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According to Brian Atkins and Adrian Brookes 2009 facilities management can be defined an integrated approach to operating, maintaining, improving and adapting the building an infrastructure of an organization in order to create an environment that strongly supports the primary objectives of the organization.
The International Facility Management Association defines it as a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology'. The way organizations manage facilities depend on the type, nature and size of their business however there are some common facility management activities that apply to mostly all types of businesses.
Furniture fixture and fittings, Office equipment and stationary, repair and maintenance utilities, cleaning services building management, help desk health and safety etc.
BACKGROUND OF INSTITUTE
West London College which is situated in central London provide various course including business, IT, fashion, hospitality management and teaching courses. The college is affiliated by CITY UNIVERSITY and the university has permitted the college which offers Top up degree course in IT (Bsc in computing last year). The college is sharing its one campus with City University the two institutes sharing some facilities including parking space, reception, security, cleaning, and room management.
This report will highlight various factors of facilities management and how facilities management will enable these institutes to run smoothly and avoid conflicts situations.
FACILITY MANAGER AND HIS ROLE
Organization hold one responsible person for the management of activities and services of business called facility manager. They help organization to create the most suitable and safe environment for its staff, activities and visitors (Brian Atkin and Adrian Brookes 2009). Duties and responsibilities of facility manager varies depending on the nature and size of the organization however some areas of responsibilities include security, cleaning, health and safety ,space management, reception etc. Facilities manager has various responsibilities for the business premises and businesses operations.
The role of the facilities manager is to make sure that the security requirement of the institute are in place, this is the responsibility of the facility manager to make best use of institute premises and other institute resources including equipment, materials etc. In the meantime it is also important to ensure the health and safety of all the people in the institute and people must be informed of any emergency or urgent issue as is arise. Furthermore facilities manager must ensure the institute premises are always clean and tidy, all the rubbish and waste must be recycled and deposed and the bins must be clean in order to avoid any hygienic issue. In addition office equipments and stationary and reception should be properly managed and all the heating, lighting, conditioning and ventilating facilities must be available in the institute similarly the supply of furniture should also be in place to proceed institute activities as expected. Furthermore all electricity, water and gas connections should be checked regularly in order to avoid any crises situations. Space management is vital for every businesses as the facilities manger must develop appropriate planning for the best allocation and utilization of space. Closed circuit television system should be installed on the premises in order to keep track of any suspicious situations in the institute and for the purpose of crime prevention. In addition to this he must make sure that the building is properly closed and locked at night and all the security alarms must be enabled. Similarly he should also monitor the supply of food , drinks and other items to the institute premises. Risk assessment should be done in order to avoid any risky condition similarly fire extinguisher must be installed throughout the college premises. Responsibilities of the facility manager also included planning, organizing, team building, communication, controlling and monitoring etc. Attend meetings with the head and other official of the institute about the site review and use performance management technique to monitor and evaluate the processes whether the objectives are being achieved or not.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUSINESS NEEDS AND SPACE PLANNING BUSINESS NEEDS
According to (William F.Balck and Walter F. Bradly) analysis of business needs is a process of discovering, defining and documenting requirements that are related with business objectives. A good business needs analysis can help managers to better plan space management.
Similarly the basic business needs for west London college are to make sure that rooms are effectively managed for classes, effectively manage the car parking. Similarly college needs to make sure that all the heating, lighting facilities are working. Furthermore as the reception facility is shared furniture needs to be allocated for the reception like chairs, desk in addition to this computer, photo copy machine and other facilities should be available. In the meantime cleaning and securing the college premises is also vital so proper cleaning procedure and security systems are also needs of the college. In the meantime west London College must adhere health and safety policies and maintain health and safety environment in the college. In order to ensure health and safety equipment are needed such as fire extinguisher, proper ventilating system etc.
If these needs are effectively managed west London College can provide maximum facilities to their students which will also encourage new students. The college is also liable to maintain a positive relationship with university, government legislation, and other public. Facilities manager is responsible to analyze the business needs effectively and to provide the necessary facilities at the most cost effective way and also plan for better space management.
