication skills, shy to work closely with c-works and so on.

2.1.2 Pregnancy discrimination

In many organizations they claim that women are work only for a few years then they leave to have family, but it is not the true in some organization they are not willing to pay more wages, a sufficient amount of maternity leave or enough corporate advancement that they would continue. For some organization they think hiring a pregnant woman is costing more money and causing their works stops during their maternity leave.

For example pregnancy will be a main issue for them. During a pregnancy time there is a rule that the company have to afford to pay statutory maternity, for example some hotels may not afford this so they reluctantly will not hire a women. If they hire a pregnant women also they sometimes stops them from having training or promotion opportunities, in some cases pregnant women has been fired urged to terminate pregnancies in order to keep their jobs

2.1.3 Sexual harassment at workplace

Sexual harassment is seldom recognized or linked to the broader issue of Violence against Women and discrimination. Sexual will be one of the most common violence that against women. In hospitality industry this will be on one of the issue that by women. Women are harassed from the co-workers and outsiders at the workplace. The study shows that 90 % women have been sexually harassed.

Normally in workplace male workers who harass a woman on the job are doing more than annoying her.  They are reminding her of her vulnerability, creating tensions that make her job more difficult and making her hesitant to seek higher paying jobs where she may perceive the tension as even greater.  For example in hospitality industry jobs like secretaries and waitresses, are need to face a different types of people. women are working in upper management are facing this type of harassment because they need to go out with their clients in order to improve their organization, so this will be a chance to man to take advantage to them.

Though women are largely accepted in the workplace, just not always in all organizations, and in all positions of power. So as women creep up the ladder, sexual harassment may be one way to try to knock them back down.

This type of sexual harassment in workplace especially hospitality industry are affecting millions of women and this forced them to leave. Shortly said these are affecting their profession and putting them down. (http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/svaw/harassment/explore/3causes.htm)

Conclusion

As in my conclusion I think women are still under represented managerial, supervisory and executive roles in the hospitality industry. Nowadays women are becoming more hardworking, educated, loyal, responsible, dedicated and effective works (Rishi Parul, 2005). In view of the existing scenario of women in management in general and the status of women executives in hospitality industry, a number of relevant issue need to be considered in formulating appropriate strategies for making workplace better for women's executive in near future.

Recommendation

Nowadays women are becoming more hard working and enough brave to face the biggest challenges. Although the federal government has taken the lead in outlawing discrimination in employment practices, many states, and even some towns and cities, also have discrimination laws, which must be followed but the truth is in a many organization women are discriminating. Women are deserved to get a high-level position in every organization and they should not to be putting down them for a reason that is not worth. In Every organization include hospitality industry they should give opportunities to women to prove their abilities and skills as a professional.

1.2 Introduction Question no 2

What is risk management plan?

Risk management plan helps that any organization to identifies and understands the risks to which it is exposed and implement a plan to reduce them. It does also make sure that any organization creates an effective plan to prevent losses and reduce the impact if losses occur. It's also may include techniques and strategies to recognize and confronting these threats.

A Risk Plan can be used at anytime that risks need to be carefully managed. Risk management provides a clear and structured approach to identifying risks. Having a clear understanding of all risks allows an organization to measure and prioritize them and take the appropriate actions to reduce losses. (http://www.method123.com/risk-management-plan.php)

When a complete risk management plan has been given to any organization it will helps to take action to reduce the risk in your project or categorize each of the risk. Other than this risk management plan also helps an organization to Identify preventative actions to prevent the risk from occurring.

1.2.2 What risk what is hazard?

A hazard is anything that can cause harm for example chemicals, electricity, working from ladders and etc. A hazard can cause harm to employee or property loss in any organization. Risk is the chance, high or low, that somebody will be harmed by the hazard. It's applied to the situation with equipment loss.

Answer Question no 2

1.2.3 The benefits of risk management plan

In the other part Risk management plan also gives allots of benefits like Saving resources: Time, assets, income, property and people are all valuable resources that can be saved if fewer claims occur, Protecting the image and reputation of the organization, increasing the stability of operations by preventing and reducing legal liability, Protecting the environment and people from harm, the ability to enhance to prepare for various circumstances, defining insurance needs clearly and reducing liabilities. (http://www.ibc.ca/en/Business_insurance/risk_management/)

An effective risk management practice does not eliminate risks. However, having an effective and operational risk management practice shows an insurer that your organization is committed to loss reduction or prevention. It makes your organization a better risk to insure. Using this Risk management plan an organization can monitor and control risks effectively and increases the chances of achieving success.

1.2.4 Why risk management important on hotel

Since hotels are faces constant pressure from the evolving marketplace that impacts important issues in risk management and threatens profit margins.  As issues that affect bottom line constantly change, so does the industry's need for proactive solutions for risk prevention and management.  A comprehensive plan covering the broadest spectrum of potential issues will provide the most protection. 

