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Social Construction of the Past examines how people constructs the past and in creating a people's cultural history, appropriates it and turns it into a form of domination by one group over another. Few things are more fascinating than how humans have changed the world around them. Mankind has constructed buildings and other structures since prehistory. The past of construction is not limited to buildings but covers bridge, dams, electricity pylons, road and canals to give just a few examples.
Today we take the incredible feats of engineering very much for granted but all of the building materials we use today have a long history and some of the structures built thousands of years ago without the aid of modern technology still have the ability to amaze. The past of construction is related to the structural engineering.
The pyramids are the most famous example when it comes to the construction history. It is impressive for their enormous size and the manpower that must have been employed in their construction. Of these the largest is the Great Pyramid of Giza which remained the tallest structure in the world for 3800 years. The engineering problems involved were chiefly to do with the transport of blocks, sometimes over long distances, their movement into location and exact alignment. It is now generally agreed that the skilled building workers were respected and well treated, but undoubtedly very large numbers of laborers were necessary to provide much of the brute force.
Although the Egyptians achieved extraordinary feats of engineering, they appear to have done so with relatively primitive technology. As far as is known they did not use wheels or pulleys. They transported massive stones over great distances using rollers, ropes, and sledges, with large numbers of slaves hauling the loads.
In contrast to previous cultures, an enormous amount is known about Roman building construction. A very large amount survives, including complete intact buildings like the Pantheon, Rome and very well preserved ruins at Pompeii and Herculaneum. We also have the first surviving treatise on architecture by Vitruhich includes extensive passages on construction techniques.
The Romans developed sophisticated timber cranes allowing them to lift considerable weights to great heights. The upper limit of lifting appears to have been 100 tones. Trajan's column in Rome contains some of the largest stones ever lifted in a Roman building and engineers are still uncertain exactly how it was achieved.
There are many important ancient constructions in the past in every country where ever human exist. In here we just discussed the famous two countries (Rome and Egypt) and their achievement in construction which we cannot include all of it in a small article. And all the past construction is very beneficial for the current and future of the construction which can leads it developed nation by nation.
In the nineteenth century,the industrial revolution was manifested in the new kinds of transportation installations, such as railways, canals and macadam roads. These required large amount of investment. There are a lot of new constructions devices included steam engines, machine tools, explosive and optical surveying. As steel was mass-produiced fron the mid-19th century, it was used, in form of I-beams and reinforcement concrete. Glass panels also went into mass production and changed from luxury to every manâ€™s property. Then plumbing appeared and gave common access to drinking water and sewage collection.
Nowadays, with the Second Industrial Evolution in the early 20th century, elevators and cranes made high rise buildings and skyscrapers possible, while heavy equipment and power tools decreased the workforce needed. Elevators, is a vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables or counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. Other new technologies were prefabrication and computer-aided design.
Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structur in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, industrial and architectural design and many more.
Trade unions were formed to protect construction workers interests. Personal protective equipment such as hard hats and earmuffs also came into use.Hard hats used to protect the head from injury by falling objects and earmuffs used to protect the wearer from extreme noises.
These days, ecology, energy conservation and sustainable development have become more important issues of construction. Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economy security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit. Sustainable Development (SD) is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.
Now, we discuss about future system in construction that still under experiment and trial. Dr. David Fisher's is a revolutionary Dynamic Tower, the first building in motion which is the first skyscraper to be entirely assembled in a factory from prefabricated parts. The buildings that use prefabricated units have many advantages compare from any modern industrial product todayâ€™s which are it saves energy, reduces construction time and dramatically cuts building costs. The prefabricated units arrive at the building site ready for quick and efficient installation, this approach known as the Fisher Method also requires far less workers on the construction site than traditional traditionally. In fact each floor of the building can be completed in only seven days, units can also be customized according to the owners' needs and styles. Each individual unit can also exported worldwide and it will be equipped with all necessary plumbing and electric systems including all finishing from flooring to ceilings, bathrooms, kitchens, cabinets, lighting and furniture.
The preassembled units are simply hooked to each other mechanically, this result in environmentally clean construction sites, avoiding unloading of materials, waste, noise and pollution, there will be less risk of accidents to construction workers, and construction time will be reduced by over 30 percent due to their particular construction method. Prefabricated buildings will also be easy to maintain and repair and the building's maintenance facility, type of materials used, and the quality control employed will also make them more durable than any traditional structure.
The best example of this concept is SIPs or Structurally Insulated Panels. SIPs are wall and roof panels that are prefabricated in a factory and then delivered on a flat bed truck to be assembled like legos on the construction site. The SIPs combine the framing, insulation, and exterior sheething all into one product. The windows and door openings of a home can also be cut exactly to size with framing lumber attached so that they are 100% ready for the windows and doors to be installed on site once they are in place. The product is superior to traditional insulation methods in that it offers higher R-values per inch and an overall tighter home envelope. There is far less thermal bridging with SIPs and dramatically less air leaking out of the finished house.
The SIPs will often save slightly on material costs when all components are added together, especially compared to a full prefab house that requires up to 30% more lumber to withstand shipping. The SIPs are also flat-packed, usually on one truck which reduces transportation costs compared to prefab which will require multiple truckloads of modules to the site. SIPs can be handled by a fork lift or lull on site as well as by hand which eliminates the very costly expense of a full-sized crane and operator at the site. The panels will go up in 3-5 days on a typical home which beats stick building by a long shot considering that the SIPs include insulation and sheething.
Before this we just heard about hybrid car. But now they are planning phases of a lower cost hybrid home where are nuts and bolts can get into the of the structure itself. The basis of the hybrid system proposed here is that prefab is good in the right places and in the right doses. The advantages of the hybrid method of building are the faster. A hybrid approach could easily reduce the total build time of a home. It is also less waste with eliminate most framing waste, less transportation, no crane requirement and the use of construction waste recycling company will result in less overall waste. Using this method, it is only involve local labour which is a big difference from prefab. It is also more energy efficient where better insulation, a tighter envelope and fewer thermal bridges from excessive framing equals a much more energy efficient home than any prefab on the market. Many different plans from many different architects can be used in the hybrid system anywhere in the country. The most important it is much cheaper compare prefab which bringing high quality building.