To construct a 5 floors hotel of the site located at Kampung Muhhibah, Sungai Siput (U), Perak. Hotel is considered as a service industry.
1. A desktop study about the condition of the site for the construction project is carried out involving collection of available data and information through internet and reference books. Initial study of the data and information is to acquire existing geological data, soil composition, environmental condition and location of the site.
2. Data collected is analyzed to check the condition and the suitability of the site for construction.
3. Consultations with environmental consultant, statutory consultant and soil survey consultant, governmental and non-governmental organizations, and general public is necessary before the construction project.
4. Site investigation is carried out to decide whether the site is generally suitable. Hotel will be built on a site along the roadside where bushes is grown on it. The site belongs to governmental organization and it is completely desolation long time ago. Therefore, it does not have any underground piping to be removed. Kampung Muhhibah is considered as a rural area. There is just a row of shop opposite the site. The construction is environmentally suitable because there is no residential house around. The construction will not cause any inconvenience and safety threaten to public and the road user as well.
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5. Soil investigation will be conducted to determine the condition and content of the soil. In-situ soil shear strength, plasticity index and pH of the soil will be tested. Soil Foundation depth will base on the result tested. There are several soil excavation methods such as digging, coring, hammering and boring. Pre-excavation preparation should be done to identify excavation obstacles, water level, soil bearing strength and soil chemical property.
6. There are several stages in construction. First stage is the site preparation before a construction start. Bushes are clear up before earthwork is done on the site. There is a small slope on the site, thus fill work is conducted. Staking is done until the hard soil is found. Perimeter fencing is done on the site to protect authority of the construction. Temporary facilities such as site office, toilets material storage, project signboard, water, electric and air-conditioning are built before construction starts. Temporary access road is made to link all area within the project site. Some access road should be strong and wide for heavy vehicles. Besides, security guard should be set at the main entrance while warning sign boards are placed at easily noticeable location to remind people who pass by.
7. Second stage is sub-structure construction. There is the stamp constructed above the pile cop. It is constructed for the reason where the mechanical and electrical wiring was located. The piling set had been blow until the toe of the piling reaches the hardest part of soils. It is because to make sure that it able to stand still. The toughness of the foundation is very vital in constructing the buildings. Every column of the building had ended up with the piling to ensure it can stand still on the soils.
8. Third stage is super-structure construction. The structural frame will be constructed according to the plan. After piling and foundation process, ground level floor is built. Excavation work is done to build a swimming pool. The beams must be connected properly with the columns to support the buildings. Concrete slab is constructed to connect ground floor with first floor and so on. The construction is finished by building wall, roof, doors and windows.
9. Final stage is conducting external works. External work is a mostly finishing works at the end of construction. External works include all works outside the building. Roads to enter the hotel are built and the vehicle parking area is built close to the hotel. Gutter should be constructed to avoid flood. Sewer has to be properly installed so that sewage from the building can easily be cleaned up. Fence is built with masonry block around the hotel.
10. Some utilities are installed to provide customers basic conveniences. Hotel should have water and power supply before it can operate. Septic tanks are placed above the hotel to provide water supply requirement. It is a 5 floors hotel, thus lift is installed. Besides, air conditions and telephone are installed in every room, include the lobby of the hotel. In addition, safety equipments such as fire detector, sprinkler and security alarm are necessary to ensure users safety when using the hotel.
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11. There are by-laws comply with the hotel construction. Plan is submitted and the construction must builds according to the approved plan. A building by-law form is signed by the authority so that he/she accepts the responsibility to ensure that the setting of the building will be in accordance with all the town planning and building requirements of the Building By-Laws. Besides, building by-laws include space, light and ventilation, temporary works, structural requirements, constructional requirements and fire requirements.
Figure 1 shows the site layout of the hotel construction. This is a bad site layout as it has many defects that need to be corrected. First of all, car parking area is quite big thus it is wastage of space utilization. However, parking facilities should provide for mobile machinery when not in use. Besides, there is no emergency exit. This will reduce the safety of the workers and visitors in the construction. In case anything happens such as fire and explosion, there is only one exit to run for life. Material storage is located far away from the site gate, therefore it maybe increase the transportation cost. In addition, on-site traffic congestion may happen as the access road is not properly designed. It does not provide sufficient turning circle room for the type of delivery vehicles likely to enter the site. The toilet is unsuitable located as it is quite far away from the accommodation and site office. Perhaps one toilet should be built near the accommodation and site office. This can minimize time usage during the construction. In conclusion, site layouts need to be planned to accommodate all the required site facilities, while optimizing the efficiency of site operations.