According to Brendon Shine 2011 ) space utilization and space planning is the process of incorporating organizational needs along with all of the shared facilities within a building and to identify the amount and type of space needed either in existing accommodation or new locations. Space is very precious resource organization must plan it efficiently and effectively as the right sizing of space allocation has a direct impact on the quality of organization ( Wes McGregor 1999). Good design and maintenance of the space have many implications in terms of legislation requirement such as health and safety, disabled access and increase flexibility.
West London college must focus on the allocation of space based on the analysis of their business needs this can be done by collecting data about facilities usage, set policies regarding space and processes to better decision about space utilization.
Keeping these views in mind it is the responsibilities of facilities manager to keep in mind the needs of both parties( college and university) in order to develop appropriate space planning. As rooms facilities are shared, depending on the number of students dedicated number of classrooms should be allocated to university and college students. Facilities manager should analyze the yearly program of both the university and college that what programs are conducted and for how long and what are the timing of classes, on the basis of that facilities manger can develop appropriate space planning. Similarly parking facilities are shared dedicated parking bays should be allocated to college and university because if they accommodate more slots it will lead to conflicts situations between them.
Taking the example of KWIK FIT auto service who provide various services such as MOT, tire services, breakdown repair, painting etc. If they plan to open a new garage, a well documented space planning is essential based on their needs dedicated spaces should be allocated for each services like MOT, mechanical repairs, body work, customer car park, office etc
It is important to hold accurate data on space type and use to enable west London college to manage the estate properly Facilities managers are also responsible for continuous monitoring or evaluation of existing space of campus which enable them to plan for new locations.
CONSTRAINTS AND PROBLEMS IN ROOM ALLOCATION.
The needs of the students , staff, and other learning support needs in the college and university must be plan in a most cost effective way. But there are possibilities that manager will face many constraints and problems due to recourse limitation when managing the facilities. In order to plan out for room allocation it is essential to have face to face meeting with both parties in order to analyze their requirements because requirements regarding room allocation may vary. Rooms must be occupied in a given period of time for specific lectures but mostly the rooms are occupied by students for other useless social purposes for long periods which create problems for management to plan for next session.
As the rooms allocating facilities are shared between college and university therefore calculating the cost incurred with this facility is very hard. Similarly the cost related to other facilities like front office, car parking, security and cleaning is also very hard to calculate. During the term time as the number of students are large rooms utilization is maximum every classrooms are in use it is very hard to allocate the rooms for other services like examination, coaching, one to one discussion, social activities etc.
Facilities manager must evaluate which rooms are over occupied and plan for effective utilization of these rooms in order to save cost. In summary facilities manager must measure which rooms are overused and which are underused and plan for better space management because students can be shifted from rooms to rooms every week because it will have a negative effect on the students and administration. Proper health and safety environment must be maintained in the college during the management of room allocation.
HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIROMENTAL ISSUES IN FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
The health and safety at work act (1974) states: it shall be the duty of every employer to ensure the health and safety and welfare at work of all his employees. The act breaks these duties into a number of more specified duties including:
Provision and maintenance of safe business premises. Provision and maintenance of safety systems at work Provision of such information, instructions, training and supervision as necessary.
Ensure that businesses activities do not expose the general public to risk to their health safety.
Keeping these views in mind it is the responsibility of facilities manager to maintain health and safety environment at institutes premises ensuring that the college premises are safe for students, staff, visitors and other public. Fire extinguishers must be installed in key positions throughout the college and exit routes must be shown with green and white man running sighs if the students have to leave the college building in case of fire or other hazardous situations. Furthermore facilities manager should manage required sanitary and antibacterial chemicals at college as antibacterial soap should be available at front office, classrooms, toilets and other points in addition to this first aid box must be available at the reception desk at any time. Furthermore facilities manager must ensure proper ventilation, heating, lighting and washing facilities meet the health and safety requirements because it has impact of the health of the personnel. In the meantime cleanliness of the rooms, toilets and other college premises should be properly maintained. As mentioned earlier safety signs, way marking, directional signs and other labeling must be suitably elevated. As the food has direct impact on personnel health, the supplier of food to college must have food stall license in order to prevent contamination of food (BRENDON SHINE 2011) Facilities manager has the responsibility for all issues relating to the food hygiene at college in order to prevent students and staff from various diseases. In the meantime facilities manager must make arrangements for adequate litter bins and refuse collections throughout the college premises. Sufficient bins should be located in the college premises and all phases of the building should be kept clean and tidy. The local authority waste management services can offer advice on the collection and disposal of waste.