Risk management plan is an important aspect in hotel to ensure to minimizing the various risks that can occur and exposure. Hotel should have comprehensive risk management plan because it is fundamental part of doing business that must be carefully addressed to the success of the hotel (http://blog.method123.com/2010/09/08/importance-of-risk-management/).

1.2.5 Main purposes of risk management plan in hotel

The main purpose of risk management plans to be managing the hotel risks effectively to an interruption to normal business operations, ensure the continuity of critical business function and to protect the associates and assets of the hotel. Nowadays risk management is increasingly recognized as internal and external aspects of risks, therefore this standard considers risk from both perspectives.

Since risk management is a central part of any organization strategic management it is a process whereby organizations methodically address the risks that attach with their activities and the goal of achieving sustained benefit within each and every activity. The most important aspects that in hotel is owning and operating a hotel are to minimizing the various types of physical and liability risks.

For example, a hotel owner would be far better off if they could eliminate all the possibilities of an incident occurring on their property. Since this is not always possible that can expected by the owner so incidents have no control ever, so adequate insurance protection will provides a way that can be reduce exposure to financial loss.

When reviewing a hotels risk management strategies it is very common to understands all the potential areas of exposure and how insurance policies has been structured to handle any unfortunate incidents that could be occurs in hotels.

The area can be concern and included will be the property itself, workers compensation, premises liability, automobile liability and etc. Risk management plan also reduce a hotels insurance cost as well. Saving money on insurance requires not only a good broker who fully understands the unique risk exposure of a hotel, but one who can also advise on a strategy that will reduce the chance of an incident.

For example a hotel's premises liability exposure is high due to the number of guests typically in the property at any given time. High-rise hotels pose unique life-safety issues. Hotels should implement every safety code possible to ensure guest safety. Stairways, elevators, railings and floor coverings should all be in good condition. Exits should be clearly marked, and lighting should be available in the event of a power outage. Balconies should be regularly inspected and maintained.

It is important to identify all the potential liabilities and develop a risk management strategy to reduce the chance of an incident. For example Guestrooms should be accessed by magnetic keys or any other systems that may unique for each new guests. Services and recreational facilities personal services require separate review.

Hotels often provide a variety of amenities for guests, which in turn can generate different sources of risks. For example, the risk of physical injury can arise from almost any area, like accidents in pool areas, guest rooms, bathrooms, sports and activity areas and etc.Other than this there are also risks associated with food preparation in restaurant or food vending facilities.  Other potential risks exist, including property loss from transportation services and certain terrifying risks exist from fire or other catastrophic events. 

One of the way in which hotel can protect their business from work related injuries and losses is by keeping their employees healthy.  Health care and workers' compensation premiums/claims, and lengthy employee absences, often result from work related illness or injuries and are perhaps the most significant cost to any industry.  However, these issues can have a significant impact on hotel that depend on seasoned, well trained staff to provide quality guest services, which, in turn, ensures continued growth and vitality of the business.  Hotel and hospitality businesses should, therefore, consider implementing wellness incentives and job safety programs.  ( http://dritoday.org/feature.aspx?id=46)

Other than this Workers Compensation is one of the important issues that need to be overcome. Workers compensation exposure is a high within the hospitality industry, having risk management plan in to hotels it will help to reduce some risks for example cleaning and maintenance operations can cause workers to experience eye, skin or lung irritations and reactions, sprain and strain back injury, slip and falls as wee as lifting are common occurrences that can be happened in workplace. So risk management plan helps to avoid risks before they become problem to hotels.

Conclusion

The hotel industry is facing countless opportunities for injury and loss at their properties.  The creation of a sound and comprehensive risk management policy that limits risk exposure is an effective way to mitigate the potential for injury and loss.  A comprehensive and regularly revisited risk management plan does have its associated initial start up and maintenance costs. 

However, one single claim can distract management from profitable business operations and likely result in increased payouts for losses and insurance premiums.  Although it may be challenging for some businesses to make potentially substantial initial investments in risk management, the benefits are significant and well worth the investment. Indeed, even a small investment in sound risk management procedures can yield significant benefits in terms of loss prevention, claim administration savings, indemnity payouts and continued goodwill among employees and guests alike.

Bibliography

E-brary

Bhadur, Raj   , Original Publication Date: 2008, Management, Publisher: Book Enclave

http://library.olympia.edu.my:2051/lib/olympia/search.action?adv.x=1&p00=hospitality+operations+management

Aswathappa, K.  Shridharabhat, K. ,  Original Publication Date: 2009 , Production and Operations Management,Publisher: Himalaya Publishing House

http://library.olympia.edu.my:2051/lib/olympia/search.action?adv.x=1&p00=hospitality+operations+management

Kumar, S. Anil   Suresh, N.  , Original Publication Date: 2009 , Operations Management ,Publisher: New Age International

http://library.olympia.edu.my:2051/lib/olympia/search.action?adv.x=1&p00=hospitality+operations+management

Book

Booty, F. (2009) Untitled. 4th ed. John Wiley & sons.

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Barth, S. (2009) Hospitality Law. 3rd ed. Canada: John Wiley & sons

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