On the other hand facilities manager must assess and minimize the impact of college operations on the environment; this can be done by effective waste management. College must seek to minimize waste and take actions to recycle and dispose it because the dispose of waste is a major environmental issue and facilities manager must make decisions for disposing of consumables., furthermore college must adhere relevant legislation , should be aware of community needs and waste should be managed securely. Similarly the consumption of energy like heating service, power systems, water supply, and maintainability of the college building should be managed. For example college, stores, trains, ships and aero planes are all places where people work and general public is present. The safety obligations listed above therefore apply to them
ETHICAL ISSUES IN FACILITIES MANAGEMENT:
According to ( Jhon R.piersol and Harry V.smith (2009)) business ethics is knowledge of right and wrong and choosing to do the right thing over wrong. As the every organization has stakeholders (employees, customers, agents, ) managers must encourage ethical practice in order to gain trust of all the stakeholders and keep brand image of the organizations.
Keeping these views in mind facilities manager must encourage ethical standard and have a coherent and consistent policies and procedures of ethical principle and behaviors that is embedded in the culture of institute and can help students, staff and other to think about and resolve ethical issues. Facilities manager must have a knowledge of what the college stands for and what the internal and external community expect from it.
Ethics management plays a significant role in effective facilities management similarly facilities manager plays an important role in establishing ethical practice. If manager thinks of the college just for profit, other employees will also act in the same manner. It is the responsibility of facilities manager to create an environment where staff, students and other people are encourage to work in ethical manner.In the meantime college and university must cooperate very ethically as there should be no conflicts between them and they must have a high degree of respect for each other. EXAMPLE even though college has its own faculty but if the the students wants some lectures of the university professors in some areas, the college must request this in most ethical way.
Similarly if other resources are to be shared these must be requested it is advisable to look for a more ethical point of view. Like other facilities Parking slots must be managed in a proper manner if required more parking slots should be allocated to university because it might be possible that university will have more staff and students as compared to college. As the reception facilities are shared if university required more reception activities these should be requested in ethical way and the college should respond in same manner. Facilities manager must resolve any conflicts as they arise. In summary as the college and university is sharing some facilities ethical manners would be necessary when managing these facilities and manager must have knowledge of code of ethics.
Ethical policies has a positive impact on business as they business will gain trust of all stake holders which in turn will result in more revenue and profit (wiliam f.black and walter f. bradly(1999).
Ethics is vital in every stage of facilities management as it enable the business to gain trust of stakeholders and keep positive image of the organization. There are many benefits of ethical consideration, like great customer satisfaction and repeat business.
Facilities manager must take positive steps to manage the facilities in the college as it encourage students and staff and will pave the way for new students.
Facilities manager is held responsible to ensure that the premises is equipped with all necessary facilities and maintain these facilities. Facilities such as security, health and safety, cleaning, room allocation, heating and lighting must be provided and most importantly facilities manager must communicate with college and university in order to identify their needs before allocation of rooms. In the meantime facilities manager must keep record of what is happening in the premises relating security, cleaning etc. There is a core relationship between business needs and space planning, space should be planned according to the college and university needs. Similarly rooms allocation should also be done in the most cost effective way. Specific car parking slots should be assign to university in order to avoid any conflicts between two parties.
In the meantime it is also facilities manager responsibility to maintain health and safety environment in the premises. Safety of the employees, students and other visitor must be ensured. Facilities manager must have a good control over these issues.
Furthermore ethics are also important when managing the facilities. As the facilities are shared facilities manager must encourage ethical aspects when managing facilities. It will help both parties to run the operations smoothly.